Abstract

Electrophoretic displays (EPDs) have become the main solution to electronic paper because of its invariably reflective and bistable properties. With different requirements of display resolution, speed, and contrast ratio, the electronic paper (E-Paper) designers may adopt different types of electrophoretic material and active matrix backplane for building the system. The driving waveforms should be also customized for accommodating different application specifications and environment temperature. In this paper, we present a configurable EPD controller which can support various application specifications. In addition to providing a new architecture of compacted waveform lookup tables, the controller supports partial image update and integrates a real-time halftoning engine for improving image quality. The design has been implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and tested with several real EPDs.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Ota, J. Ohnishi, M. Yoshiyama, "Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel," Proc. IEEE 61, 832-836 (1973).
  2. M. A. Hopper, V. Novotny, "An electrophoretic display, its properties, model, and addressing," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 26, 1148-1152 (1979).
  3. B. Fitzhenry-Ritz, "Optical properties of electrophoretic image displays," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 28, 726-735 (1981).
  4. B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, J. Jacobson, "An electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic display," Nature 394, 253-255 (1998).
  5. R. C. Liang, J. Hou, H. Zang, J. Chung, S. Tseng, "Microcup displays: Electronic paper by roll-to-roll manufacturing processes," Journal of SID 11, 621-628 (2003).
  6. Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, M. McCreary, "Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display," Nature 423, 136 (2003).
  7. K. J. Allen, "Reel to real: Prospects for flexible displays," Proc. IEEE 93, 1394-1399 (2005).
  8. T. Bert, H. D. Smet, "The microscopic physics of electronic paper revealed," Displays 24, 103-110 (2003).
  9. A. Monté, J. Doutreloigne, A. V. Calster, "Driving-scheme algorithms for intelligent energy-efficient high-voltage display drivers," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.—I: Reg. Papers 56, 497-507 (2009).
  10. H. Gates, R. Zehner, H. Doshi, J. Au, "A5 sized electronic paper display for document viewing," Proc. SID'05 Dig. (2005) pp. 1214-1217.
  11. Y. Komatsu, H. Kawai, T. Kodaira, S. Hirabayashi, M. Miyasaka, S. Nebashi, T. Shimoda, "A flexible 7.1-in. active-matrix electrophoretic display," Proc. SID'06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1830-1833.
  12. A. Henzen, J. Kamer, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuji, M. Yasui, M. Pitt, G. Duthaler, K. Amundson, H. Gates, R. Zehner, "Development of active-matrix electronic-ink displays for handheld devices," J. SID 12, 17-22 (2004).
  13. M. T. Johnson, G. Zhou, R. Zehner, K. Amundson, A. Henzen, J. Kamer, "High-quality images on electrophoretic displays," J, SID 14, 175-180 (2006).
  14. H. Kawai, M. Miyasaka, A. Miyazaki, T. Kodaira, S. Inoue, T. Shimoda, K. Amundson, R. J. Paolini, Jr.M. McCreary, T. Shimoda, "A flexible 2-in. QVGA LTPS-TFT electrophoretic display," Proc. SID'05 Dig, (2005) pp. 1638-1641.
  15. K. Amundson, T. Sjodin, "Achieving graytone images in a microencapsulated electrophoretic display," Proc. SID'06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1918-1921.
  16. S. Inoue, H. Kawai, S. Kanbe, T. Saeki, T. Shimoda, "High-resolution microencapsulated electrohoretic display (EPD) driven by poly-Si TFTs with four-level grayscale," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1532-1539 (2002).
  17. R. Zehner, K. Amundson, A. Knaian, B. Zion, M. Johnson, G. Zhou, "Drive waveforms for active matrix electrophoretic displays," Proc. SID 03 Digest (2003) pp. 842-845.
  18. H. Kodama, K. Takeshita, "Computational modeling of pigment dispersions," Proc. SID'05 Dig. (2005) pp. 1670-1673.
  19. T. Bert, H. D. Smet, F. Beunis, K. Neyts, "Complete electrical and optical simulation of electronic paper," Displays 27, 50-55 (2006).
  20. H. Gates, T. Ohkami, "High performance active electronic display controller," Proc. SID'08 Dig. (2008) pp. 693-696.
  21. H. Gates, T. Ohkami, J. Au, "Improved electronic controller for image stable displays," Proc. SID'06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1406-1409.
  22. W. C. Kao, J. A. Ye, F. S. Lin, P. Y. Cheng, R. Sprague, "Configurable timing controller design for active matrix electrophoretic display," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 55, 1-5 (2009).
  23. B. Lippel, M. Kurland, "The effect of dither on luminance quantization of pictures," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. COM-19, 879-888 (1971).
  24. P. W. Besslich, "Comments on electronic techniques for pictorial image reproduction," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-31, 846-848 (1983).
  25. W. C. Kao, J. A. Ye, M. I. Chu, C. Y. Su, "Image quality improvement for electrophoretic displays by combining contrast enhancement and halftoning techniques," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 55, 15-19 (2009).

2009 (3)

A. Monté, J. Doutreloigne, A. V. Calster, "Driving-scheme algorithms for intelligent energy-efficient high-voltage display drivers," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.—I: Reg. Papers 56, 497-507 (2009).

W. C. Kao, J. A. Ye, F. S. Lin, P. Y. Cheng, R. Sprague, "Configurable timing controller design for active matrix electrophoretic display," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 55, 1-5 (2009).

W. C. Kao, J. A. Ye, M. I. Chu, C. Y. Su, "Image quality improvement for electrophoretic displays by combining contrast enhancement and halftoning techniques," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 55, 15-19 (2009).

2006 (2)

T. Bert, H. D. Smet, F. Beunis, K. Neyts, "Complete electrical and optical simulation of electronic paper," Displays 27, 50-55 (2006).

M. T. Johnson, G. Zhou, R. Zehner, K. Amundson, A. Henzen, J. Kamer, "High-quality images on electrophoretic displays," J, SID 14, 175-180 (2006).

2005 (1)

K. J. Allen, "Reel to real: Prospects for flexible displays," Proc. IEEE 93, 1394-1399 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Henzen, J. Kamer, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuji, M. Yasui, M. Pitt, G. Duthaler, K. Amundson, H. Gates, R. Zehner, "Development of active-matrix electronic-ink displays for handheld devices," J. SID 12, 17-22 (2004).

2003 (3)

T. Bert, H. D. Smet, "The microscopic physics of electronic paper revealed," Displays 24, 103-110 (2003).

R. C. Liang, J. Hou, H. Zang, J. Chung, S. Tseng, "Microcup displays: Electronic paper by roll-to-roll manufacturing processes," Journal of SID 11, 621-628 (2003).

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, M. McCreary, "Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display," Nature 423, 136 (2003).

2002 (1)

S. Inoue, H. Kawai, S. Kanbe, T. Saeki, T. Shimoda, "High-resolution microencapsulated electrohoretic display (EPD) driven by poly-Si TFTs with four-level grayscale," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1532-1539 (2002).

1998 (1)

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, J. Jacobson, "An electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic display," Nature 394, 253-255 (1998).

1983 (1)

P. W. Besslich, "Comments on electronic techniques for pictorial image reproduction," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-31, 846-848 (1983).

1981 (1)

B. Fitzhenry-Ritz, "Optical properties of electrophoretic image displays," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 28, 726-735 (1981).

1979 (1)

M. A. Hopper, V. Novotny, "An electrophoretic display, its properties, model, and addressing," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 26, 1148-1152 (1979).

1973 (1)

I. Ota, J. Ohnishi, M. Yoshiyama, "Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel," Proc. IEEE 61, 832-836 (1973).

1971 (1)

B. Lippel, M. Kurland, "The effect of dither on luminance quantization of pictures," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. COM-19, 879-888 (1971).

Displays (2)

T. Bert, H. D. Smet, "The microscopic physics of electronic paper revealed," Displays 24, 103-110 (2003).

T. Bert, H. D. Smet, F. Beunis, K. Neyts, "Complete electrical and optical simulation of electronic paper," Displays 27, 50-55 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.—I: Reg. Papers (1)

A. Monté, J. Doutreloigne, A. V. Calster, "Driving-scheme algorithms for intelligent energy-efficient high-voltage display drivers," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.—I: Reg. Papers 56, 497-507 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

P. W. Besslich, "Comments on electronic techniques for pictorial image reproduction," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-31, 846-848 (1983).

IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. (1)

B. Lippel, M. Kurland, "The effect of dither on luminance quantization of pictures," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. COM-19, 879-888 (1971).

IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. (2)

W. C. Kao, J. A. Ye, F. S. Lin, P. Y. Cheng, R. Sprague, "Configurable timing controller design for active matrix electrophoretic display," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 55, 1-5 (2009).

W. C. Kao, J. A. Ye, M. I. Chu, C. Y. Su, "Image quality improvement for electrophoretic displays by combining contrast enhancement and halftoning techniques," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 55, 15-19 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (3)

M. A. Hopper, V. Novotny, "An electrophoretic display, its properties, model, and addressing," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 26, 1148-1152 (1979).

B. Fitzhenry-Ritz, "Optical properties of electrophoretic image displays," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 28, 726-735 (1981).

S. Inoue, H. Kawai, S. Kanbe, T. Saeki, T. Shimoda, "High-resolution microencapsulated electrohoretic display (EPD) driven by poly-Si TFTs with four-level grayscale," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1532-1539 (2002).

J, SID (1)

M. T. Johnson, G. Zhou, R. Zehner, K. Amundson, A. Henzen, J. Kamer, "High-quality images on electrophoretic displays," J, SID 14, 175-180 (2006).

J. SID (1)

A. Henzen, J. Kamer, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuji, M. Yasui, M. Pitt, G. Duthaler, K. Amundson, H. Gates, R. Zehner, "Development of active-matrix electronic-ink displays for handheld devices," J. SID 12, 17-22 (2004).

Journal of SID (1)

R. C. Liang, J. Hou, H. Zang, J. Chung, S. Tseng, "Microcup displays: Electronic paper by roll-to-roll manufacturing processes," Journal of SID 11, 621-628 (2003).

Nature (2)

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, M. McCreary, "Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display," Nature 423, 136 (2003).

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, J. Jacobson, "An electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic display," Nature 394, 253-255 (1998).

Proc. IEEE (2)

K. J. Allen, "Reel to real: Prospects for flexible displays," Proc. IEEE 93, 1394-1399 (2005).

I. Ota, J. Ohnishi, M. Yoshiyama, "Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel," Proc. IEEE 61, 832-836 (1973).

Other (8)

H. Kawai, M. Miyasaka, A. Miyazaki, T. Kodaira, S. Inoue, T. Shimoda, K. Amundson, R. J. Paolini, Jr.M. McCreary, T. Shimoda, "A flexible 2-in. QVGA LTPS-TFT electrophoretic display," Proc. SID'05 Dig, (2005) pp. 1638-1641.

K. Amundson, T. Sjodin, "Achieving graytone images in a microencapsulated electrophoretic display," Proc. SID'06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1918-1921.

R. Zehner, K. Amundson, A. Knaian, B. Zion, M. Johnson, G. Zhou, "Drive waveforms for active matrix electrophoretic displays," Proc. SID 03 Digest (2003) pp. 842-845.

H. Kodama, K. Takeshita, "Computational modeling of pigment dispersions," Proc. SID'05 Dig. (2005) pp. 1670-1673.

H. Gates, T. Ohkami, "High performance active electronic display controller," Proc. SID'08 Dig. (2008) pp. 693-696.

H. Gates, T. Ohkami, J. Au, "Improved electronic controller for image stable displays," Proc. SID'06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1406-1409.

H. Gates, R. Zehner, H. Doshi, J. Au, "A5 sized electronic paper display for document viewing," Proc. SID'05 Dig. (2005) pp. 1214-1217.

Y. Komatsu, H. Kawai, T. Kodaira, S. Hirabayashi, M. Miyasaka, S. Nebashi, T. Shimoda, "A flexible 7.1-in. active-matrix electrophoretic display," Proc. SID'06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1830-1833.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.