Abstract

Self-aligned techniques are often used in conventional CMOS and Si-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) technologies due to various merits. In this paper, we report self-aligned coplanar top-gate InGaZnO TFTs using PECVD a-SiN<sub><i>x</i></sub>:H patterned to have low hydrogen content in the channel region and high hydrogen content in the source/drain region. After annealing to induce hydrogen diffusion from a-SiN<sub><i>x</i></sub>:H into the oxide semiconductor, the source–drain regions become more conductive and yet the channel region remains suitable for TFT operation, yielding a working self-aligned TFT structure. Such fabrication involves neither back-side exposure nor ion implantation, and thus may be compatible with the typical and cost-effective TFT manufacturing.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. C. R. Kagan, P. Andry, IBM T. . Watson Res. Ctr.Yorktown HeightsNYThin-film transistor (2003).
  2. H. Hosono, M. Yasukawa, H. Kawazoe, "Novel oxide amorphous semiconductors: Transparent conducting amorphous oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 334-344 (1996).
  3. H. Hosono, N. Kikuchi, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, "Working hypothesis to explore novel wide band gap electrically conducting amorphous oxides and examples," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 200, 165-169 (1996).
  4. H. Hideo, "Ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors: Material design, carrier transport, and device application," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 851-858 (2006).
  5. A. Takagi, K. Nomura, H. Ohta, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport and electronic structure in amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_{4}$," Thin Solid Films 486, 38-41 (2005).
  6. K. Nomura, H. Ohta, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Thin-film transistor fabricated in single-crystalline transparent oxide semiconductor," Science 300, 1269-1272 (2003).
  7. J. M. Pimbley, M. Ghezzo, "Self-aligned ion implant masking for CMOS VLSI technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-3, 99-100 (1982).
  8. C. S. Yang, W. W. Read, C. B. Arthur, G. N. Parsons, "Comparison of conventional and self-aligned a-Si:H thin film transistors," Flat Panel Display Materials III 471, 179-184 (1997).
  9. C. S. Yang, W. W. Read, C. Arthur, E. Srinivasan, G. N. Parsons, "Self-aligned gate and source drain contacts in inverted-staggered a-Si : H thin-film transistors fabricated using selective area silicon PECVD," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 180-182 (1998).
  10. M. Matsuo, T. Nakazawa, H. Ohshima, "Low-temperature activation of impurities implanted by ion doping technique for poly-Si thin-film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 4567-4569 (1992).
  11. C. C. Tsai, H. H. Chen, B. T. Chen, H. C. Cheng, "High-performance self-aligned bottom-gate low-temperature poly-silicon thin-film transistors with excimer laser crystallization," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28, 599-602 (2007).
  12. A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi1, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 133502 (2009).
  13. C. H. Seager, S. M. Myers, "Quantitative comparisons of dissolved hydrogen density and the electrical and optical properties of ZnO," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2888 (2003).
  14. J. Park, I. Song, S. Kim, S. Kim, C. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lee, E. Lee, H. Yin, K.-K. Kim, K.-W. Kwon, Y. Park, "Self-aligned top-gate amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 053501 (2008).
  15. R. Kariyadan, Dae-Kue, Park, Seong-Ju, Jang, Jae-Hyung, "Impact of hydrogenation of ZnO TFTs by plasma-deposited silicon nitride gate dielectric," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 55, 2736-2743 (2008).
  16. J. R. Flemish, R. L. Pfeffer, "Low hydrogen content silicon nitride films from electron cyclotron resonance plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 74, (1993).
  17. Y. W. Park, S. C. Choi, S. J. Yoon, H. J. Kim, S. K. Koh, H. J. Jung, "Characteristics of ZnO thin film by ion-beam sputter deposition," Journal of the Korean Physical Society 32, S1700-S1703 (1998).
  18. H. Dun, P. Pan, F. R. White, R. W. Douse, "Mechanisms of plasma-enhanced silicon nitride deposition using ${\hbox{SiH}} _{4} /{\hbox{N}} _{2}$ mixture," J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 1555 (1981).
  19. D. S. Kim, S. G. Yoon, G. E. Jang, S. J. Suh, H. Kim, D. H. Yoon, "Refractive index properties of SiN thin films and fabrication of SiN optical waveguide," J Electroceram 17, 315-318 (2006).
  20. R. L. Hoffman, "Effects of channel stoichiometry and processing temperature on the electrical characteristics of zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors," Solid-State Electron. 50, 784-787 (2006).

2009

A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi1, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 133502 (2009).

2008

J. Park, I. Song, S. Kim, S. Kim, C. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lee, E. Lee, H. Yin, K.-K. Kim, K.-W. Kwon, Y. Park, "Self-aligned top-gate amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 053501 (2008).

R. Kariyadan, Dae-Kue, Park, Seong-Ju, Jang, Jae-Hyung, "Impact of hydrogenation of ZnO TFTs by plasma-deposited silicon nitride gate dielectric," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 55, 2736-2743 (2008).

2007

C. C. Tsai, H. H. Chen, B. T. Chen, H. C. Cheng, "High-performance self-aligned bottom-gate low-temperature poly-silicon thin-film transistors with excimer laser crystallization," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28, 599-602 (2007).

2006

H. Hideo, "Ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors: Material design, carrier transport, and device application," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 851-858 (2006).

D. S. Kim, S. G. Yoon, G. E. Jang, S. J. Suh, H. Kim, D. H. Yoon, "Refractive index properties of SiN thin films and fabrication of SiN optical waveguide," J Electroceram 17, 315-318 (2006).

R. L. Hoffman, "Effects of channel stoichiometry and processing temperature on the electrical characteristics of zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors," Solid-State Electron. 50, 784-787 (2006).

2005

A. Takagi, K. Nomura, H. Ohta, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport and electronic structure in amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_{4}$," Thin Solid Films 486, 38-41 (2005).

2003

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Thin-film transistor fabricated in single-crystalline transparent oxide semiconductor," Science 300, 1269-1272 (2003).

C. H. Seager, S. M. Myers, "Quantitative comparisons of dissolved hydrogen density and the electrical and optical properties of ZnO," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2888 (2003).

1998

Y. W. Park, S. C. Choi, S. J. Yoon, H. J. Kim, S. K. Koh, H. J. Jung, "Characteristics of ZnO thin film by ion-beam sputter deposition," Journal of the Korean Physical Society 32, S1700-S1703 (1998).

C. S. Yang, W. W. Read, C. Arthur, E. Srinivasan, G. N. Parsons, "Self-aligned gate and source drain contacts in inverted-staggered a-Si : H thin-film transistors fabricated using selective area silicon PECVD," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 180-182 (1998).

1997

C. S. Yang, W. W. Read, C. B. Arthur, G. N. Parsons, "Comparison of conventional and self-aligned a-Si:H thin film transistors," Flat Panel Display Materials III 471, 179-184 (1997).

1996

H. Hosono, M. Yasukawa, H. Kawazoe, "Novel oxide amorphous semiconductors: Transparent conducting amorphous oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 334-344 (1996).

H. Hosono, N. Kikuchi, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, "Working hypothesis to explore novel wide band gap electrically conducting amorphous oxides and examples," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 200, 165-169 (1996).

1993

J. R. Flemish, R. L. Pfeffer, "Low hydrogen content silicon nitride films from electron cyclotron resonance plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 74, (1993).

1992

M. Matsuo, T. Nakazawa, H. Ohshima, "Low-temperature activation of impurities implanted by ion doping technique for poly-Si thin-film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 4567-4569 (1992).

1982

J. M. Pimbley, M. Ghezzo, "Self-aligned ion implant masking for CMOS VLSI technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-3, 99-100 (1982).

1981

H. Dun, P. Pan, F. R. White, R. W. Douse, "Mechanisms of plasma-enhanced silicon nitride deposition using ${\hbox{SiH}} _{4} /{\hbox{N}} _{2}$ mixture," J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 1555 (1981).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi1, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 133502 (2009).

J. Park, I. Song, S. Kim, S. Kim, C. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lee, E. Lee, H. Yin, K.-K. Kim, K.-W. Kwon, Y. Park, "Self-aligned top-gate amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 053501 (2008).

Flat Panel Display Materials III

C. S. Yang, W. W. Read, C. B. Arthur, G. N. Parsons, "Comparison of conventional and self-aligned a-Si:H thin film transistors," Flat Panel Display Materials III 471, 179-184 (1997).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

C. S. Yang, W. W. Read, C. Arthur, E. Srinivasan, G. N. Parsons, "Self-aligned gate and source drain contacts in inverted-staggered a-Si : H thin-film transistors fabricated using selective area silicon PECVD," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 180-182 (1998).

J. M. Pimbley, M. Ghezzo, "Self-aligned ion implant masking for CMOS VLSI technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-3, 99-100 (1982).

C. C. Tsai, H. H. Chen, B. T. Chen, H. C. Cheng, "High-performance self-aligned bottom-gate low-temperature poly-silicon thin-film transistors with excimer laser crystallization," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28, 599-602 (2007).

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices

R. Kariyadan, Dae-Kue, Park, Seong-Ju, Jang, Jae-Hyung, "Impact of hydrogenation of ZnO TFTs by plasma-deposited silicon nitride gate dielectric," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 55, 2736-2743 (2008).

J Electroceram

D. S. Kim, S. G. Yoon, G. E. Jang, S. J. Suh, H. Kim, D. H. Yoon, "Refractive index properties of SiN thin films and fabrication of SiN optical waveguide," J Electroceram 17, 315-318 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. R. Flemish, R. L. Pfeffer, "Low hydrogen content silicon nitride films from electron cyclotron resonance plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 74, (1993).

C. H. Seager, S. M. Myers, "Quantitative comparisons of dissolved hydrogen density and the electrical and optical properties of ZnO," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2888 (2003).

J. Electrochem. Soc.

H. Dun, P. Pan, F. R. White, R. W. Douse, "Mechanisms of plasma-enhanced silicon nitride deposition using ${\hbox{SiH}} _{4} /{\hbox{N}} _{2}$ mixture," J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 1555 (1981).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

H. Hosono, M. Yasukawa, H. Kawazoe, "Novel oxide amorphous semiconductors: Transparent conducting amorphous oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 334-344 (1996).

H. Hosono, N. Kikuchi, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, "Working hypothesis to explore novel wide band gap electrically conducting amorphous oxides and examples," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 200, 165-169 (1996).

H. Hideo, "Ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors: Material design, carrier transport, and device application," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 851-858 (2006).

Journal of the Korean Physical Society

Y. W. Park, S. C. Choi, S. J. Yoon, H. J. Kim, S. K. Koh, H. J. Jung, "Characteristics of ZnO thin film by ion-beam sputter deposition," Journal of the Korean Physical Society 32, S1700-S1703 (1998).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Matsuo, T. Nakazawa, H. Ohshima, "Low-temperature activation of impurities implanted by ion doping technique for poly-Si thin-film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 4567-4569 (1992).

Science

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Thin-film transistor fabricated in single-crystalline transparent oxide semiconductor," Science 300, 1269-1272 (2003).

Solid-State Electron.

R. L. Hoffman, "Effects of channel stoichiometry and processing temperature on the electrical characteristics of zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors," Solid-State Electron. 50, 784-787 (2006).

Thin Solid Films

A. Takagi, K. Nomura, H. Ohta, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport and electronic structure in amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_{4}$," Thin Solid Films 486, 38-41 (2005).

Other

C. R. Kagan, P. Andry, IBM T. . Watson Res. Ctr.Yorktown HeightsNYThin-film transistor (2003).

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