Abstract

An introduction to the technology of liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices leads on to a discussion of the application areas which have been and are being opened up by the development of phase-only devices.

© 2010 IEEE

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2010

J. Glückstad, D. Palima, "Generalized phase contrast: Applications in optics and photonics," Springer Series in Optical Sciences 146, (2010).

A. Jesacher, G. D. Marshall, T. Wilson, M. J. Booth, "Adaptive optics for direct laser writing with plasma emission aberration sensing," Opt. Express 18, 656-661 (2010).

2009

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, D. Li, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Xuan, "Preliminary use of nematic liquid crystal adaptive optics with a 2.16-meter reflecting telescope," Opt. Express 17, 2530-2537 (2009).

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, K. Watkins, "Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring," Appl. Surface Sci. 255, 6582-6588 (2009).

T. Shirai, K. Takeno, H. Arimoto, H. Furukawa, "Adaptive optics with a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator and its behavior in retinal imaging," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 070213 (2009).

M. Sakakura, T. Sawano, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, "Parallel drawing of multiple bent optical waveguides using a spatial light modulator," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 126507 (2009).

2008

A. Georgiou, J. Christmas, N. Collings, J. Moore, W. A. Crossland, "Aspects of hologram calculation for video frames," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 035302 (2008).

E. Buckley, "Holographic laser projection technology," Inf. Display 22-25 (2008).

T. Yamaguchi, N. Nakazawa, K. Bessho, Y. Kitaguchi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Mihashi, "Adaptive optics fundus camera using a liquid crystal phase modulator," Opt. Rev. 15, 173-180 (2008).

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, M. Yoshimura, "A YC-separation-type projector: High dynamic range with double modulation," J. Soc. Inf. Display 16, 383-391 (2008).

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, H. Xu, "The silicon backplane for an LCOS polarisation insensitive phase hologram SLM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).

M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, J. A. Bolger, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 73-78 (2008).

P. Clemente, V. Durán, L. Martínez-León, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, "Use of polar decomposition of Mueller matrices for optimizing the phase response of a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display," Opt. Express 16, 1965-1974 (2008).

I. Moreno, A. Lizana, J. Campos, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, M. J. Yzuel, "Combined Mueller and Jones matrix method for the evaluation of the complex modulation in a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display," Opt. Lett. 33, 627-629 (2008).

A. Georgiou, J. Christmas, J. Moore, A. Jeziorska-Chapman, A. Davey, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, "Liquid crystal over silicon device characteristics for holographic projection of high-definition television images," Appl. Opt. 47, 4793-4803 (2008).

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernández, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, "Time fluctuations of the phase modulation in a liquid crystal on silicon display: Characterization and effects in diffractive optics," Opt. Express 16, 16711-16722 (2008).

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte, "Phase contrast microscopy with full numerical aperture illumination," Opt. Express 16, 19821-19829 (2008).

A. van der Horst, N. R. Forde, "Calibration of dynamic holographic optical tweezers for force measurements on biomaterials," Opt. Express 16, 20987-21003 (2008).

2007

2006

2005

A. Choubey, F. Andros, B. Sammakia, "Study of assembly processes for liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) microdisplays," IEEE Trans. Compon. Pkg. Technol. 28, (2005).

2003

W. J. Hossack, E. Theofanidou, J. Crain, K. Heggarty, M. Birch, "High-speed holographic optical tweezers using a ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplay," Opt. Express 11, (2003).

2002

M. Johansson, S. Hård, B. Robertson, I. Manolis, T. Wilkinson, W. Crossland, "Adaptive beam steering implemented in a ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial-light-modulator free-space, fiber-optic switch," Appl. Opt. 41, 4904-4911 (2002).

M. L. Jepsen, M. J. Ammer, M. Bolotski, J. J. Drolet, A. Gupta, Y. Lai, D. Huffman, H. Shi, C. Vieri, "High resolution LCOS microdisplay for single-, double- or triple-panel projection systems," Displays 23, 109-114 (2002).

M. Lu, "Nematic liquid-crystal technology for Si wafer-based reflective spatial light modulators," J. Soc. Inf. Display 10, 37-47 (2002).

S.-H. Chen, C.-L. Yang, "Dynamics of twisted nematic liquid crystal pi-cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3721-3723 (2002).

P. J. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, J. Dean, R. Albu, "Design aspects of a scrolling color LCoS display," Display 23, 99-108 (2002).

W. Crossland, T. Wilkinson, I. Manolis, M. Redmond, A. Davey, "Telecommunications applications of LCOS devices," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst 375, 1-13 (2002).

2001

E. Lueder, "Liquid crystal displays: addressing schemes and electro-optical effects," Wiley Series in Display Technol. 263-270 (2001).

2000

E. S. Schlig, J. L. Sanford, "An SXGA reflective liquid crystal projection light valve incorporating inversion by pixel bootstrapping," IBM J Res Develop. 44, 909-918 (2000).

M. Handschy, "Semiconducting manufacturing techniques for ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplays," Solid State Technol. 151-161 (2000).

W. Crossland, I. Manolis, M. Redmond, K. Tan, T. Wilkinson, M. Holmes, T. Parker, H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. Handerek, S. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. White, R. Woolley, G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1845 (2000).

1999

J. H. Sharp, N. E. MacKay, P. C. Wang, I. A. Watson, B. F. Scott, D. M. Budgett, C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, S. Tonda, J.-P. Huignard, T. G. Slack, N. Collings, A.-R. Pourzand, M. Duelli, A. Grattarola, C. Braccini, "Experimental systems implementation of a hybrid optical-digital correlator," Appl. Opt. 38, 6116-6128 (1999).

N. Wolffer, B. Vinouze, P. Gravey, "Holographic switching between single mode fibres based on electrically addressed nematic liquid crystal gratings with high deflection accuracy," Opt. Commun. 160, 42-46 (1999).

G.-P. Chen, M. Yamaguti, N. Ito, T. Aoki, A. Fukuda, "Target response times of liquid crystal displays estimated by analyzing the front and rear part gray levels of moving square patterns," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 38, L646-L648 (1999).

1998

1997

G. D. Love, "Wave-front correction and production of Zernike modes with a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 36, 1517-1524 (1997).

A. V. Kudryashov, J. Gonglewski, S. Browne, R. Highland, "Liquid crystal phase modulator for adaptive optics. Temporal performance characterization," Opt. Commun. 141, 247-253 (1997).

1996

M. Ferstl, A.-M. Frisch, "Static and dynamic Fresnel zone lenses for optical interconnections," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1451-1462 (1996).

1995

R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, G. Mahler, "Light-valve projection displays—An introduction," Displays 16, 5-7 (1995).

J. Amako, H. Miura, T. Sonehara, "Speckle-noise reduction on kinoform reconstruction using a phase-only spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 34, 3165-3171 (1995).

1994

1992

1991

1990

N. Collings, S. G. Latham, R. C. Chittick, W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable optical interconnect using an optically addressed light valve," Int. J. Opt. Comp. 1, 31-40 (1990).

L. K. Cotter, T. J. Drabik, R. J. Dillon, M. A. Handschy, "Ferroelectric-liquid-crystal/silicon-integrated-circuit spatial light modulator," Opt. Lett. 15, 291-293 (1990).

1989

1988

F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, "Iterative Fourier-transform algorithm applied to computer holography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 5, 1058-1065 (1988).

1987

1986

G. Pauliat, J. P. Herriau, A. Delboube, G. Roosen, J. P. Huignard, "Dynamic beam deflection using photorefractive gratings in ${\rm Bi}_{12}{\rm SiO}_{20}$ crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 2, 306-314 (1986).

1985

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, R. Sato, "Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens," Jpn. J Appl. Phys 24, 1626-1628 (1985).

1984

S. T. Kowel, D. S. Cleverly, P. G. Kornreich, "Focusing by electrical modulation of refraction in a liquid crystal cell," Appl. Opt. 232, 278-289 (1984).

P. J. Bos, K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: A fast liquid-crystal optical switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).

D. Psaltis, E. G. Paek, S. S. Venkatesh, "Optical image correlation with a binary spatial light modulator," Opt. Eng. 23, 698-704 (1984).

1982

1979

S. Sato, "Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length," Jpn. J Appl Phys. 18, 1679-1684 (1979).

1973

1972

J. L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173 (1972) 10.1063/1.1654331.

1971

1970

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).

1942

F. Zernike, "Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects," Physica 9, 686-698 (1942) 975–986.

Appl. Opt.

S. T. Kowel, D. S. Cleverly, P. G. Kornreich, "Focusing by electrical modulation of refraction in a liquid crystal cell," Appl. Opt. 232, 278-289 (1984).

J. M. Moran, "Laser machining with a holographic lens," Appl. Opt. 10, 412-415 (1971).

N. C. Gallagher, B. Liu, "Method for computing kinoforms that reduces image reconstruction error," Appl. Opt. 12, 2328-2335 (1973).

J. R. Fienup, "Phase retrieval algorithms: A comparison," Appl. Opt. 21, 2758-2769 (1982).

H.-I. Jeon, A. A. Sawchuck, "Optical crossbar interconnections using variable grating mode devices," Appl. Opt. 26, 261 (1987).

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, P. J. Ayliffe, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, "Evolutionary development of advanced liquid crystal spatial light modulators," Appl. Opt. 28, 4740-4747 (1989).

R. D. Juday, "Correlation with a spatial light modulator having phase and amplitude cross coupling," Appl. Opt. 28, 4865 (1989).

D. Armitage, D. K. Kinnell, "Liquid-crystal integrated silicon spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 31, 3945-3949 (1992).

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, H. Ichikawa, M. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, "Reconfigurable free-space optical interconnections with a phase-only liquid-crystal spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 31, 5527-5535 (1992).

D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, R. A. Serati, "256$\times$256 liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 33, 2775-2784 (1994).

C. Chatwin, M. Farsari, S. Huang, M. Heywood, P. Birch, R. Young, J. Richardson, "UV microstereolithography system that uses spatial light modulator technology," Appl. Opt. 37, 7514-7522 (1998).

J. Amako, H. Miura, T. Sonehara, "Speckle-noise reduction on kinoform reconstruction using a phase-only spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 34, 3165-3171 (1995).

J. Schwider, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, "Possibilities and limitations of space-variant holographic optical elements for switching networks and general interconnects," Appl. Opt. 31, 7403-7410 (1992).

G. D. Love, "Wave-front correction and production of Zernike modes with a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 36, 1517-1524 (1997).

J. H. Sharp, N. E. MacKay, P. C. Wang, I. A. Watson, B. F. Scott, D. M. Budgett, C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, S. Tonda, J.-P. Huignard, T. G. Slack, N. Collings, A.-R. Pourzand, M. Duelli, A. Grattarola, C. Braccini, "Experimental systems implementation of a hybrid optical-digital correlator," Appl. Opt. 38, 6116-6128 (1999).

M. Johansson, S. Hård, B. Robertson, I. Manolis, T. Wilkinson, W. Crossland, "Adaptive beam steering implemented in a ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial-light-modulator free-space, fiber-optic switch," Appl. Opt. 41, 4904-4911 (2002).

J. E. Wolfe, R. A. Chipman, "Polarimetric characterization of liquid-crystal-on-silicon panels," Appl. Opt. 45, 1688-1703 (2006).

A. Georgiou, J. Christmas, J. Moore, A. Jeziorska-Chapman, A. Davey, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, "Liquid crystal over silicon device characteristics for holographic projection of high-definition television images," Appl. Opt. 47, 4793-4803 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173 (1972) 10.1063/1.1654331.

S.-H. Chen, C.-L. Yang, "Dynamics of twisted nematic liquid crystal pi-cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3721-3723 (2002).

Appl. Surface Sci.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, K. Watkins, "Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring," Appl. Surface Sci. 255, 6582-6588 (2009).

Display

P. J. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, J. Dean, R. Albu, "Design aspects of a scrolling color LCoS display," Display 23, 99-108 (2002).

Displays

R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, G. Mahler, "Light-valve projection displays—An introduction," Displays 16, 5-7 (1995).

M. L. Jepsen, M. J. Ammer, M. Bolotski, J. J. Drolet, A. Gupta, Y. Lai, D. Huffman, H. Shi, C. Vieri, "High resolution LCOS microdisplay for single-, double- or triple-panel projection systems," Displays 23, 109-114 (2002).

IBM J Res Develop.

E. S. Schlig, J. L. Sanford, "An SXGA reflective liquid crystal projection light valve incorporating inversion by pixel bootstrapping," IBM J Res Develop. 44, 909-918 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, H. Xu, "The silicon backplane for an LCOS polarisation insensitive phase hologram SLM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Compon. Pkg. Technol.

A. Choubey, F. Andros, B. Sammakia, "Study of assembly processes for liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) microdisplays," IEEE Trans. Compon. Pkg. Technol. 28, (2005).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

M. F. H. Wöhler, G. Haas, D. A. Mlynsk, "A liquid-crystal phase modulator for large screen projection," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 36, 1882-1887 (1989).

Inf. Display

E. Buckley, "Holographic laser projection technology," Inf. Display 22-25 (2008).

Int. J. Opt. Comp.

N. Collings, S. G. Latham, R. C. Chittick, W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable optical interconnect using an optically addressed light valve," Int. J. Opt. Comp. 1, 31-40 (1990).

J. Display Technol.

Z. Zhang, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, N. Collings, M. Pivnenko, J. Moore, W. I. Milne, W. A. Crossland, D. P. Chu, "High quality assembly of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices," J. Display Technol. .

J. Lightw. Technol.

M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, J. A. Bolger, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 73-78 (2008).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Mod. Opt.

M. Ferstl, A.-M. Frisch, "Static and dynamic Fresnel zone lenses for optical interconnections," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1451-1462 (1996).

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

A. Georgiou, J. Christmas, N. Collings, J. Moore, W. A. Crossland, "Aspects of hologram calculation for video frames," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 035302 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A

F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, "Iterative Fourier-transform algorithm applied to computer holography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 5, 1058-1065 (1988).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

G. Pauliat, J. P. Herriau, A. Delboube, G. Roosen, J. P. Huignard, "Dynamic beam deflection using photorefractive gratings in ${\rm Bi}_{12}{\rm SiO}_{20}$ crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 2, 306-314 (1986).

J. Soc. Inf. Display

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, M. Yoshimura, "A YC-separation-type projector: High dynamic range with double modulation," J. Soc. Inf. Display 16, 383-391 (2008).

M. Lu, "Nematic liquid-crystal technology for Si wafer-based reflective spatial light modulators," J. Soc. Inf. Display 10, 37-47 (2002).

Jpn. J Appl Phys.

S. Sato, "Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length," Jpn. J Appl Phys. 18, 1679-1684 (1979).

Jpn. J Appl. Phys

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, R. Sato, "Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens," Jpn. J Appl. Phys 24, 1626-1628 (1985).

Jpn. J Appl. Phys.

G.-P. Chen, M. Yamaguti, N. Ito, T. Aoki, A. Fukuda, "Target response times of liquid crystal displays estimated by analyzing the front and rear part gray levels of moving square patterns," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 38, L646-L648 (1999).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Shirai, K. Takeno, H. Arimoto, H. Furukawa, "Adaptive optics with a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator and its behavior in retinal imaging," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 070213 (2009).

M. Sakakura, T. Sawano, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, "Parallel drawing of multiple bent optical waveguides using a spatial light modulator," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 126507 (2009).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst

W. Crossland, T. Wilkinson, I. Manolis, M. Redmond, A. Davey, "Telecommunications applications of LCOS devices," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst 375, 1-13 (2002).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

P. J. Bos, K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: A fast liquid-crystal optical switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).

Opt. Commun.

N. Wolffer, B. Vinouze, P. Gravey, "Holographic switching between single mode fibres based on electrically addressed nematic liquid crystal gratings with high deflection accuracy," Opt. Commun. 160, 42-46 (1999).

A. V. Kudryashov, J. Gonglewski, S. Browne, R. Highland, "Liquid crystal phase modulator for adaptive optics. Temporal performance characterization," Opt. Commun. 141, 247-253 (1997).

V. Laude, "Twisted-nematic liquid-crystal pixilated active lens," Opt. Commun. 153, 134-152 (1998).

Opt. Eng.

S. Lee, C. Mao, K. M. Johnson, "Fast-switching liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplay with frame buffer pixels and surface-mode optically compensated birefringence," Opt. Eng. 45, 127402-1-127402-8 (2006).

D. Psaltis, E. G. Paek, S. S. Venkatesh, "Optical image correlation with a binary spatial light modulator," Opt. Eng. 23, 698-704 (1984).

Opt. Express

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernández, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, "Time fluctuations of the phase modulation in a liquid crystal on silicon display: Characterization and effects in diffractive optics," Opt. Express 16, 16711-16722 (2008).

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte, "Phase contrast microscopy with full numerical aperture illumination," Opt. Express 16, 19821-19829 (2008).

A. van der Horst, N. R. Forde, "Calibration of dynamic holographic optical tweezers for force measurements on biomaterials," Opt. Express 16, 20987-21003 (2008).

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, D. Li, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Xuan, "Preliminary use of nematic liquid crystal adaptive optics with a 2.16-meter reflecting telescope," Opt. Express 17, 2530-2537 (2009).

S. Bernet, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, C. Maurer, M. Ritsch-Marte, "Quantitative imaging of complex samples by spiral phase contrast microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3792-3805 (2006).

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, D. Li, L. Xuan, "An adaptive optics imaging system based on a high-resolution liquid crystal on silicon device," Opt. Express 14, 8013-8018 (2006).

S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, J. M. Lindacher, P. Artal, "Liquid crystal adaptive optics visual simulator: Application to testing and design of ophthalmic optical elements," Opt. Express 15, 16177-16188 (2007).

P. Clemente, V. Durán, L. Martínez-León, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, "Use of polar decomposition of Mueller matrices for optimizing the phase response of a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display," Opt. Express 16, 1965-1974 (2008).

W. J. Hossack, E. Theofanidou, J. Crain, K. Heggarty, M. Birch, "High-speed holographic optical tweezers using a ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplay," Opt. Express 11, (2003).

A. Jesacher, G. D. Marshall, T. Wilson, M. J. Booth, "Adaptive optics for direct laser writing with plasma emission aberration sensing," Opt. Express 18, 656-661 (2010).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Rev.

T. Yamaguchi, N. Nakazawa, K. Bessho, Y. Kitaguchi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Mihashi, "Adaptive optics fundus camera using a liquid crystal phase modulator," Opt. Rev. 15, 173-180 (2008).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).

Physica

F. Zernike, "Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects," Physica 9, 686-698 (1942) 975–986.

Solid State Technol.

M. Handschy, "Semiconducting manufacturing techniques for ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplays," Solid State Technol. 151-161 (2000).

Springer Series in Optical Sciences

J. Glückstad, D. Palima, "Generalized phase contrast: Applications in optics and photonics," Springer Series in Optical Sciences 146, (2010).

Wiley Series in Display Technol.

E. Lueder, "Liquid crystal displays: addressing schemes and electro-optical effects," Wiley Series in Display Technol. 263-270 (2001).

Other

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D. Armitage, D. K. Kinnell, "Miniature spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE (1990) pp. 158-166.

K. H. Kang, J. K. Oh, S.-R. Shin, J. S. Lee, C. S. Cho, "Digital driving of TN-LC for WUXGA LCOS panel," SID Dig. (2001) pp. 1264-1267.

S. C. Tan, X. W. Sun, "Generic design of silicon backplane for LCoS microdisplays," SID Dig. (2002) pp. 200-203.

R. Liang, X. Mi, D. Kessler, Zoom flash with liquid crystal lens U.S. Patent 7 616 881 (2009).

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, J. Schwiegerling, "Liquid crystal based active optics," Proc. SPIE (2006).

W. Klaus, M. Ide, Y. Hayano, Y. Arimoto, "Efficient liquid crystal wavefront modulator," Proc SPIE (1997) pp. 84-92.

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