Abstract

Recently, there has been a tremendous rise in production of portable electronic devices. To produce flexible devices, flexible substrates should replace conventional glass substrates. Indium–tin–oxide (ITO) is the preferred transparent conducting layer used in the display technology. Although ITO has excellent sheet resistance and very good optical properties, ITO can crack at very low tensile strains which might cause failure in the conductive layer because of the unusual structure of a very thin film of brittle ceramic material applied to a polymer substrate. Therefore, the mechanics of ITO on flexible substrates has been thoroughly considered in the design and manufacturing of flexible devices. In a typical roll-to-roll manufacturing process, many challenges exist during the travel of the coated web over the rollers which produce bending stresses that might cause failure even if the stresses are below the yield strength of the material. Therefore, the high cycle bending fatigue of ITO thin films on flexible substrates is of a significant importance. In this work, high cycle bending fatigue experiments were conducted on ITO coated PET substrate. The effect of bending diameter, bending frequency, and sample width on the change in electrical resistance was investigated. High magnification images were obtained to observe crack initiation and propagating in the ITO layer. The goal of this work is to establish a baseline for a comprehensive reliability study of ITO thin films on flexible substrate. It was found that bending diameters as well as the number of bending cycles have a great influence on the electrical conductivity of the ITO layer.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. J. W. Hutchinson, Z. Suo, "Mixed mode cracking in layered materials," Adv. Appl. Mech. 29, 63-191 (1992).
  2. Y. Leterrier, "Durability of nanosized oxygen-barrier coatings on polymers," Progr. Mater. Sci. 48, 1-55 (2003).
  3. Y. Leterrier, L. Médico, F. Demarco, F. J. A. E. Månson, P. Bouten, J. DeGoede, G. Nisato, J. A. Nairn, "Mechanical integrity of transparent conductive oxide films for flexible polymer-based displays," Thin Solid Films 460, 156-166 (2004).
  4. S. Grego, J. Lewis, E. Vick, D. Temple, "A method to evaluate mechanical performance of thin transparent films for flexible displays," Thin Solid Films 515, 4745-4752 (2007).
  5. O. van der Sluis, A. A. Abdallah, P. C. P. Bouten, P. H. M. Timmermans, J. M. J. den Toonder, G. de With, " Effect of a hardcoat layer on buckle delamination of thin ITO layers on a compliant elasto-plastic substrate: An experimental-numerical approach," Eng. Fracture Mech. 78, 877-889 (2011).
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  10. K. Alzoubi, S. Lu, B. Sammakia, M. Poliks, "Experimental study of the high cyclic bending fatigue of thin film metal on polyethylene terephthalate for flexible electronics applications," Proc. ASME 2009 InterPACK Conf. (IPACK2009) (2009).
  11. K. Alzoubi, S. Lu, B. Sammakia, M. Poliks, "Factors effect study for the high cyclic bending fatigue of thin films on PET substrate using design of experiments tools," 9th Annu. Flexible Electron. Displays Conf. (2010).
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  13. K. Alzoubi, A. Qasaimeh, S. Lu, B. Sammakia, M. Poliks, "Resistance change modeling of sputtered thin films on flexible substrates under fatigue test," 2010 Ind. Eng. Res. Conf. (2010).
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  16. S. L. Liu, G. Chen, M. S. Yong, "EMC characterization and process study for electronics packaging," Thin Solid FilmsArticle title??? 454-458 (2004).
  17. D. Huang, F. Liao, S. Molesa, D. Redinger, V. Subramanian, "Plastic-compatible low resistance printable gold nanoparticle conductors for flexible electronics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, G412-G417 (2003).
  18. B. Holland, R. Mcpherson, T. Zhang, Z. Hou, R. Dean, R. Johnson, "Ultra-thin, flexible electronics," 2008 Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2008) pp. 1110-1116.
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  20. MITCambridgeTitle of article??? (YEAR???) http://www.mit.edu/~6.777/matprops/ito.htm.

2011 (2)

O. van der Sluis, A. A. Abdallah, P. C. P. Bouten, P. H. M. Timmermans, J. M. J. den Toonder, G. de With, " Effect of a hardcoat layer on buckle delamination of thin ITO layers on a compliant elasto-plastic substrate: An experimental-numerical approach," Eng. Fracture Mech. 78, 877-889 (2011).

K. Alzoubi, S. Lu, B. Sammakia, M. Poliks, "Experimental study of the high cycle fatigue of thin film metal on polyethylene terephthalate for flexible electronics applications," IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol. 1, 43-51 (2011).

2007 (1)

S. Grego, J. Lewis, E. Vick, D. Temple, "A method to evaluate mechanical performance of thin transparent films for flexible displays," Thin Solid Films 515, 4745-4752 (2007).

2005 (1)

D. R. Cairns, G. P. Crawford, "Electromechanical properties of transparent conducting substrates for flexible electronic displays," Proc. IEEE 93, 1451-1458 (2005).

2004 (2)

Y. Leterrier, L. Médico, F. Demarco, F. J. A. E. Månson, P. Bouten, J. DeGoede, G. Nisato, J. A. Nairn, "Mechanical integrity of transparent conductive oxide films for flexible polymer-based displays," Thin Solid Films 460, 156-166 (2004).

S. L. Liu, G. Chen, M. S. Yong, "EMC characterization and process study for electronics packaging," Thin Solid FilmsArticle title??? 454-458 (2004).

2003 (3)

D. Huang, F. Liao, S. Molesa, D. Redinger, V. Subramanian, "Plastic-compatible low resistance printable gold nanoparticle conductors for flexible electronics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, G412-G417 (2003).

S. K. Park, J. I. Han, D. G. Moon, W. K. Kim, "Mechanical stability of externally deformed indium-tin-oxide films on polymer substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 42, 623-629 (2003).

Y. Leterrier, "Durability of nanosized oxygen-barrier coatings on polymers," Progr. Mater. Sci. 48, 1-55 (2003).

1998 (1)

A. Dasgupta, M. G. Pecht, B. Mathieu, "Design-of-experiment methods for computational parametric studies in electronic packaging," Finite Elements in Anal. Des. 30, 125-146 (1998).

1992 (1)

J. W. Hutchinson, Z. Suo, "Mixed mode cracking in layered materials," Adv. Appl. Mech. 29, 63-191 (1992).

Adv. Appl. Mech. (1)

J. W. Hutchinson, Z. Suo, "Mixed mode cracking in layered materials," Adv. Appl. Mech. 29, 63-191 (1992).

Eng. Fracture Mech. (1)

O. van der Sluis, A. A. Abdallah, P. C. P. Bouten, P. H. M. Timmermans, J. M. J. den Toonder, G. de With, " Effect of a hardcoat layer on buckle delamination of thin ITO layers on a compliant elasto-plastic substrate: An experimental-numerical approach," Eng. Fracture Mech. 78, 877-889 (2011).

Finite Elements in Anal. Des. (1)

A. Dasgupta, M. G. Pecht, B. Mathieu, "Design-of-experiment methods for computational parametric studies in electronic packaging," Finite Elements in Anal. Des. 30, 125-146 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol. (1)

K. Alzoubi, S. Lu, B. Sammakia, M. Poliks, "Experimental study of the high cycle fatigue of thin film metal on polyethylene terephthalate for flexible electronics applications," IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol. 1, 43-51 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. K. Park, J. I. Han, D. G. Moon, W. K. Kim, "Mechanical stability of externally deformed indium-tin-oxide films on polymer substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 42, 623-629 (2003).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

D. Huang, F. Liao, S. Molesa, D. Redinger, V. Subramanian, "Plastic-compatible low resistance printable gold nanoparticle conductors for flexible electronics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, G412-G417 (2003).

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. R. Cairns, G. P. Crawford, "Electromechanical properties of transparent conducting substrates for flexible electronic displays," Proc. IEEE 93, 1451-1458 (2005).

Progr. Mater. Sci. (1)

Y. Leterrier, "Durability of nanosized oxygen-barrier coatings on polymers," Progr. Mater. Sci. 48, 1-55 (2003).

Thin Solid Films (2)

Y. Leterrier, L. Médico, F. Demarco, F. J. A. E. Månson, P. Bouten, J. DeGoede, G. Nisato, J. A. Nairn, "Mechanical integrity of transparent conductive oxide films for flexible polymer-based displays," Thin Solid Films 460, 156-166 (2004).

S. Grego, J. Lewis, E. Vick, D. Temple, "A method to evaluate mechanical performance of thin transparent films for flexible displays," Thin Solid Films 515, 4745-4752 (2007).

Thin Solid FilmsArticle title??? (1)

S. L. Liu, G. Chen, M. S. Yong, "EMC characterization and process study for electronics packaging," Thin Solid FilmsArticle title??? 454-458 (2004).

Other (9)

B. Holland, R. Mcpherson, T. Zhang, Z. Hou, R. Dean, R. Johnson, "Ultra-thin, flexible electronics," 2008 Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2008) pp. 1110-1116.

K. Alzoubi, S. Lu, B. Sammakia, M. Poliks, "Experimental study of the high cyclic bending fatigue of thin film metal on polyethylene terephthalate for flexible electronics applications," Proc. ASME 2009 InterPACK Conf. (IPACK2009) (2009).

K. Alzoubi, S. Lu, B. Sammakia, M. Poliks, "Factors effect study for the high cyclic bending fatigue of thin films on PET substrate using design of experiments tools," 9th Annu. Flexible Electron. Displays Conf. (2010).

A. Mayyas, A. Qasaimeh, K. Alzoubi, S. Lu, "Machinability modeling for aluminum composite drilling process," Proc. 2009 Ind. Eng. Res. Conf. (2009).

K. Alzoubi, A. Qasaimeh, S. Lu, B. Sammakia, M. Poliks, "Resistance change modeling of sputtered thin films on flexible substrates under fatigue test," 2010 Ind. Eng. Res. Conf. (2010).

D. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments (Wiley, 2000).

G. P. Crawford, Flexible Flat Panel Displays (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2005).

P. C. P. Bouten, Y. Leterrier, P. J. Slikkerveer, Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005) pp. 99-120.

MITCambridgeTitle of article??? (YEAR???) http://www.mit.edu/~6.777/matprops/ito.htm.

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