Abstract

Various methods for cleaning the large glass substrates (300$\times$400 mm) used in organic light-emitting diode (OLED)fabrication processes were investigated. Horizontal roller-bed cleaning methods using a shower-rinse with megasonic (MS)-irradiation, or brush-scrubbing, were investigated for use with anode sputtering processes. Substrates were contaminated with particulate contaminants (0.3–0.5 particles/cm$^{2}$) generated from anode sputtering targets. Large particles (${\geq}5\ \mu$m) were easily removed with the MS irradiation (efficiency ${\geq}\hbox{95\%}$). Small particles (${<}{\hbox{3}}\mu{\hbox{m}}$) were harder to remove. The brush-scrubbing cleaning removed them with 80–90% efficiency, while the MS-irradiation cleaning had an efficiency of 60%–70%. Spin–rinse–dry cleaning methods using ozonized or electrolyzed cathode water were investigated for use with pre-organic deposition processes. Glass substrates were intentionally contaminated by exposing them to a clean room atmosphere for either 24 or 100 hours. The number of particles was reduced from around 0.4 to 0.03/cm$^{2}$ and from around 1.7 to 0.08/cm$^{2}$ by the MS-irradiation cleaning using de-ionized water alone, respectively. The effect of the ozonized water treatment was evident for the longer exposure substrates: it reduced the number of particles to 0.03. The electrolyzed-cathode water cleaning was successful in removing submicrometer size particles. We also investigated the effect of particulate contaminants on the current leakage defect formation.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).
  2. S. A. Van Slyke, C. H. Chen, C. W. Tang, "Organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160-2162 (1996).
  3. M. Nagai, "Impact of particulate contaminants on the current leakage defect in OLED devices," J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, J387-J392 (2007).
  4. H. Kubota, S. Miyaguchi, S. Ishizuka, T. Wakimoto, J. Funaki, Y. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, H. Ochi, T. Sakamoto, T. Miyake, M. Tsuchida, I. Ohshita, T. Tohma, "Organic LED full color passive-matrix display," J. Lumines. 87–89, 56-60 (2000).
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  6. T. Omata, M. Kita, H. Okada, S. Otsuka, Y. Matsuo, N. Ono, H. Ikawa, "Characterization of ITO sputtering targets showing various densities of nodule formation," Thin Solid Films 503, 22-28 (2006).
  7. H. Chio, H. Cho, G. Kim, H. Kim, M. Seo, "Contamination control strategy based on particle flow behavior near fast moving devices in flat panel display fabrication cleanroom," SICE-ICASE, 2006. Int. Joint Conf. pp. 652-657.
  8. M. Claes, S. De Gendt, C. Kenens, T. Conard, H. Bender, W. Storm, T. Bauer, P. Mertens, M. M. Heyns, "Controlled deposition of organic contamination and removal with ozone-based cleaning," J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, G118-G125 (2001).
  9. F. De Smedt, H. Vankerckhoven, C. Vinckier, "Advanced oxidation processes in the removal of organics from silicon surfaces in IC manufacturing: Theoretical concepts," Ozone Sci. Eng. 25, 445-451 (2003).
  10. T. Hattori, T. Osaka, A. Okamoto, K. Saga, H. Kuniyasu, "Contamination removal by single-wafer spin cleaning with repetitive use of ozonized water and dilute HF," J. Electrochem. Soc. 145, 3278-3284 (1998).
  11. K. Ryoo, B. Kang, O. Sumita, "Electrolyzed water as an alternative for environmentally benign semiconductor cleaning," J. Mater. Res. 17, 1298-1304 (2002).
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  13. N. Miyashita, S. Uekusa, S. Seta, T. Nishioka, "A characterization of new cleaning method using electrolytic ionized water for poly Si CMP process," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (2001) pp. M5.7.1-M5.7.6.
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  16. G. M. Burdick, N. S. Berman, S. P. Beaudoin, "Describing hydrodynamic particle removal from surfaces using the particle raynolds number," J. Nanoparticle Res. 3, 453-465 (2001).
  17. A. A. Busnaina, T. M. Elsawy, "Post-CMP cleaning using acoustic streaming," J. Electron. Mat. 27, 1095-1098 (1998).
  18. G. Zhang, G. Burdick, F. Dai, T. Bibby, S. Beaudoin, "Assessment of post-CMP cleaning mechanisms using statistically-designed experiments," Thin Solid Films 332, 379-384 (1998).
  19. W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, RCA Rev. 31, 187-207 (1970).
  20. H. Kawahara, K. Yoneda, I. Murozono, Y. Todokoro, IEICE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 492-497 (1994).

2007

M. Nagai, "Impact of particulate contaminants on the current leakage defect in OLED devices," J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, J387-J392 (2007).

2006

T. Omata, M. Kita, H. Okada, S. Otsuka, Y. Matsuo, N. Ono, H. Ikawa, "Characterization of ITO sputtering targets showing various densities of nodule formation," Thin Solid Films 503, 22-28 (2006).

2003

F. De Smedt, H. Vankerckhoven, C. Vinckier, "Advanced oxidation processes in the removal of organics from silicon surfaces in IC manufacturing: Theoretical concepts," Ozone Sci. Eng. 25, 445-451 (2003).

2002

K. Ryoo, B. Kang, O. Sumita, "Electrolyzed water as an alternative for environmentally benign semiconductor cleaning," J. Mater. Res. 17, 1298-1304 (2002).

2001

G. M. Burdick, N. S. Berman, S. P. Beaudoin, "Describing hydrodynamic particle removal from surfaces using the particle raynolds number," J. Nanoparticle Res. 3, 453-465 (2001).

M. Claes, S. De Gendt, C. Kenens, T. Conard, H. Bender, W. Storm, T. Bauer, P. Mertens, M. M. Heyns, "Controlled deposition of organic contamination and removal with ozone-based cleaning," J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, G118-G125 (2001).

2000

H. Kubota, S. Miyaguchi, S. Ishizuka, T. Wakimoto, J. Funaki, Y. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, H. Ochi, T. Sakamoto, T. Miyake, M. Tsuchida, I. Ohshita, T. Tohma, "Organic LED full color passive-matrix display," J. Lumines. 87–89, 56-60 (2000).

F. Zhang, A. A. Busnaina, M. A. Fury, S. Q. Wang, "The removal of deformed submicron particles from silicon wafers by spin rinse and megasonics," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 199-204 (2000).

1999

K. Yamanaka, T. Imaoka, T. Futatsuki, Y. Yamashita, K. Mitsumori, Y. Kasama, H. Aoki, S. Yamasaki, N. Aoto, "Electrolyzed water as the novel cleaning media in ultra-large-scale integration and liquid-crystal display manufacturing," Langmuir 15, 4165-4170 (1999).

1998

A. A. Busnaina, T. M. Elsawy, "Post-CMP cleaning using acoustic streaming," J. Electron. Mat. 27, 1095-1098 (1998).

G. Zhang, G. Burdick, F. Dai, T. Bibby, S. Beaudoin, "Assessment of post-CMP cleaning mechanisms using statistically-designed experiments," Thin Solid Films 332, 379-384 (1998).

T. Hattori, T. Osaka, A. Okamoto, K. Saga, H. Kuniyasu, "Contamination removal by single-wafer spin cleaning with repetitive use of ozonized water and dilute HF," J. Electrochem. Soc. 145, 3278-3284 (1998).

1996

S. A. Van Slyke, C. H. Chen, C. W. Tang, "Organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160-2162 (1996).

1994

H. Kawahara, K. Yoneda, I. Murozono, Y. Todokoro, IEICE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 492-497 (1994).

1987

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).

1970

W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, RCA Rev. 31, 187-207 (1970).

1961

M. J. Vold, "The effect of adsorption on the van der Waals interaction of spherical colloidal particles," J. Colloid Sci. 16, 1-12 (1961).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. A. Van Slyke, C. H. Chen, C. W. Tang, "Organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160-2162 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).

IEICE Trans. Electron.

H. Kawahara, K. Yoneda, I. Murozono, Y. Todokoro, IEICE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 492-497 (1994).

J. Electrochem. Soc.

M. Nagai, "Impact of particulate contaminants on the current leakage defect in OLED devices," J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, J387-J392 (2007).

T. Hattori, T. Osaka, A. Okamoto, K. Saga, H. Kuniyasu, "Contamination removal by single-wafer spin cleaning with repetitive use of ozonized water and dilute HF," J. Electrochem. Soc. 145, 3278-3284 (1998).

J. Mater. Res.

K. Ryoo, B. Kang, O. Sumita, "Electrolyzed water as an alternative for environmentally benign semiconductor cleaning," J. Mater. Res. 17, 1298-1304 (2002).

J. Colloid Sci.

M. J. Vold, "The effect of adsorption on the van der Waals interaction of spherical colloidal particles," J. Colloid Sci. 16, 1-12 (1961).

J. Electrochem. Soc.

M. Claes, S. De Gendt, C. Kenens, T. Conard, H. Bender, W. Storm, T. Bauer, P. Mertens, M. M. Heyns, "Controlled deposition of organic contamination and removal with ozone-based cleaning," J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, G118-G125 (2001).

J. Electron. Mat.

A. A. Busnaina, T. M. Elsawy, "Post-CMP cleaning using acoustic streaming," J. Electron. Mat. 27, 1095-1098 (1998).

J. Electron. Mater.

F. Zhang, A. A. Busnaina, M. A. Fury, S. Q. Wang, "The removal of deformed submicron particles from silicon wafers by spin rinse and megasonics," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 199-204 (2000).

J. Lumines.

H. Kubota, S. Miyaguchi, S. Ishizuka, T. Wakimoto, J. Funaki, Y. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, H. Ochi, T. Sakamoto, T. Miyake, M. Tsuchida, I. Ohshita, T. Tohma, "Organic LED full color passive-matrix display," J. Lumines. 87–89, 56-60 (2000).

J. Nanoparticle Res.

G. M. Burdick, N. S. Berman, S. P. Beaudoin, "Describing hydrodynamic particle removal from surfaces using the particle raynolds number," J. Nanoparticle Res. 3, 453-465 (2001).

Langmuir

K. Yamanaka, T. Imaoka, T. Futatsuki, Y. Yamashita, K. Mitsumori, Y. Kasama, H. Aoki, S. Yamasaki, N. Aoto, "Electrolyzed water as the novel cleaning media in ultra-large-scale integration and liquid-crystal display manufacturing," Langmuir 15, 4165-4170 (1999).

Ozone Sci. Eng.

F. De Smedt, H. Vankerckhoven, C. Vinckier, "Advanced oxidation processes in the removal of organics from silicon surfaces in IC manufacturing: Theoretical concepts," Ozone Sci. Eng. 25, 445-451 (2003).

RCA Rev.

W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, RCA Rev. 31, 187-207 (1970).

Thin Solid Films

T. Omata, M. Kita, H. Okada, S. Otsuka, Y. Matsuo, N. Ono, H. Ikawa, "Characterization of ITO sputtering targets showing various densities of nodule formation," Thin Solid Films 503, 22-28 (2006).

G. Zhang, G. Burdick, F. Dai, T. Bibby, S. Beaudoin, "Assessment of post-CMP cleaning mechanisms using statistically-designed experiments," Thin Solid Films 332, 379-384 (1998).

Other

N. Miyashita, S. Uekusa, S. Seta, T. Nishioka, "A characterization of new cleaning method using electrolytic ionized water for poly Si CMP process," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (2001) pp. M5.7.1-M5.7.6.

H. Chio, H. Cho, G. Kim, H. Kim, M. Seo, "Contamination control strategy based on particle flow behavior near fast moving devices in flat panel display fabrication cleanroom," SICE-ICASE, 2006. Int. Joint Conf. pp. 652-657.

M. Schlott, M. Kutzner, B. L. Gehman, N. Reger, F. J. Standermann, "Nodule formation on indium-oxide tin-oxide sputtering targets," Proc. SID (1996) pp. P51.5-P51.9.

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