Abstract

Integral imaging is a technique capable of displaying 3D images with continuous parallax in full natural color. It has been reported by many research groups and is becoming a viable alternative for 3D television. With the development of 3D integral imaging, image compression becomes mandatory for the storage and transmission of 3D integral images. In this paper, the use of the lifting scheme in the application of a 3D Wavelet Transform for the compression of 3D Integral Images is proposed. The method requires the extraction of different viewpoint images from an integral image. The 3D wavelet decomposition is computed by applying three separate 1D transforms along the coordinate axes of the given sequence of Viewpoint Images. The spatial wavelet decompositions on a single viewpoint and on the inter-viewpoint images are performed using the biorthogonal Cohen–Debauchies–Feauveau 9/7 and 5/3 filter banks, respectively. All the resulting wavelet coefficients from application of the 3D wavelet decomposition are arithmetic encoded.Simulations are performed on a set of different grey level 3D Integral Images using a uniform scalar quantizer with deadzone. The results for the average of the four intensity distributions are presented and compared with previous use of 2D DWT and 3D-DCT based schemes. It was found that the algorithm achieves better rate-distortion performance and reconstructs the images with much better image quality at very low bit rates.

© 2011 IEEE

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2008

A. Aggoun, M. Mazri, "Wavelet-based compression algorithm for still omnidirectional 3D Integral Images," J. Signal, Image and Video Process. 2, 141-153 (2008).

2007

E. Elharar, A. Stern, O. Hadar, B. Javidi, "A hybrid compression method for integral images using discrete wavelet transform and discrete cosine transform," J. Display Technol. 3, 321-325 (2007).

L. Onural, "Television in 3-D: What are the prospects," Proc. IEEE 95, (2007).

2006

L. Hill, A. Jacobs, "3-D liquid crystal displays and their applications," Proc. IEEE 94, 575-590 (2006).

A. Aggoun, "Pre-processing of integral images for 3D displays," J. Display Technol. 2, 393-400 (2006).

2005

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Extended depth-of-field 3-D display and visualization by combination of amplitude-modulated microlenses and deconvolution tools," J. Display Technol. 1, 321-327 (2005).

N. A. Dodgson, "Autostereoscopic 3D displays," IEEE Computer 38, 31-36 (2005).

M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, "Formation of real, orthoscopic integral images by smart pixel mapping," Opt. Express 13, 9175-9180 (2005).

J.-S. Jang, S. Yeom, B. Javidi, "Compression of ray information in three-dimensional integral imaging," Opt. Eng. 44, 127001 (2005).

2004

S. Yeom, A. Stern, B. Javidi, "Compression of color integral images using MPEG 2," Opt. Express 12, 1632-1642 (2004).

J. S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Time-multiplexed integral imaging," Opt. & Photon. News 36-43 (2004).

2002

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, "Adaptive 3D-DCT compression algorithm for continuous parallax 3D integral imaging," J. Signal Process.: Image Commun. 17, 231-242 (2002).

M. Rabbani, R. Joshi, "An overview of the JPEG 2000 still image compression standard," Journal of Signal Processing: Image Communications 17, 3-48 (2002).

2001

S. Monaleche, A. Aggoun, A. McCormick, N. Davies, S. Y. Kung, "Analytical model of a 3D recording camera system using circular and hexagonal based spherical microlenses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 18, 1814-1821 (2001).

1997

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, "Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1604 (1997).

1994

N. Davis, M. McCormick, M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).

1988

1908

G. Lippmann, "Eppreuves reversibles donnat durelief," J. Phys. Paris 821, (1908).

Appl. Opt.

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, "Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1604 (1997).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Computer

N. A. Dodgson, "Autostereoscopic 3D displays," IEEE Computer 38, 31-36 (2005).

J. Display Technol.

E. Elharar, A. Stern, O. Hadar, B. Javidi, "A hybrid compression method for integral images using discrete wavelet transform and discrete cosine transform," J. Display Technol. 3, 321-325 (2007).

J. Signal Process.: Image Commun.

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, "Adaptive 3D-DCT compression algorithm for continuous parallax 3D integral imaging," J. Signal Process.: Image Commun. 17, 231-242 (2002).

J. Signal, Image and Video Process.

A. Aggoun, M. Mazri, "Wavelet-based compression algorithm for still omnidirectional 3D Integral Images," J. Signal, Image and Video Process. 2, 141-153 (2008).

J. Display Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A

S. Monaleche, A. Aggoun, A. McCormick, N. Davies, S. Y. Kung, "Analytical model of a 3D recording camera system using circular and hexagonal based spherical microlenses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 18, 1814-1821 (2001).

J. Phys. Paris

G. Lippmann, "Eppreuves reversibles donnat durelief," J. Phys. Paris 821, (1908).

Journal of Signal Processing: Image Communications

M. Rabbani, R. Joshi, "An overview of the JPEG 2000 still image compression standard," Journal of Signal Processing: Image Communications 17, 3-48 (2002).

Opt. Eng.

N. Davis, M. McCormick, M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).

Opt. Express

M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, "Formation of real, orthoscopic integral images by smart pixel mapping," Opt. Express 13, 9175-9180 (2005).

Opt. & Photon. News

J. S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Time-multiplexed integral imaging," Opt. & Photon. News 36-43 (2004).

Opt. Eng.

J.-S. Jang, S. Yeom, B. Javidi, "Compression of ray information in three-dimensional integral imaging," Opt. Eng. 44, 127001 (2005).

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

L. Onural, "Television in 3-D: What are the prospects," Proc. IEEE 95, (2007).

L. Hill, A. Jacobs, "3-D liquid crystal displays and their applications," Proc. IEEE 94, 575-590 (2006).

Other

T. Yamazaki, K. Kamijo, S. Fukuzumi, "Quantative evaluation of visual fatigue," Proc. Japan Display (1989) pp. 606-609.

M. T. M. Lambooij, W. A. IJsselsteijn, I. Heynderickx, "Visual discomfort in stereoscopic displays: A review," Proc. SPIE IS&T Electron. Imag. (2007).

L. Onural, "An assessment of 3DTV technologies," Proc. NAB Broadcast Engineering Conf. (2006) pp. 456-467.

Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).

M. C. Forman, A. Aggoun, "Quantisation strategies for 3D_DCT based compression of full parallax 3D images," IEE IPA97 Conf. Pub. (1997).

R. Olsson, M. Sjostrom, Y. Xu, "A combined pre-processing and h. 264-compression scheme for 3D integral images," 2006 IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Process. (2006).

M. Mazri, A. Aggoun, "Compression of 3D integral images using Wavelet decomposition," Proc. SPIE Visual Commun. and Image Process. 2003 (2003) pp. 1181-1192.

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