Abstract

Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) are expected as new channel materials in thin-film transistors (TFTs) for large-area and/or flexible flat-panel displays and other giant-microelectronics devices. So far, many prototype displays have been demonstrated in these four years since the first report of AOS TFT. The most prominent feature of AOS TFTs is that they operate with good performances even if they are fabricated at low temperatures without a defect passivation treatment. The TFT mobilities exceed 10 ${\hbox{cm}}^{2}/({\hbox{V}}\cdot{\hbox{s}})$, which are more than ten times larger than those of conventional amorphous semiconductor devices. In addition, they operate at low voltages, e.g., ${<}{\hbox{5\ V}}$ owing to their small subthreshold voltage swings. These features indicate that electron transport in oxide semiconductors are insensitive to random structures and these oxides do not form high-density defects that affect electron transport and TFT operation. In this paper, we discuss the origins of the prominent features of AOS devices from the viewpoint of materials science of AOS.

© 2009 IEEE

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2009 (5)

W. Lim, E. A. Douglas, S.-H. Kim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, H. Shen, W. H. Chang, "High mobility ${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$ thin-film transistors on paper," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 072103-1 (2009).

A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. (2009).

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, H. Hino, S. Fujita, "Flame detection by a $\beta \hbox{-}{\hbox{Ga}}_2{\hbox{O}}_3$-based sensor," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 011605-1-011605-7 (2009).

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Electronic structure of amorphous oxide semiconductor, $\hbox{a}\hbox{-}{\hbox{InGaZnO}}_{4\hbox{-}{\hbox{x}}}$: Tauc-Lorentz optical model and origins of subgap states," Phys. Stat. Solidi (a) (2009).

H. Omura, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "First-preinsiples study of native point defects in crystalline indium gallium zinc oxide," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 093712-1-093712-8 (2009).

2008 (17)

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, K. Shimizu, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Relationship between non-localized tail states and carrier transport in amorphous oxide semiconductor, In-Ga-Zn-O," Phys. Stat. Solidi (a) 205, 1910-1914 (2008).

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In-Ga-Zn-O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 202117-1-202117-3 (2008).

M. Kimura, T. Nakanishi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Trap densities in amorphous-${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$ thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133512-1-133512-3 (2008).

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Defect passivation and homogenization of amorphous oxide thin-film transistor by wet ${\hbox{O}}_2$ annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 192107-1-192107-3 (2008).

H.-H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, C.-C. Wu, "Modeling of amorphous ${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$ thin film transistors and their subgap density of states," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133503-1-133503-3 (2008).

K. Jeon, C. Kim, I. Song, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Park, J.-H. Park, S. Lee, D. M. Kim, D. H. Kim, "Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors based on the density of states extracted from the optical response of capacitance-voltage characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182102-1 (2008).

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Electronic structure of oxygen deficient amorphous oxide semiconductr ${\rm a}\hbox{-}{\hbox{InGaZnO}}_{4\hbox{-}{\hbox{x}}}$: Optical analysis and first-principle calculations," Phys. Stat. Solidi (c) 5, 3098-3100 (2008).

N. Itagaki, T. Iwasaki, H. Kumomi, T. Den, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Zn-In-O based thin-film transistors: Compositional dependence," Phys. Stat. Solidi (a) 205, 915-1919 (2008).

M. Ito, C. Miyazaki, M. Ishizaki, M. Kon, N. Ikeda, T. Okubo, R. Matsubara, K. Hatta, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "Application of amorphous oxide TFT to electrophoretic display," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 354, 2777-2782 (2008).

J.-M. Lee, I.-T. Cho, J.-H. Lee, H.-I. Kwon, "Bias-stress-induced stretched-exponential time dependence of threshold voltage shift in InGaZnO thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093504-1 (2008).

A. Suresh, J. F. Muth, "Bias stress stability of indium gallium zinc oxide channel based transparent thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033502-1-033502-3 (2008).

W. Lim, S.-H. Kim, Y.-L. Wang, J. W. Lee, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, "Stable room temperature deposited amorphous ${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$ thin film transistors," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 959-962 (2008).

J.-S. Park, K. S. Kim, Y.-G. Park, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, J. K. Jeong, "Novel ZrInZnO thin-film transistor with excellent stability," Adv. Mater. 20, 1-5 (2008).

J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, H.-J. Chung, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Electronic transport properties of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide semiconductor upon exposure to water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 072104-1-072104-3 (2008).

J. K. Jeong, H. W. Yang, J. H. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Origin of threshold voltage instability in indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123508-1-123508-3 (2008).

J. Park, I. Song, S. Kim, S. Kim, C. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lee, E. Lee, H. Yin, K.-K. Kim, K.-W. Kwon, Y. Park, "Self-aligned top-gate amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 053501-053501 (2008).

B. D. Ahn, H. S. Shin, H. J. Kim, J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, "Comparison of the effects of Ar and ${\hbox{H}}_2$ plasmas on the performance of homojunctioned amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 203506-1-203506-3 (2008).

2007 (11)

J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, S.-I. Kim, "Improvements in the device characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors by Ar plasma treatment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 262106-1 (2007).

D. Kang, H. Lim, C. Kim, I. Song, J. Park, Y. Park, J. Chung, "Amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin film transistors: Sensitive to oxygen molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 192101-1-192101-3 (2007).

T. Riedl, P. Görrn, P. Hölzer, W. Kowalsky, "Ultra-high long-term stability of oxide-TTFTs under current stress," Phys. Stat. Sol. (RRL) 1, 175-177 (2007).

R. Hayashi, M. Ofuji, N. Kaji, K. Takahashi, K. Abe, H. Yabuta, M. Sano, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Circuits using uniform TFTs based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O," J. SID 15/11, 915-921 (2007).

M. Ofuji, K. Abe, H. Shimizu, N. Kaji, R. Hayashi, M. Sano, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Fast thin-film transistor circuits based on amorphous oxide semiconductor," IEEE Eelectron Devices Lett. 28, 273-275 (2007).

M. Ito, M. Kon, N. Ikeda, M. Ishizaki, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "Front drive display structure for color electronic paper using fully transparent amorphous oxide TFT array," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 2105-2111 (2007).

K.-B. Kim, M. Kikuchi, M. Miyakawa, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Photoelectron spectroscopic study of ${\hbox{C12A7}}{:}{\rm e}^-$ and ${\hbox{Alq}}_3$ interface: The formation of a low electron-injection barrier," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8403-8406 (2007).

Y. Toda, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, J. J. Kim, M. Kobata, S. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, K. Kobayashi, H. Hosono, "Work function of a room-temperature, stable electride $[{\hbox{Ca}}_{24}{\hbox{Al}}_{28}{\hbox{O}}_{64}]^{4+}(e^-)_4$," Adv. Mater. 19, 3564-3569 (2007).

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, T. Uruga, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Local coordination structure and electronic structure of the large electron mobility amorphous oxide semiconductor In-Ga-Zn-O: Experiment and ab initio calculations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 035212-1-035212-5 (2007).

T. Iwasaki, N. Itagaki, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Combinatorial approach to thin-film transistors using multicomponent semiconductor channels: An application to amorphous oxide semiconductors in In-Ga-Zn-O system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 242114-1 (2007).

J. E. Medvedeva, "Averaging of the electron effective mass in multicomponent transparent conducting oxides," Europhys. Lett. 78, 57004-p1-57004-p6 (2007).

2006 (4)

F. Utsuno, H. Inoue, I. Yasui, Y. Shimane, S. Tomai, S. Matsuzaki, K. Inoue, I. Hirosawa, M. Sato, T. Honma, "Structural study of amorphous ${\hbox{In}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ film by grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) with synchrotron radiation," Thin Solid Films 496, 95-98 (2006).

K. Matsuzaki, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, H. Hiramatsu, K. Nomura, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Field-induced current modulation in epitaxial film of deep-ultraviolet transparent oxide semiconductor ${\hbox{Ga}}_2{\hbox{O}}_3$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 092106-1 (2006).

K. Nomura, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous oxide semiconductors towards high-performance flexible thin-film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4303-4308 (2006).

H. Yabuta, M. Sano, K. Abe, T. Aiba, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "High-mobility thin-film transistor with amorphous ${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$ channel fabricated by room temperature rf-magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112123-1 (2006).

2005 (3)

E. M. C. Fortunato, P. M. C. Barquinha, A. C. M. B. G. Pimentel, A. M. F. Concalves, A. J. S. Marques, L. M. N. Perera, R. F. P. Martins, "Fully transparent ZnO thin-film transistor produced at room temperature," Adv. Mater. 17, 590-594 (2005).

J. Nishii, A. Ohtomo, K. Ohtani, H. Ohno, M. Kawasaki, "High-mobility field-effect transistors based on single-crystalline ZnO channels," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1193-L1195 (2005).

A. Takagi, K. Nomura, H. Ohta, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport and electronic structure in amorphous oxide semiconductor, ${\rm a}\hbox{-}{\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$," Thin Solid Films 486, 38-41 (2005).

2004 (3)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport in transparent oxide semiconductor with intrinsic structural randomness probed using single-crystalline ${\hbox{InGaO}}_3({\hbox{ZnO}}_5$ films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 993-1995 (2004).

Y. Toda, S. Matsuishi, K. Hayashi, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Field emission of electron anions clathrated in subnanometer-sized cages of $[{\hbox{Ca}}_{24}{\hbox{Al}}_{28}{\hbox{O}}_{64}]^{4+}(4{\rm e}^-)$," Adv. Mater. 16, 685-689 (2004).

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).

2003 (7)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Thin film transistor fabricated in single-crystalline transparent oxide semiconductor," Science 300, 1269-1272 (2003).

S. Matsuishi, Y. Toda, M. Miyakawa, K. Hayashi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, I. Tanaka, H. Hosono, "High density electron anion in a nano-porous single crystal: $[{\hbox{Ca}}_{24}{\hbox{Al}}_{28}{\hbox{O}}_{64}]^{4+}(4{\rm e}^-)$," Science 301, 626-629 (2003).

H. Ohta, H. Mizoguchi, M. Hirano, S. Narushima, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Fabrication and characterization of heteroepitaxial p-n junction diode composed of wide-gap oxide semiconductors ${\rm p}\hbox{-}{\hbox{ZnRh}}_2{\hbox{O}}_4/{\rm n}\hbox{-}{\hbox{ZnO}}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 823-825 (2003).

J. Nishii, F. M. Hossain, S. Takagi, T. Aita, K. Saikusa, Y. Ohmaki, I. Ohkubo, S. Kishimoto, A. Ohtomo, T. Fukumura, F. Matsukura, Y. Ohno, H. Koinuma, H. Ohno, M. Kawasaki, "High mobility thin film transistors with transparent ZnO channels," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L347-L349 (2003).

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, G. Nunes, Jr"Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1117-1119 (2003).

H. Ohta, K. Nomura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, K. Ueda, T. Suzuki, Y. Ikuhara, H. Hosono, "Single-crystalline films of the homologous series ${\hbox{InGaO}}_3({\hbox{ZnO}}_m$ grown by reactive solid-phase epitaxy," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 139-144 (2003).

C. G. Van de Walle, J. Neugebauer, "Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions," Nature 423, 626-628 (2003).

2001 (1)

F. Oba, S. R. Nishitani, S. Isotani, H. Adachi, I. Tanaka, "Energetics of native defects in ZnO," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 824-828 (2001).

2000 (2)

M. Orita, H. Tanji, M. Mizuno, H. Adachi, I. Tanaka, "Mechanism of electrical conductivity of transparent ${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1811-1816 (2000).

C. G. Van de Walle, "Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1012-1015 (2000).

1996 (2)

H. Hosono, M. Yasukawa, H. Kawazoe, "Novel oxide amorphous semiconductors: Transparent conducting amorphous oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 203, 334-344 (1996).

H. Hosono, N. Kikuchi, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, "Working hypothesis to explore novel wide band gap electrically conducting amorphous oxides and examples," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 165-169 (1996).

1973 (1)

D. Adler, L. P. Flora, S. D. Senturia, "Electrical conductivity in disordered systems," Solid State Commun. 12, 9-12 (1973).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

H. Ohta, K. Nomura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, K. Ueda, T. Suzuki, Y. Ikuhara, H. Hosono, "Single-crystalline films of the homologous series ${\hbox{InGaO}}_3({\hbox{ZnO}}_m$ grown by reactive solid-phase epitaxy," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 139-144 (2003).

Adv. Mater. (4)

J.-S. Park, K. S. Kim, Y.-G. Park, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, J. K. Jeong, "Novel ZrInZnO thin-film transistor with excellent stability," Adv. Mater. 20, 1-5 (2008).

E. M. C. Fortunato, P. M. C. Barquinha, A. C. M. B. G. Pimentel, A. M. F. Concalves, A. J. S. Marques, L. M. N. Perera, R. F. P. Martins, "Fully transparent ZnO thin-film transistor produced at room temperature," Adv. Mater. 17, 590-594 (2005).

Y. Toda, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, J. J. Kim, M. Kobata, S. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, K. Kobayashi, H. Hosono, "Work function of a room-temperature, stable electride $[{\hbox{Ca}}_{24}{\hbox{Al}}_{28}{\hbox{O}}_{64}]^{4+}(e^-)_4$," Adv. Mater. 19, 3564-3569 (2007).

Y. Toda, S. Matsuishi, K. Hayashi, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Field emission of electron anions clathrated in subnanometer-sized cages of $[{\hbox{Ca}}_{24}{\hbox{Al}}_{28}{\hbox{O}}_{64}]^{4+}(4{\rm e}^-)$," Adv. Mater. 16, 685-689 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (21)

K. Matsuzaki, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, H. Hiramatsu, K. Nomura, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Field-induced current modulation in epitaxial film of deep-ultraviolet transparent oxide semiconductor ${\hbox{Ga}}_2{\hbox{O}}_3$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 092106-1 (2006).

W. Lim, E. A. Douglas, S.-H. Kim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, H. Shen, W. H. Chang, "High mobility ${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$ thin-film transistors on paper," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 072103-1 (2009).

J.-M. Lee, I.-T. Cho, J.-H. Lee, H.-I. Kwon, "Bias-stress-induced stretched-exponential time dependence of threshold voltage shift in InGaZnO thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093504-1 (2008).

A. Suresh, J. F. Muth, "Bias stress stability of indium gallium zinc oxide channel based transparent thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033502-1-033502-3 (2008).

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, G. Nunes, Jr"Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1117-1119 (2003).

D. Kang, H. Lim, C. Kim, I. Song, J. Park, Y. Park, J. Chung, "Amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin film transistors: Sensitive to oxygen molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 192101-1-192101-3 (2007).

J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, H.-J. Chung, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Electronic transport properties of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide semiconductor upon exposure to water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 072104-1-072104-3 (2008).

J. K. Jeong, H. W. Yang, J. H. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Origin of threshold voltage instability in indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123508-1-123508-3 (2008).

J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, S.-I. Kim, "Improvements in the device characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors by Ar plasma treatment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 262106-1 (2007).

J. Park, I. Song, S. Kim, S. Kim, C. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lee, E. Lee, H. Yin, K.-K. Kim, K.-W. Kwon, Y. Park, "Self-aligned top-gate amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 053501-053501 (2008).

B. D. Ahn, H. S. Shin, H. J. Kim, J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, "Comparison of the effects of Ar and ${\hbox{H}}_2$ plasmas on the performance of homojunctioned amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 203506-1-203506-3 (2008).

A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. (2009).

H. Ohta, H. Mizoguchi, M. Hirano, S. Narushima, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Fabrication and characterization of heteroepitaxial p-n junction diode composed of wide-gap oxide semiconductors ${\rm p}\hbox{-}{\hbox{ZnRh}}_2{\hbox{O}}_4/{\rm n}\hbox{-}{\hbox{ZnO}}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 823-825 (2003).

H. Yabuta, M. Sano, K. Abe, T. Aiba, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "High-mobility thin-film transistor with amorphous ${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$ channel fabricated by room temperature rf-magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112123-1 (2006).

T. Iwasaki, N. Itagaki, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Combinatorial approach to thin-film transistors using multicomponent semiconductor channels: An application to amorphous oxide semiconductors in In-Ga-Zn-O system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 242114-1 (2007).

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport in transparent oxide semiconductor with intrinsic structural randomness probed using single-crystalline ${\hbox{InGaO}}_3({\hbox{ZnO}}_5$ films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 993-1995 (2004).

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In-Ga-Zn-O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 202117-1-202117-3 (2008).

M. Kimura, T. Nakanishi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Trap densities in amorphous-${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$ thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133512-1-133512-3 (2008).

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Defect passivation and homogenization of amorphous oxide thin-film transistor by wet ${\hbox{O}}_2$ annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 192107-1-192107-3 (2008).

H.-H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, C.-C. Wu, "Modeling of amorphous ${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$ thin film transistors and their subgap density of states," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133503-1-133503-3 (2008).

K. Jeon, C. Kim, I. Song, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Park, J.-H. Park, S. Lee, D. M. Kim, D. H. Kim, "Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors based on the density of states extracted from the optical response of capacitance-voltage characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182102-1 (2008).

Europhys. Lett. (1)

J. E. Medvedeva, "Averaging of the electron effective mass in multicomponent transparent conducting oxides," Europhys. Lett. 78, 57004-p1-57004-p6 (2007).

IEEE Eelectron Devices Lett. (1)

M. Ofuji, K. Abe, H. Shimizu, N. Kaji, R. Hayashi, M. Sano, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Fast thin-film transistor circuits based on amorphous oxide semiconductor," IEEE Eelectron Devices Lett. 28, 273-275 (2007).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Ito, M. Kon, N. Ikeda, M. Ishizaki, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "Front drive display structure for color electronic paper using fully transparent amorphous oxide TFT array," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 2105-2111 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Omura, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "First-preinsiples study of native point defects in crystalline indium gallium zinc oxide," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 093712-1-093712-8 (2009).

F. Oba, S. R. Nishitani, S. Isotani, H. Adachi, I. Tanaka, "Energetics of native defects in ZnO," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 824-828 (2001).

J. Non-Cryst. Sol. (2)

H. Hosono, M. Yasukawa, H. Kawazoe, "Novel oxide amorphous semiconductors: Transparent conducting amorphous oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 203, 334-344 (1996).

M. Ito, C. Miyazaki, M. Ishizaki, M. Kon, N. Ikeda, T. Okubo, R. Matsubara, K. Hatta, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "Application of amorphous oxide TFT to electrophoretic display," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 354, 2777-2782 (2008).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

H. Hosono, N. Kikuchi, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, "Working hypothesis to explore novel wide band gap electrically conducting amorphous oxides and examples," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 165-169 (1996).

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

K.-B. Kim, M. Kikuchi, M. Miyakawa, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Photoelectron spectroscopic study of ${\hbox{C12A7}}{:}{\rm e}^-$ and ${\hbox{Alq}}_3$ interface: The formation of a low electron-injection barrier," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8403-8406 (2007).

J. SID (1)

R. Hayashi, M. Ofuji, N. Kaji, K. Takahashi, K. Abe, H. Yabuta, M. Sano, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Circuits using uniform TFTs based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O," J. SID 15/11, 915-921 (2007).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

W. Lim, S.-H. Kim, Y.-L. Wang, J. W. Lee, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, "Stable room temperature deposited amorphous ${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$ thin film transistors," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 959-962 (2008).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, H. Hino, S. Fujita, "Flame detection by a $\beta \hbox{-}{\hbox{Ga}}_2{\hbox{O}}_3$-based sensor," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 011605-1-011605-7 (2009).

J. Nishii, A. Ohtomo, K. Ohtani, H. Ohno, M. Kawasaki, "High-mobility field-effect transistors based on single-crystalline ZnO channels," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1193-L1195 (2005).

K. Nomura, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous oxide semiconductors towards high-performance flexible thin-film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4303-4308 (2006).

J. Nishii, F. M. Hossain, S. Takagi, T. Aita, K. Saikusa, Y. Ohmaki, I. Ohkubo, S. Kishimoto, A. Ohtomo, T. Fukumura, F. Matsukura, Y. Ohno, H. Koinuma, H. Ohno, M. Kawasaki, "High mobility thin film transistors with transparent ZnO channels," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L347-L349 (2003).

Nature (2)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).

C. G. Van de Walle, J. Neugebauer, "Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions," Nature 423, 626-628 (2003).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Orita, H. Tanji, M. Mizuno, H. Adachi, I. Tanaka, "Mechanism of electrical conductivity of transparent ${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1811-1816 (2000).

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, T. Uruga, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Local coordination structure and electronic structure of the large electron mobility amorphous oxide semiconductor In-Ga-Zn-O: Experiment and ab initio calculations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 035212-1-035212-5 (2007).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. G. Van de Walle, "Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1012-1015 (2000).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (RRL) (1)

T. Riedl, P. Görrn, P. Hölzer, W. Kowalsky, "Ultra-high long-term stability of oxide-TTFTs under current stress," Phys. Stat. Sol. (RRL) 1, 175-177 (2007).

Phys. Stat. Solidi (a) (3)

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, K. Shimizu, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Relationship between non-localized tail states and carrier transport in amorphous oxide semiconductor, In-Ga-Zn-O," Phys. Stat. Solidi (a) 205, 1910-1914 (2008).

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Electronic structure of amorphous oxide semiconductor, $\hbox{a}\hbox{-}{\hbox{InGaZnO}}_{4\hbox{-}{\hbox{x}}}$: Tauc-Lorentz optical model and origins of subgap states," Phys. Stat. Solidi (a) (2009).

N. Itagaki, T. Iwasaki, H. Kumomi, T. Den, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Zn-In-O based thin-film transistors: Compositional dependence," Phys. Stat. Solidi (a) 205, 915-1919 (2008).

Phys. Stat. Solidi (c) (1)

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Electronic structure of oxygen deficient amorphous oxide semiconductr ${\rm a}\hbox{-}{\hbox{InGaZnO}}_{4\hbox{-}{\hbox{x}}}$: Optical analysis and first-principle calculations," Phys. Stat. Solidi (c) 5, 3098-3100 (2008).

Science (2)

S. Matsuishi, Y. Toda, M. Miyakawa, K. Hayashi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, I. Tanaka, H. Hosono, "High density electron anion in a nano-porous single crystal: $[{\hbox{Ca}}_{24}{\hbox{Al}}_{28}{\hbox{O}}_{64}]^{4+}(4{\rm e}^-)$," Science 301, 626-629 (2003).

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Thin film transistor fabricated in single-crystalline transparent oxide semiconductor," Science 300, 1269-1272 (2003).

Solid State Commun. (1)

D. Adler, L. P. Flora, S. D. Senturia, "Electrical conductivity in disordered systems," Solid State Commun. 12, 9-12 (1973).

Thin Solid Films (3)

F. Utsuno, H. Inoue, I. Yasui, Y. Shimane, S. Tomai, S. Matsuzaki, K. Inoue, I. Hirosawa, M. Sato, T. Honma, "Structural study of amorphous ${\hbox{In}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ film by grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) with synchrotron radiation," Thin Solid Films 496, 95-98 (2006).

F. Utsuno, H. Inoue, Y. Shimane, T. Shibuya, K. Yano, K. Inoue, I. Hirosawa, M. Sato, T. Honma, "A structural study of amorphous ${\hbox{In}}_2{\hbox{O}}_3$-ZnO films by grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) with synchrotron radiation," Thin Solid Films 516, 5818-5821.

A. Takagi, K. Nomura, H. Ohta, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport and electronic structure in amorphous oxide semiconductor, ${\rm a}\hbox{-}{\hbox{InGaZnO}}_4$," Thin Solid Films 486, 38-41 (2005).

Other (10)

K. Yamada, "Thermodynamical approach to a new high dielectric capacitor structure: ${\hbox{W}}/{\hbox{Hfo}}_2/{\hbox{W}}$," Ext. Abst. 18th Conf. Sol. State Dev. Mater. (1986) pp. 257-260.

H. Omura, T. Iwasaki, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "First-principles calculation for effect of impurities on electronic states of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O," Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Fall Meeting (2008).

S.-H. K. Park, M. Ryu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Yang, C. Byun, J.-I. Lee, J. Shin, S. M. Yoon, H. Y. Chu, K. I. Cho, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, S. Im, "Transparent ZnO thin film transistor for the application of high aperture ratio bottom emission AM-OLED display," SID 08 Dig. (2008) pp. 629-632.

M. Ito, M. Kon, T. Okubo, M. Ishizaki, N. Sekine, "A flexible active-matrix TFT array with amorphous oxide semiconductors for electronic paper," Proc. IDW/AD'05 (2005) pp. 845-845.

J. Y. Kwon, J. S. Jung, K. S. Son, T. S. Kim, M. K. Ryu, K. B. Park, Y. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, "GaInZnO TFT for active matrix display," Dig. Tech. Papers, 15th Int. Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (2008) pp. 287-290.

H. N. Lee, J. W. Kyung, S. K. Kang, D. Y. Kim, M. C. Sung, S. J. Kim, C. N. Kim, H. G. Kim, S. T. Kim, "Current status of, challenges to, and perspective view of AM-OLED," Proc. Int. Display Workshop (2006) pp. 663-663.

M.-C. Sung, H.-N. Lee, C. N. Kim, S. K. Kang, D. Y. Kim, S.-J. Kim, S. K. Kim, S.-K. Kim, H.-G. Kim, S.-T. Kim, "Novel backplane for AM-OLED device," Proc. Int. Meeting on Inf. Display (2007) pp. 9-1.

J. K. Jeong, J. H. Jeong, J. H. Choi, J. S. Im, S. H. Kim, H. W. Yang, K. N. Kang, K. S. Kim, T. K. Ahn, H.-J. Chung, H. K. Chung, "12.1-inch WXGA amoled display driven by indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFTs array," SID 08 Dig. (2008) pp. 1-4.

J.-H. Lee, D.-H. Kim, D.-J. Yang, S.-Y. Hong, K.-S. Yoon, P.-S. Hong, C.-O. Jeong, H.-S. Park, S. Y. Kim, S. K. Lim, S. S. Skim, "World's largest (15-inch) XGA AMLCD panel using IGZO oxide TFT," SID 08 Dig. (2008) pp. 625-628.

H.-H. Hsieh, C.-H. Wu, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, H.-L. Tyan, C.-M. Leu, "Circuits on flexible and colorless polyimide substrates," SID 08 Dig. (2008) pp. 1207-1210.

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