Abstract

Up converters combined with GaAs based semiconductor light sources are described as having potential for emissive displays with very large color gamut and very high resolution. To enable such displays the efficiency and temporal response of the up converting materials were studied and are reported. High efficiency is shown to be possible by proper preparation and utilization of the up converters. Up conversion displays can operate with refresh rates as high as 240 Hz. Operation as either a visible or near infrared display is possible.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. F. Auzel, "Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with $f$ and $d$ ions in solids," Chem. Rev. 104, 139-174 (2004).
  2. H. Scheife, G. Huber, E. Heumann, S. Bar, E. Osiac, "Advances in up-conversion lasers based on Er and Pr," Opt. Mater. 26, 365-365 (2004).
  3. E. Osiac, E. Heumann, G. Huber, S. Kuck, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, "Orange and red upconversion laser pumped by an avalanche mechanism in Pr, Yb:BaY F," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3832-3832 (2003).
  4. D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
  5. J. Shan, J. Chen, J. Meng, J. Collins, W. Soboyejo, J. S. Friedberg, Y. Ju, "Biofunctionalization, cytotoxicity, and cell uptake of lanthanide doped hydrophobically ligated NaYF4 upconversion nanophosphors," J. App. Phys. 104, 094308 (2008).
  6. A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, "Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829-842 (2007).
  7. J. Cho, M. Bass, H. P. Jenssen, "Volumetric three-dimensional up-conversion display medium," J. Soc. Inf. Display 15, 1029 (2007).
  8. J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, "High-brightness white-light source based on up-conversion phosphors," J. Display Technol. 2, 307-311 (2006).
  9. A. Rapaport, F. Szipocs, J. Milliez, H. P. Jenssen, K. J. Schafer, K. D. Belfield, M. Bass, "Optically written displays based on up-conversion of near infrared light," Proc SPIE Projection Displays VII (2001) pp. 4294.
  10. J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, F. Szipcs, H. P. Jenssen, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, "Up-conversion efficiencies of potential candidates for photonic displays," SID Symp. Dig. (2003) pp. 1230.
  11. A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, "Review of the properties of up-conversion phosphors for new emissive displays," J. Display Technol. 2, 68-78 (2006).
  12. M. Bass, D. G. Deppe, High resolution, full color, high brightness fully intergrated light emitting devices and displays U.S. Patent 2007/0297750 Al (2007).
  13. D. Yuan, G. S. Yi, G. M. Chow, "Effects of size and surface on luminescence properties of submicron upconversion ${\hbox{NaYF}}_{4}$:Yb, Er particles," J. Mater. Res. 24, 2042-2050 (2009).
  14. J. A. Capobianco, F. Vetrone, T. D'Alesio, G. Tessari, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Optical spectroscopy of nanocrystalline cubic ${\rm Y}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}$ : ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$ obtained by combustion synthesis," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2, 3203-3207 (2000).
  15. D. G. Deppe, T. J. Rogers, Quantum well device with control of spontaneous photon emission, and method of manufacturing same U.S. Patent 5 089 860 (1992).
  16. C. A. Morrison, R. P. Leavitt, Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (Elsevier, 1982).
  17. D. Knowles, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, Tunable Solid State Laser (Springer Verlag, 1989) pp. 139-145.
  18. J. Ahn, D. Lu, D. G. Deppe, "All-epitaxial, lithographically defined, current and mode-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based on selective interfacial Fermi-level pinning," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 21106 (2005).

2009 (1)

D. Yuan, G. S. Yi, G. M. Chow, "Effects of size and surface on luminescence properties of submicron upconversion ${\hbox{NaYF}}_{4}$:Yb, Er particles," J. Mater. Res. 24, 2042-2050 (2009).

2008 (2)

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).

J. Shan, J. Chen, J. Meng, J. Collins, W. Soboyejo, J. S. Friedberg, Y. Ju, "Biofunctionalization, cytotoxicity, and cell uptake of lanthanide doped hydrophobically ligated NaYF4 upconversion nanophosphors," J. App. Phys. 104, 094308 (2008).

2007 (2)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, "Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829-842 (2007).

J. Cho, M. Bass, H. P. Jenssen, "Volumetric three-dimensional up-conversion display medium," J. Soc. Inf. Display 15, 1029 (2007).

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

J. Ahn, D. Lu, D. G. Deppe, "All-epitaxial, lithographically defined, current and mode-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based on selective interfacial Fermi-level pinning," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 21106 (2005).

2004 (2)

F. Auzel, "Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with $f$ and $d$ ions in solids," Chem. Rev. 104, 139-174 (2004).

H. Scheife, G. Huber, E. Heumann, S. Bar, E. Osiac, "Advances in up-conversion lasers based on Er and Pr," Opt. Mater. 26, 365-365 (2004).

2003 (1)

E. Osiac, E. Heumann, G. Huber, S. Kuck, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, "Orange and red upconversion laser pumped by an avalanche mechanism in Pr, Yb:BaY F," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3832-3832 (2003).

2000 (1)

J. A. Capobianco, F. Vetrone, T. D'Alesio, G. Tessari, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Optical spectroscopy of nanocrystalline cubic ${\rm Y}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}$ : ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$ obtained by combustion synthesis," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2, 3203-3207 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Osiac, E. Heumann, G. Huber, S. Kuck, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, "Orange and red upconversion laser pumped by an avalanche mechanism in Pr, Yb:BaY F," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3832-3832 (2003).

J. Ahn, D. Lu, D. G. Deppe, "All-epitaxial, lithographically defined, current and mode-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based on selective interfacial Fermi-level pinning," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 21106 (2005).

Biomaterials (1)

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).

Chem. Rev. (1)

F. Auzel, "Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with $f$ and $d$ ions in solids," Chem. Rev. 104, 139-174 (2004).

J. App. Phys. (1)

J. Shan, J. Chen, J. Meng, J. Collins, W. Soboyejo, J. S. Friedberg, Y. Ju, "Biofunctionalization, cytotoxicity, and cell uptake of lanthanide doped hydrophobically ligated NaYF4 upconversion nanophosphors," J. App. Phys. 104, 094308 (2008).

J. Display Technol. (2)

J. Mater. Res. (1)

D. Yuan, G. S. Yi, G. M. Chow, "Effects of size and surface on luminescence properties of submicron upconversion ${\hbox{NaYF}}_{4}$:Yb, Er particles," J. Mater. Res. 24, 2042-2050 (2009).

J. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

J. Cho, M. Bass, H. P. Jenssen, "Volumetric three-dimensional up-conversion display medium," J. Soc. Inf. Display 15, 1029 (2007).

Opt. Mater. (1)

H. Scheife, G. Huber, E. Heumann, S. Bar, E. Osiac, "Advances in up-conversion lasers based on Er and Pr," Opt. Mater. 26, 365-365 (2004).

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. A. Capobianco, F. Vetrone, T. D'Alesio, G. Tessari, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Optical spectroscopy of nanocrystalline cubic ${\rm Y}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}$ : ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$ obtained by combustion synthesis," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2, 3203-3207 (2000).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, "Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829-842 (2007).

Other (6)

A. Rapaport, F. Szipocs, J. Milliez, H. P. Jenssen, K. J. Schafer, K. D. Belfield, M. Bass, "Optically written displays based on up-conversion of near infrared light," Proc SPIE Projection Displays VII (2001) pp. 4294.

J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, F. Szipcs, H. P. Jenssen, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, "Up-conversion efficiencies of potential candidates for photonic displays," SID Symp. Dig. (2003) pp. 1230.

D. G. Deppe, T. J. Rogers, Quantum well device with control of spontaneous photon emission, and method of manufacturing same U.S. Patent 5 089 860 (1992).

C. A. Morrison, R. P. Leavitt, Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (Elsevier, 1982).

D. Knowles, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, Tunable Solid State Laser (Springer Verlag, 1989) pp. 139-145.

M. Bass, D. G. Deppe, High resolution, full color, high brightness fully intergrated light emitting devices and displays U.S. Patent 2007/0297750 Al (2007).

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