Abstract

A cerium-doped gadolinium-yttrium garnet yellow emitting phosphor was used to optimize the phosphor layer for down-conversion of blue light from InGaN inorganic light-emitting diode (iLED) to white. Optical, morphological and elemental characterizations of phosphor were carried out. Various amounts of the phosphor were dispersed in polymethyl methacrylate polymer (PMMA)—chlorobenzene solution. The phosphor layer thickness was optimized by varying the volume of the phosphor—PMMA mixture. Using a blue emitting (458 nm) iLED, a two times larger luminance efficacy (lm/W) was obtained from down-converted white light using a 37.5 <i>µ</i>m thick 25 x 25 mm film prepared from 30 mg of phosphor in 500 <i>µ</i>l of the PMMA-chlorobenzene solution.

© 2010 IEEE

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  2. J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, "White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: A general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?," Appl Phys Lett. 79, 560-562 (2001).
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  7. S. H. Lee, J. H. Park, S. M. Son, J. S. Kim, H. L. Park, "White-light-emitting phosphor: CaMgSi2O6 : Eu2+, Mn2+ and its related properties with blending," Appl Phys Lett. 89, 1-3 (2006) Art. no. 221916.
  8. I. W. Park, H. J. Lee, J. S. Yoo, C. K. Choi, "Optical characteristics of xSrO center dot yAl(2)O(3) : Eu phosphors excited by ultraviolet light emitting diodes," Korean J. Chem. Eng. 24, 294-298 (2007).
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  12. J. K. Park, C. H. Kim, S. H. Park, H. D. Park, S. Y. Choi, "Application of strontium silicate yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes," Appl Phys Lett. 84, 1647-1649 (2004).
  13. Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, "Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2—Lett. & Express Lett. 45, L1084-L1086 (2006).
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  15. M. R. Krames, J. B. D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Gotz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, D. A. Steigerwald, S. A. Stockman, J. J. Wierer, "High-power III-nitride emitters for solid-state lighting," Phys. Status Sol. Appl. Res. 192, 237-245 (2002).
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  18. R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Takahashi, K. Sakuma, "Highly efficient white-light-emitting diodes fabricated with short-wavelength yellow oxynitride phosphors," Appl Phys Lett. 88, 1-3 (2006) Art. no. 101104.
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  21. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Status Sol. Appl. Mater. Sci. 202, R60-R62 (2005).
  22. R. Kasuya, A. Kawano, T. Isobe, "Characteristic optical properties of transparent color conversion film prepared from YAG : Ce$_{3+}$ nanoparticles," Appl. Phys Lett. 91, 1-3 (2007) Art. no. 111916.
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  24. H. J. Park, K. W. Park, W. S. Lee, J. T. Kim, S. M. Son, J. S. Kim, G. C. Kim, H. S. Lee, H. L. Park, "Ceramic-sheet phosphor for phosphor-on-top package of white LED," 13th Int. Display Workshops & Asia Display (2006) pp. 2.
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  26. W. Chung, K. Park, H. J. Yu, J. Kim, B. H. Chun, S. H. Kim, "White emission using mixtures of CdSe quantum dots and PMMA as a phosphor," Opt. Mater. 32, 515-521 (2010).
  27. J. Lee, N. Chopra, F. So, "Cavity effects on light extraction in organic light emitting devices," Appl. Phys Lett. 92, 1-3 (2008) Art. no. 033303.
  28. N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S. H. Eom, J. G. Xue, F. So, "High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device," Appl. Phys Lett. 93, 1-3 (2008) Art. no. 143307.
  29. M. A. Volkova, S. V. Zlatina, S. N. Natarovskii, O. N. Nemkova, T. F. Selezneva, N. B. Skobeleva, D. N. Frolov, L. M. Kogan, B. P. Papchenko, "Prospects of using LEDs in the illuminating systems of microscopes," J. Opt. Technol. 72, 186-190 (2005).
  30. R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, T. Trottier, "High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 339-345 (2002).
  31. M. A. Uddin, M. O. Alam, Y. C. Chan, H. P. Chan, "Plasma cleaning of the flex substrate for flip-chip bonding with anisotropic conductive adhesive film," J Electron Mater. 32, 1117-1124 (2003).
  32. A. Mahapatro, D. M. Johnson, D. N. Patel, M. D. Feldman, A. A. Ayon, C. M. Agrawal, "Surface modification of functional self-assembled monolayers on 316L stainless steel via Lipase catalysis," Langmuir 22, 901-905 (2006).
  33. S. J. Lee, B. G. Paik, G. B. Kim, Y. G. Jang, "Self-cleaning features of plasma-treated surfaces with self-assembled monolayer coating," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1912-918 (2006).

2010 (2)

L. Chen, C.-C. Lin, Y. Chiao-Wen, R.-S. Liu, "Light converting inorganic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes," Materials 3, 2172-2195 (2010).

W. Chung, K. Park, H. J. Yu, J. Kim, B. H. Chun, S. H. Kim, "White emission using mixtures of CdSe quantum dots and PMMA as a phosphor," Opt. Mater. 32, 515-521 (2010).

2009 (2)

S. Takeshita, K. Nakayama, T. Isobe, T. Sawayama, S. Niikura, "Optical properties of transparent wavelength-conversion film prepared from ${\hbox{YVO}}_{4}{\hbox{:Bi}}_{3+}, {\hbox{Eu}}_{3+}$nanophosphors," J Electrochem Soc. 156, J273-J277 (2009).

C. F. Guo, L. Luan, F. G. Shi, X. Ding, "White-emitting phosphor Ca2BO3Cl:Ce3+, Eu2+ for UV light-emitting diodes," J Electrochem Soc. 156, J125-J128 (2009).

2008 (3)

F. So, J. Kido, P. Burrows, "Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," Mrs Bull. 33, 663-669 (2008).

J. Lee, N. Chopra, F. So, "Cavity effects on light extraction in organic light emitting devices," Appl. Phys Lett. 92, 1-3 (2008) Art. no. 033303.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S. H. Eom, J. G. Xue, F. So, "High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device," Appl. Phys Lett. 93, 1-3 (2008) Art. no. 143307.

2007 (3)

R. Kasuya, A. Kawano, T. Isobe, "Characteristic optical properties of transparent color conversion film prepared from YAG : Ce$_{3+}$ nanoparticles," Appl. Phys Lett. 91, 1-3 (2007) Art. no. 111916.

I. W. Park, H. J. Lee, J. S. Yoo, C. K. Choi, "Optical characteristics of xSrO center dot yAl(2)O(3) : Eu phosphors excited by ultraviolet light emitting diodes," Korean J. Chem. Eng. 24, 294-298 (2007).

W. J. Yang, T. M. Chen, "Ce3+/Eu2+ codoped Ba2ZnS3: A blue radiation-converting phosphor for white light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys Lett. 90, 1-3 (2007) Art. no. 171908.

2006 (6)

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, "Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2—Lett. & Express Lett. 45, L1084-L1086 (2006).

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Takahashi, K. Sakuma, "Highly efficient white-light-emitting diodes fabricated with short-wavelength yellow oxynitride phosphors," Appl Phys Lett. 88, 1-3 (2006) Art. no. 101104.

S. H. Lee, J. H. Park, S. M. Son, J. S. Kim, H. L. Park, "White-light-emitting phosphor: CaMgSi2O6 : Eu2+, Mn2+ and its related properties with blending," Appl Phys Lett. 89, 1-3 (2006) Art. no. 221916.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl Phys Lett. 88, 1-3 (2006) Art. no. 113506.

A. Mahapatro, D. M. Johnson, D. N. Patel, M. D. Feldman, A. A. Ayon, C. M. Agrawal, "Surface modification of functional self-assembled monolayers on 316L stainless steel via Lipase catalysis," Langmuir 22, 901-905 (2006).

S. J. Lee, B. G. Paik, G. B. Kim, Y. G. Jang, "Self-cleaning features of plasma-treated surfaces with self-assembled monolayer coating," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1912-918 (2006).

2005 (4)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Status Sol. Appl. Mater. Sci. 202, R60-R62 (2005).

M. A. Volkova, S. V. Zlatina, S. N. Natarovskii, O. N. Nemkova, T. F. Selezneva, N. B. Skobeleva, D. N. Frolov, L. M. Kogan, B. P. Papchenko, "Prospects of using LEDs in the illuminating systems of microscopes," J. Opt. Technol. 72, 186-190 (2005).

A. A. Setlur, H. A. Comanzo, A. M. Srivastava, W. W. Beers, "Spectroscopic evaluation of a white light phosphor for ${\hbox{UV}}{\hbox{-}}LEDs{\hbox{LEDs-Ca}}_{2}{\hbox{NaMg}}_{2}{\hbox{V}}_{3}{\hbox{O}}_{12}:{\hbox{Eu}}_{3+}$," J Electrochem Soc. 152, H205-H208 (2005).

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. K. Park, C. H. Kim, S. H. Park, H. D. Park, S. Y. Choi, "Application of strontium silicate yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes," Appl Phys Lett. 84, 1647-1649 (2004).

2003 (2)

C. H. Kuo, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. M. Tsai, C. H. Liu, R. K. Wu, "n-UV plus blue/green/red white light emitting diode lamps," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1—Reg. Papers Short Notes Rev. Papers 42, 2284-2287 (2003).

M. A. Uddin, M. O. Alam, Y. C. Chan, H. P. Chan, "Plasma cleaning of the flex substrate for flip-chip bonding with anisotropic conductive adhesive film," J Electron Mater. 32, 1117-1124 (2003).

2002 (4)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, T. Trottier, "High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 339-345 (2002).

M. R. Krames, J. B. D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Gotz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, D. A. Steigerwald, S. A. Stockman, J. J. Wierer, "High-power III-nitride emitters for solid-state lighting," Phys. Status Sol. Appl. Res. 192, 237-245 (2002).

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, T. Mukai, "Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2—Lett. 41, L371-L373 (2002).

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl Phys Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).

2001 (2)

J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, "White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: A general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?," Appl Phys Lett. 79, 560-562 (2001).

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, R. Haitz, "The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting," Phys. Today 54, 42-47 (2001).

1995 (1)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, K. Nagai, "Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device," Science 267, 1332-1334 (1995).

Appl Phys Lett. (6)

J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, "White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: A general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?," Appl Phys Lett. 79, 560-562 (2001).

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl Phys Lett. 88, 1-3 (2006) Art. no. 113506.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl Phys Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).

S. H. Lee, J. H. Park, S. M. Son, J. S. Kim, H. L. Park, "White-light-emitting phosphor: CaMgSi2O6 : Eu2+, Mn2+ and its related properties with blending," Appl Phys Lett. 89, 1-3 (2006) Art. no. 221916.

J. K. Park, C. H. Kim, S. H. Park, H. D. Park, S. Y. Choi, "Application of strontium silicate yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes," Appl Phys Lett. 84, 1647-1649 (2004).

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Takahashi, K. Sakuma, "Highly efficient white-light-emitting diodes fabricated with short-wavelength yellow oxynitride phosphors," Appl Phys Lett. 88, 1-3 (2006) Art. no. 101104.

Appl. Phys Lett. (4)

W. J. Yang, T. M. Chen, "Ce3+/Eu2+ codoped Ba2ZnS3: A blue radiation-converting phosphor for white light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys Lett. 90, 1-3 (2007) Art. no. 171908.

R. Kasuya, A. Kawano, T. Isobe, "Characteristic optical properties of transparent color conversion film prepared from YAG : Ce$_{3+}$ nanoparticles," Appl. Phys Lett. 91, 1-3 (2007) Art. no. 111916.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, F. So, "Cavity effects on light extraction in organic light emitting devices," Appl. Phys Lett. 92, 1-3 (2008) Art. no. 033303.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S. H. Eom, J. G. Xue, F. So, "High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device," Appl. Phys Lett. 93, 1-3 (2008) Art. no. 143307.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, T. Trottier, "High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 339-345 (2002).

J Electrochem Soc. (3)

S. Takeshita, K. Nakayama, T. Isobe, T. Sawayama, S. Niikura, "Optical properties of transparent wavelength-conversion film prepared from ${\hbox{YVO}}_{4}{\hbox{:Bi}}_{3+}, {\hbox{Eu}}_{3+}$nanophosphors," J Electrochem Soc. 156, J273-J277 (2009).

A. A. Setlur, H. A. Comanzo, A. M. Srivastava, W. W. Beers, "Spectroscopic evaluation of a white light phosphor for ${\hbox{UV}}{\hbox{-}}LEDs{\hbox{LEDs-Ca}}_{2}{\hbox{NaMg}}_{2}{\hbox{V}}_{3}{\hbox{O}}_{12}:{\hbox{Eu}}_{3+}$," J Electrochem Soc. 152, H205-H208 (2005).

C. F. Guo, L. Luan, F. G. Shi, X. Ding, "White-emitting phosphor Ca2BO3Cl:Ce3+, Eu2+ for UV light-emitting diodes," J Electrochem Soc. 156, J125-J128 (2009).

J Electron Mater. (1)

M. A. Uddin, M. O. Alam, Y. C. Chan, H. P. Chan, "Plasma cleaning of the flex substrate for flip-chip bonding with anisotropic conductive adhesive film," J Electron Mater. 32, 1117-1124 (2003).

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. J. Lee, B. G. Paik, G. B. Kim, Y. G. Jang, "Self-cleaning features of plasma-treated surfaces with self-assembled monolayer coating," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1912-918 (2006).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1—Reg. Papers Short Notes Rev. Papers (1)

C. H. Kuo, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. M. Tsai, C. H. Liu, R. K. Wu, "n-UV plus blue/green/red white light emitting diode lamps," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1—Reg. Papers Short Notes Rev. Papers 42, 2284-2287 (2003).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2—Lett. (1)

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, T. Mukai, "Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2—Lett. 41, L371-L373 (2002).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2—Lett. & Express Lett. (1)

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, "Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2—Lett. & Express Lett. 45, L1084-L1086 (2006).

Korean J. Chem. Eng. (1)

I. W. Park, H. J. Lee, J. S. Yoo, C. K. Choi, "Optical characteristics of xSrO center dot yAl(2)O(3) : Eu phosphors excited by ultraviolet light emitting diodes," Korean J. Chem. Eng. 24, 294-298 (2007).

Langmuir (1)

A. Mahapatro, D. M. Johnson, D. N. Patel, M. D. Feldman, A. A. Ayon, C. M. Agrawal, "Surface modification of functional self-assembled monolayers on 316L stainless steel via Lipase catalysis," Langmuir 22, 901-905 (2006).

Materials (1)

L. Chen, C.-C. Lin, Y. Chiao-Wen, R.-S. Liu, "Light converting inorganic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes," Materials 3, 2172-2195 (2010).

Mrs Bull. (1)

F. So, J. Kido, P. Burrows, "Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," Mrs Bull. 33, 663-669 (2008).

Opt. Mater. (1)

W. Chung, K. Park, H. J. Yu, J. Kim, B. H. Chun, S. H. Kim, "White emission using mixtures of CdSe quantum dots and PMMA as a phosphor," Opt. Mater. 32, 515-521 (2010).

Phys. Status Sol. Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Status Sol. Appl. Mater. Sci. 202, R60-R62 (2005).

Phys. Status Sol. Appl. Res. (1)

M. R. Krames, J. B. D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Gotz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, D. A. Steigerwald, S. A. Stockman, J. J. Wierer, "High-power III-nitride emitters for solid-state lighting," Phys. Status Sol. Appl. Res. 192, 237-245 (2002).

Phys. Today (1)

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, R. Haitz, "The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting," Phys. Today 54, 42-47 (2001).

Science (2)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, K. Nagai, "Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device," Science 267, 1332-1334 (1995).

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

Other (3)

H. J. Park, K. W. Park, W. S. Lee, J. T. Kim, S. M. Son, J. S. Kim, G. C. Kim, H. S. Lee, H. L. Park, "Ceramic-sheet phosphor for phosphor-on-top package of white LED," 13th Int. Display Workshops & Asia Display (2006) pp. 2.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, D. F. Foust, L. G. Turner, W. F. Nealon, J. C. Bortscheller, "Large area white OLEDs," SID Symp. Dig. (2005) pp. 3.

J. Silver, R. Withnall, Color Conversion Phosphors for LEDs (Wiley, 2008).

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