Abstract

Properties of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film as a liquid crystal (LC) alignment material is studied. We deposit the transparent porous AAO film on glass with the diameter of the pores controlled between 17–65 nm. The liquid crystal can be aligned vertically against the substrate with the AAO film. The measured polar anchoring strength is about 1.5$\,\times 10 ^{-5} {\rm J/m} ^{2}$, which is comparable to that of N,N-dimethyl-N-octadecyl-3-aminopropyl -trimethoxysilyl chloride (DMOAP) layer. AAO films with smaller pore diameters exhibit higher anchoring strengths. On the other hand, the uniformity of the pore array in the AAO films does not affect the alignment quality significantly.

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  3. H. Y. Wu, T. T. Tang, C. C. Wang, R. P. Pan, S. J. Chang, J. C. Hwang, "Controllable alignment modes of nematic liquid crystals on argon ion beam bombarded polyimide films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 475, 45-55 (2007).
  4. R. P. Pan, H. Y. Chiu, Y. F. Lin, J. Y. Huang, "Surface topography and alignment effects in UV-modified polyimide films with mcron size patterns," Chinese J. Phys. 41, 177-184 (2003).
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  24. H. Masuda, M. Satoh, "Fabrication of gold nanodot array using anodic porous alumina as an evaporation mask," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L126-L129 (1996).
  25. T. J. Scheffer, J. Nehring, "Accurate determination of liquid-crystal tilt bias angles," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783-1792 (1977).
  26. K. H. Yang, C. Rosenblatt, "Determination of the anisotropic potential at the nematic liquid crystal-to-wall interface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 62-64 (1983).

2007 (1)

H. Y. Wu, T. T. Tang, C. C. Wang, R. P. Pan, S. J. Chang, J. C. Hwang, "Controllable alignment modes of nematic liquid crystals on argon ion beam bombarded polyimide films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 475, 45-55 (2007).

2005 (3)

Y. F. Lin, S. Y. Lu, R. P. Pan, "Temperature dependence of azimuthal anchoring strength of liquid crystals on microgrooved glass substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8552-8556 (2005).

F. Lin, M. C. Tsou, R. P. Pan, "Alignment of liquid crystals by ion etched grooved glass surfaces," Chinese J. Phys. 43, 1066-1073 (2005).

T. Maeda, K. Hiroshima, "Tilted liquid crystal alignment on asymmertrically grooved porous alumina film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L845-L847 (2005).

2004 (1)

T. Maeda, K. Hiroshima, "Vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal on anodic porous alumina," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1004-L1006 (2004).

2003 (1)

R. P. Pan, H. Y. Chiu, Y. F. Lin, J. Y. Huang, "Surface topography and alignment effects in UV-modified polyimide films with mcron size patterns," Chinese J. Phys. 41, 177-184 (2003).

2001 (3)

O. Yaroshchuk, L. G. Cada, M. Sonpatki, L.-C. Chien, "Liquid-crystal photoalignment using low-molecular-weight photo-cross-linkable composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 30-32 (2001).

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, Y. Shiota, "Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays," Nature 411, 56-59 (2001).

R. A. Caruso, M. Antonietti, "Sol-gel nanocoating: An approach to the preparation of structured materials," Chem. Mater. 13, 3272-3282 (2001).

1999 (1)

A. P. Li, F. Müller, A. Bimer, K. Nielsch, U. Gösele, "Polycrystalline nanopore arrays with hexagonal ordering on aluminum," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1428-1431 (1999).

1998 (2)

O. Jessensky, F. Müller, U. Gösele, "Self-organized formation of hexagonal pore arrays in anodic alumina," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1173-1175 (1998).

A. P. Li, F. Müller, A. Bimer, K. Nielsch, U. Gösele, "Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023-6026 (1998).

1996 (4)

C. R. Martin, "Membrane-based synthesis of nanomaterials," Chem. Mater. 8, 1739-1746 (1996).

T. Kyotani, L. F. Tsai, A. Tomita, "Preparation of ultrafine carbon tubes in nanochannels of an anodic aluminum oxide film," Chem. Mater. 8, 2109-2113 (1996).

D. Routkevitch, T. Bigioni, M. Moskovits, J. M. Xu, "Electrochemical fabrication of CdS nanowire arrays in porous anodic aluminum oxide templates," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 14037-14047 (1996).

H. Masuda, M. Satoh, "Fabrication of gold nanodot array using anodic porous alumina as an evaporation mask," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L126-L129 (1996).

1994 (1)

D. Al-Mawlawi, C. Z. Liu, M. Moskovits, "Nanowires formed in anodic oxide nanotemplates," J. Mater. Res. 9, 1014-1018 (1994).

1987 (2)

S. Faetti, "Azimuthal anchoring energy of a nematic liquid crystal at a grooved interface," Phys. Rev. A 36, 408-410 (1987).

H. Yokoyama, S. Kobayashi, H. Kamei, "Temperature dependence of the anchoring strength at a nematic liquid crystal-evaporated sio interface," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4501-4518 (1987).

1985 (1)

S. Faetti, M. Gatti, V. Palleschi, T. J. Sluckin, "Almost critical behavior of the anchoring energy at the interface between a nematic liquid crystal and a SiO substrate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1681-1684 (1985).

1983 (1)

K. H. Yang, C. Rosenblatt, "Determination of the anisotropic potential at the nematic liquid crystal-to-wall interface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 62-64 (1983).

1981 (1)

M. Nakamura, "Surface topography and alignment of liquid crystals on rubbed oxide surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4561-4567 (1981).

1977 (1)

T. J. Scheffer, J. Nehring, "Accurate determination of liquid-crystal tilt bias angles," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783-1792 (1977).

1972 (2)

D. W. Berreman, "Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683-1686 (1972).

J. L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173-174 (1972).

1953 (1)

F. Keller, M. S. Hunter, D. L. Robinson, "Structural features of oxide coatings on aluminum," J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 411-419 (1953).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

O. Yaroshchuk, L. G. Cada, M. Sonpatki, L.-C. Chien, "Liquid-crystal photoalignment using low-molecular-weight photo-cross-linkable composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 30-32 (2001).

J. L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173-174 (1972).

O. Jessensky, F. Müller, U. Gösele, "Self-organized formation of hexagonal pore arrays in anodic alumina," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1173-1175 (1998).

K. H. Yang, C. Rosenblatt, "Determination of the anisotropic potential at the nematic liquid crystal-to-wall interface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 62-64 (1983).

Chem. Mater. (3)

T. Kyotani, L. F. Tsai, A. Tomita, "Preparation of ultrafine carbon tubes in nanochannels of an anodic aluminum oxide film," Chem. Mater. 8, 2109-2113 (1996).

C. R. Martin, "Membrane-based synthesis of nanomaterials," Chem. Mater. 8, 1739-1746 (1996).

R. A. Caruso, M. Antonietti, "Sol-gel nanocoating: An approach to the preparation of structured materials," Chem. Mater. 13, 3272-3282 (2001).

Chinese J. Phys. (2)

F. Lin, M. C. Tsou, R. P. Pan, "Alignment of liquid crystals by ion etched grooved glass surfaces," Chinese J. Phys. 43, 1066-1073 (2005).

R. P. Pan, H. Y. Chiu, Y. F. Lin, J. Y. Huang, "Surface topography and alignment effects in UV-modified polyimide films with mcron size patterns," Chinese J. Phys. 41, 177-184 (2003).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

M. Nakamura, "Surface topography and alignment of liquid crystals on rubbed oxide surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4561-4567 (1981).

A. P. Li, F. Müller, A. Bimer, K. Nielsch, U. Gösele, "Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023-6026 (1998).

H. Yokoyama, S. Kobayashi, H. Kamei, "Temperature dependence of the anchoring strength at a nematic liquid crystal-evaporated sio interface," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4501-4518 (1987).

T. J. Scheffer, J. Nehring, "Accurate determination of liquid-crystal tilt bias angles," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783-1792 (1977).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

F. Keller, M. S. Hunter, D. L. Robinson, "Structural features of oxide coatings on aluminum," J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 411-419 (1953).

J. Mater. Res. (1)

D. Al-Mawlawi, C. Z. Liu, M. Moskovits, "Nanowires formed in anodic oxide nanotemplates," J. Mater. Res. 9, 1014-1018 (1994).

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

D. Routkevitch, T. Bigioni, M. Moskovits, J. M. Xu, "Electrochemical fabrication of CdS nanowire arrays in porous anodic aluminum oxide templates," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 14037-14047 (1996).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

A. P. Li, F. Müller, A. Bimer, K. Nielsch, U. Gösele, "Polycrystalline nanopore arrays with hexagonal ordering on aluminum," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1428-1431 (1999).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

Y. F. Lin, S. Y. Lu, R. P. Pan, "Temperature dependence of azimuthal anchoring strength of liquid crystals on microgrooved glass substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8552-8556 (2005).

T. Maeda, K. Hiroshima, "Vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal on anodic porous alumina," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1004-L1006 (2004).

T. Maeda, K. Hiroshima, "Tilted liquid crystal alignment on asymmertrically grooved porous alumina film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L845-L847 (2005).

H. Masuda, M. Satoh, "Fabrication of gold nanodot array using anodic porous alumina as an evaporation mask," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L126-L129 (1996).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

H. Y. Wu, T. T. Tang, C. C. Wang, R. P. Pan, S. J. Chang, J. C. Hwang, "Controllable alignment modes of nematic liquid crystals on argon ion beam bombarded polyimide films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 475, 45-55 (2007).

Nature (1)

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, Y. Shiota, "Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays," Nature 411, 56-59 (2001).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Faetti, "Azimuthal anchoring energy of a nematic liquid crystal at a grooved interface," Phys. Rev. A 36, 408-410 (1987).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. W. Berreman, "Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683-1686 (1972).

S. Faetti, M. Gatti, V. Palleschi, T. J. Sluckin, "Almost critical behavior of the anchoring energy at the interface between a nematic liquid crystal and a SiO substrate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1681-1684 (1985).

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