Abstract

In this paper, we analyzed electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with plasma-exposed source–drain (S/D) bulk region. The parasitic resistance and effective channel length characteristics exhibit similar behavior with that of crystalline silicon metal oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (c-Si MOSFET) that has doped S/D bulk region. The transfer curves little changed with gate overlap variation, and the width-normalized parasitic resistance obtained from transmission line method was as low as 3 to 6 Ω· cm. The effective channel length was shorter than the mask channel length and showed gate-to-source (V<sub>GS</sub>) voltage dependency that is frequently observed for lightly doped drain (LDD) MOSFET. Experimental and simulation results showed that the plasma exposure caused an LDD-like doping effect in the S/D bulk region by inducing oxygen vacancy in the a-IGZO layer.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. B. Hekmatshoar, K. H. Cherenack, A. Z. Kattamis, K. Long, S. Wagner, J. C. Sturm, "Highly stable amorphous-silicon thin-film transistors on clear plastic," Appl. Phy. Lett. 93, 032103-1-032103-3 (2008).
  2. M. Stewart, R. S. Howell, L. Pires, M. K. Hatalis, "Polysilicon TFT technology for active matrix OLED displays," IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 48, 845-851 (2001).
  3. J. K. Jeong, H.-J. Chung, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Comprehensive study on the transport mechanism of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide transistors," J. Electron. Chem. Soc. 155, H873-H877 (2008).
  4. M. Kim, J. H. Jeong, H. J. Lee, T. K. Ahn, H. S. Shin, J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "High mobility bottom gate InGaZnO thin film transistors with SiO$_x$ etch stopper," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212114 1-212114 3 (2007).
  5. H. Yabuta, M. Sano, K. Abe, T. Aiba, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "High-mobility thin-film transistor with amorphous InGaZnO$_{4}$ channel fabricated by room temperature rf-magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112123 1-112123 3 (2006).
  6. H. Hosono, "Ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors: Material design, carrier transport, and device application," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 851-858 (2006).
  7. H.-C. Yuan, G. K. Celler, Z. Ma, "7.8-GHz flexible thin-film transistors on a low-temperature plastic substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 034501 1-034501 4 (2007).
  8. R. A. Street, "Doping and the fermi energy in amorphous silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1187-1190 (1982).
  9. J. Kanicki, F. R. Libsch, J. Griffith, R. Polastre, "Performance of thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2339-2345 (1991).
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  19. B. D. Ahn, H. S. Shin, G. H. Kim, T. H. Jeong, H. J. Kim, "A novel amorphous-InGaZnO TFT structure without source/drain layer deposition," AM-FPD 08 Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 299-302.
  20. J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Improvements in the device characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors by Ar plasma treatment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 262106-1-262106-3 (2007).
  21. C. G. Van de Walle, "Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1012-1015 (2000).
  22. B. D. Ahn, H. S. Shin, H. J. Kim, J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, "Comparison of the effects of Ar and H$_{2}$ plasmas on the performance of homojunctioned amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 203506-1-203506-3 (2008).
  23. K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 423, 488-492 (2004).

2008

J. K. Jeong, H.-J. Chung, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Comprehensive study on the transport mechanism of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide transistors," J. Electron. Chem. Soc. 155, H873-H877 (2008).

B. Hekmatshoar, K. H. Cherenack, A. Z. Kattamis, K. Long, S. Wagner, J. C. Sturm, "Highly stable amorphous-silicon thin-film transistors on clear plastic," Appl. Phy. Lett. 93, 032103-1-032103-3 (2008).

J. Jeong, Y. Hong, S. H. Beak, L. Tutt, M. Burburry, "Modeling and numerical analysis for wavy edge in printed source and drain electrodes of thin film transistors," Electron. Lett. 44, 616-618 (2008).

H.-H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, C.-C. Wu, "Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO$_4$ thin film transistors and their subgap density of states," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133503-1-133503-3 (2008).

B. D. Ahn, H. S. Shin, H. J. Kim, J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, "Comparison of the effects of Ar and H$_{2}$ plasmas on the performance of homojunctioned amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 203506-1-203506-3 (2008).

2007

J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Improvements in the device characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors by Ar plasma treatment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 262106-1-262106-3 (2007).

H.-C. Yuan, G. K. Celler, Z. Ma, "7.8-GHz flexible thin-film transistors on a low-temperature plastic substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 034501 1-034501 4 (2007).

M. Kim, J. H. Jeong, H. J. Lee, T. K. Ahn, H. S. Shin, J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "High mobility bottom gate InGaZnO thin film transistors with SiO$_x$ etch stopper," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212114 1-212114 3 (2007).

2006

H. Yabuta, M. Sano, K. Abe, T. Aiba, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "High-mobility thin-film transistor with amorphous InGaZnO$_{4}$ channel fabricated by room temperature rf-magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112123 1-112123 3 (2006).

H. Hosono, "Ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors: Material design, carrier transport, and device application," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 851-858 (2006).

2005

A. Takagi, K. Nomura, H. Ohta, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport and electronic structure in amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-InGaZnO$_{4}$," Thin Solid Films 486, 38-41 (2005).

2004

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 423, 488-492 (2004).

2001

S. Martin, C.-S. Chiang, J.-Y. Nahm, T. Li, J. Kanicki, Y. Ugai, "Influence of the amorphous silicon thickness on top gate thin-film transistor electrical performances," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 530-537 (2001).

M. Stewart, R. S. Howell, L. Pires, M. K. Hatalis, "Polysilicon TFT technology for active matrix OLED displays," IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 48, 845-851 (2001).

2000

Y. Taur, "MOSFET channel length: Extraction and interpretation," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 160-170 (2000).

C. G. Van de Walle, "Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1012-1015 (2000).

1992

S. Luan, G. W. Neudeck, "An experimental study of the source/drain parasitic resistance effects in amorphous silicon thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 72, 766-772 (1992).

1991

J. Kanicki, F. R. Libsch, J. Griffith, R. Polastre, "Performance of thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2339-2345 (1991).

1987

G. J. Hu, C. Chang, Y.-T. Chia, "Gate-voltage-dependent effect channel length and series resistance of LDD MOSFET's," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-34, 2469-2475 (1987).

1982

R. A. Street, "Doping and the fermi energy in amorphous silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1187-1190 (1982).

1979

K. Terada, H. Muta, "A new method to determine effective MOSFET channel length," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 953-959 (1979).

Appl. Phy. Lett.

B. Hekmatshoar, K. H. Cherenack, A. Z. Kattamis, K. Long, S. Wagner, J. C. Sturm, "Highly stable amorphous-silicon thin-film transistors on clear plastic," Appl. Phy. Lett. 93, 032103-1-032103-3 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Kim, J. H. Jeong, H. J. Lee, T. K. Ahn, H. S. Shin, J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "High mobility bottom gate InGaZnO thin film transistors with SiO$_x$ etch stopper," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212114 1-212114 3 (2007).

H. Yabuta, M. Sano, K. Abe, T. Aiba, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "High-mobility thin-film transistor with amorphous InGaZnO$_{4}$ channel fabricated by room temperature rf-magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112123 1-112123 3 (2006).

H.-H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, C.-C. Wu, "Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO$_4$ thin film transistors and their subgap density of states," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133503-1-133503-3 (2008).

J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Improvements in the device characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors by Ar plasma treatment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 262106-1-262106-3 (2007).

B. D. Ahn, H. S. Shin, H. J. Kim, J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, "Comparison of the effects of Ar and H$_{2}$ plasmas on the performance of homojunctioned amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 203506-1-203506-3 (2008).

Electron. Lett.

J. Jeong, Y. Hong, S. H. Beak, L. Tutt, M. Burburry, "Modeling and numerical analysis for wavy edge in printed source and drain electrodes of thin film transistors," Electron. Lett. 44, 616-618 (2008).

IEEE Electron Devices Lett.

M. Stewart, R. S. Howell, L. Pires, M. K. Hatalis, "Polysilicon TFT technology for active matrix OLED displays," IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 48, 845-851 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

G. J. Hu, C. Chang, Y.-T. Chia, "Gate-voltage-dependent effect channel length and series resistance of LDD MOSFET's," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-34, 2469-2475 (1987).

Y. Taur, "MOSFET channel length: Extraction and interpretation," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 160-170 (2000).

J. Appl. Phys.

H.-C. Yuan, G. K. Celler, Z. Ma, "7.8-GHz flexible thin-film transistors on a low-temperature plastic substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 034501 1-034501 4 (2007).

J. Kanicki, F. R. Libsch, J. Griffith, R. Polastre, "Performance of thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2339-2345 (1991).

S. Luan, G. W. Neudeck, "An experimental study of the source/drain parasitic resistance effects in amorphous silicon thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 72, 766-772 (1992).

J. Electron. Chem. Soc.

J. K. Jeong, H.-J. Chung, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Comprehensive study on the transport mechanism of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide transistors," J. Electron. Chem. Soc. 155, H873-H877 (2008).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

H. Hosono, "Ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors: Material design, carrier transport, and device application," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 851-858 (2006).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Terada, H. Muta, "A new method to determine effective MOSFET channel length," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 953-959 (1979).

S. Martin, C.-S. Chiang, J.-Y. Nahm, T. Li, J. Kanicki, Y. Ugai, "Influence of the amorphous silicon thickness on top gate thin-film transistor electrical performances," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 530-537 (2001).

Nature

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 423, 488-492 (2004).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. G. Van de Walle, "Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1012-1015 (2000).

R. A. Street, "Doping and the fermi energy in amorphous silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1187-1190 (1982).

Thin Solid Films

A. Takagi, K. Nomura, H. Ohta, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport and electronic structure in amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-InGaZnO$_{4}$," Thin Solid Films 486, 38-41 (2005).

Other

B. D. Ahn, H. S. Shin, G. H. Kim, T. H. Jeong, H. J. Kim, "A novel amorphous-InGaZnO TFT structure without source/drain layer deposition," AM-FPD 08 Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 299-302.

Atlas User's Manual Silvaco Int. Inc.Santa ClaraCA (2008).

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