Abstract

Substantial progress in liquid-crystal display and polarization film technology has enabled several types of stereoscopic displays. Despite all progress, some image distortions still exist in these 3-D displays, of which interocular crosstalk—light leakage of the image for one eye to the other eye—is probably the most annoying. The aim of the current research is to investigate how the two most important physical quantities, contrast and binocular disparity, influence crosstalk perception. Images consisting of a single character and varying in contrast and disparity were computer-generated to measure crosstalk visibility and acceptability thresholds for two stereoscopic displays; one display was based on active shutter glasses, and the other on passive glasses. Results show that, under the same experimental condition, there is no significant difference in crosstalk perception between both 3-D display technologies. Crosstalk annoyance increases with increasing contrast and disparity, i.e., less crosstalk is allowed for higher levels of contrast and disparity. Based on the experimental results, an analytical formula for predicting crosstalk perception is proposed.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. I. Heynderickx, "Performance evaluation of 2-D and 3-D-TV systems," Proc. ICIS (2006) pp. 374-377.
  2. S. Pastoor, M. Wopking, "3-D displays: A review of current technologies," Displays 17, 100-110 (1997).
  3. R. Patterson, "Human factors of stereo displays: An update," J. Soc. Inf. Display 17/12, 987-996 (2009).
  4. K. Huang, J. Yuan, C. Tsai, W. Hsueh, N. Wang, "A study of how crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays," Proc. SPIE 5006, 247-253 (2003).
  5. K. Huang, J. Yang, C. Wu, K. Lee, S. Hwang, "System-crosstalk effect on stereopsis human factor study for 3-D displays," Proc. SPIE 7524, 7524 (2010).
  6. A. Woods, C. Harris, "Comparing levels of crosstalk with red/cyan, blue/yellow, and green/magenta anaglyph 3-D glasses," Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240Q (2010).
  7. L. Lipton, "Compatibility issues and selection devices for stereoscopic television," Signal Process.: Image Commun. 4, 15-20 (1991).
  8. A. Woods, S. Tan, "Characterising sources of ghosting in time-sequential stereoscopic video displays," Proc. SPIE 4660, 66-77 (2002).
  9. J. Konrad, B. Lacotte, E. Dubois, "Cancellation of image crosstalk in time-sequential displays of stereoscopic video," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 897-908 (2000).
  10. Y. Yoshihara, H. Ujike, T. Tanabe, "3D crosstalk of stereoscopic (3-D) display using patterned retarder and corresponding glasses," Proc. IDW (2008) pp. 1135-1138.
  11. P. Seuntiens, L. Meesters, W. IJsselsteijn, "Perceptual attributes of crosstalk in 3-D images," Displays 26, 177-183 (2005).
  12. L. Lipton, "Factors affecting ‘hosting’ in time-multiplexed plano-stereoscopic CRT display systems," Proc. SPIE 761, 75-78 (1987).
  13. R. Kaptein, I. Heynderickx, "Effect of crosstalk in multi-view autostereoscopic 3D displays on perceived image quality," SID Symp. Dig. (2007) pp. 1220-1223.
  14. S. Pastoor, "Human factors of 3D imaging: Results of recent research at Heinrich-Hertz-Insitut Berlin," Proc. IDW (1995) pp. 69-72.
  15. A. Hanazato, M. Okui, I. Yuyama, "Subjective evaluation of cross talk disturbance in stereoscopic displays," Proc. SID 20th Int. Display Res. Conf (2000) pp. 288-291.
  16. L. Wang, Y. Tu, "Cross-talk acceptability in natural still images for different (auto)stereoscopic display technologies," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18/6, 405-414 (2010).
  17. L. Stark, Y. Choi, "Experimental metaphysics: The scanpath as an epistemological mechanism," Adv. Psychol. 3-69 (1996).

2010 (3)

K. Huang, J. Yang, C. Wu, K. Lee, S. Hwang, "System-crosstalk effect on stereopsis human factor study for 3-D displays," Proc. SPIE 7524, 7524 (2010).

A. Woods, C. Harris, "Comparing levels of crosstalk with red/cyan, blue/yellow, and green/magenta anaglyph 3-D glasses," Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240Q (2010).

L. Wang, Y. Tu, "Cross-talk acceptability in natural still images for different (auto)stereoscopic display technologies," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18/6, 405-414 (2010).

2009 (1)

R. Patterson, "Human factors of stereo displays: An update," J. Soc. Inf. Display 17/12, 987-996 (2009).

2005 (1)

P. Seuntiens, L. Meesters, W. IJsselsteijn, "Perceptual attributes of crosstalk in 3-D images," Displays 26, 177-183 (2005).

2003 (1)

K. Huang, J. Yuan, C. Tsai, W. Hsueh, N. Wang, "A study of how crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays," Proc. SPIE 5006, 247-253 (2003).

2002 (1)

A. Woods, S. Tan, "Characterising sources of ghosting in time-sequential stereoscopic video displays," Proc. SPIE 4660, 66-77 (2002).

2000 (1)

J. Konrad, B. Lacotte, E. Dubois, "Cancellation of image crosstalk in time-sequential displays of stereoscopic video," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 897-908 (2000).

1997 (1)

S. Pastoor, M. Wopking, "3-D displays: A review of current technologies," Displays 17, 100-110 (1997).

1996 (1)

L. Stark, Y. Choi, "Experimental metaphysics: The scanpath as an epistemological mechanism," Adv. Psychol. 3-69 (1996).

1991 (1)

L. Lipton, "Compatibility issues and selection devices for stereoscopic television," Signal Process.: Image Commun. 4, 15-20 (1991).

1987 (1)

L. Lipton, "Factors affecting ‘hosting’ in time-multiplexed plano-stereoscopic CRT display systems," Proc. SPIE 761, 75-78 (1987).

Adv. Psychol. (1)

L. Stark, Y. Choi, "Experimental metaphysics: The scanpath as an epistemological mechanism," Adv. Psychol. 3-69 (1996).

Displays (2)

P. Seuntiens, L. Meesters, W. IJsselsteijn, "Perceptual attributes of crosstalk in 3-D images," Displays 26, 177-183 (2005).

S. Pastoor, M. Wopking, "3-D displays: A review of current technologies," Displays 17, 100-110 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

J. Konrad, B. Lacotte, E. Dubois, "Cancellation of image crosstalk in time-sequential displays of stereoscopic video," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 897-908 (2000).

J. Soc. Inf. Display (2)

R. Patterson, "Human factors of stereo displays: An update," J. Soc. Inf. Display 17/12, 987-996 (2009).

L. Wang, Y. Tu, "Cross-talk acceptability in natural still images for different (auto)stereoscopic display technologies," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18/6, 405-414 (2010).

Proc. SPIE (5)

L. Lipton, "Factors affecting ‘hosting’ in time-multiplexed plano-stereoscopic CRT display systems," Proc. SPIE 761, 75-78 (1987).

K. Huang, J. Yuan, C. Tsai, W. Hsueh, N. Wang, "A study of how crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays," Proc. SPIE 5006, 247-253 (2003).

K. Huang, J. Yang, C. Wu, K. Lee, S. Hwang, "System-crosstalk effect on stereopsis human factor study for 3-D displays," Proc. SPIE 7524, 7524 (2010).

A. Woods, C. Harris, "Comparing levels of crosstalk with red/cyan, blue/yellow, and green/magenta anaglyph 3-D glasses," Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240Q (2010).

A. Woods, S. Tan, "Characterising sources of ghosting in time-sequential stereoscopic video displays," Proc. SPIE 4660, 66-77 (2002).

Signal Process.: Image Commun. (1)

L. Lipton, "Compatibility issues and selection devices for stereoscopic television," Signal Process.: Image Commun. 4, 15-20 (1991).

Other (5)

I. Heynderickx, "Performance evaluation of 2-D and 3-D-TV systems," Proc. ICIS (2006) pp. 374-377.

Y. Yoshihara, H. Ujike, T. Tanabe, "3D crosstalk of stereoscopic (3-D) display using patterned retarder and corresponding glasses," Proc. IDW (2008) pp. 1135-1138.

R. Kaptein, I. Heynderickx, "Effect of crosstalk in multi-view autostereoscopic 3D displays on perceived image quality," SID Symp. Dig. (2007) pp. 1220-1223.

S. Pastoor, "Human factors of 3D imaging: Results of recent research at Heinrich-Hertz-Insitut Berlin," Proc. IDW (1995) pp. 69-72.

A. Hanazato, M. Okui, I. Yuyama, "Subjective evaluation of cross talk disturbance in stereoscopic displays," Proc. SID 20th Int. Display Res. Conf (2000) pp. 288-291.

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