Abstract

We report on zinc oxide (ZnO)-based devices produced by a fast, open-air atomic layer deposition (ALD) process relying upon the spatial isolation of reactive gases. At deposition rates of greater than 100 Å per minute, ZnO-based thin-film transistors by spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) show mobility above 15 cm<sup>2</sup>/Vs and excellent stability. Measurement and modeling of the gas isolation in the deposition head is discussed. Saturation curves obtained for aluminum oxide (Al<sub>2O<sub>3</sub></sub>) growth using trimethylaluminum and water are shown to be consistent with chamber ALD systems. Finally, the ability of this new ALD process to leverage patterning by using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a growth inhibitor for selective area deposition is discussed. Relatively thin films of PMMA (~ 40 Å) are shown to be capable of inhibiting the growth of ZnO for at least 1200 ALD cycles.

© 2009 IEEE

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  36. X. Jiang, S. F. Bent, "Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum on YSZ substrates using microcontact printed SAMs," J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, D648 (2007).
  37. K. J. Park, G. N. Parsons, "Selective area atomic layer deposition of rhodium and effective work function characterization in capacitor structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043111 (2006).
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  41. R. Chen, H. Kim, P. C. McIntyre, S. F. Bent, "Self-assembled monolayer resist for atomic layer deposition of ${\rm HfO}_{2}$ and ${\rm ZrO}_{2}$ high- gate dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4017 (2004).
  42. Z. Bao, "Materials and fabrication needs for low-cost organic transistor circuits," Adv. Materials 12, 227 (2000).
  43. H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, E. P. Woo, "High- resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits," Science 290, 2123 (2000).
  44. R. Chen, H. Kim, P. C. McIntyre, S. F. Bent, "Investigation of self-assembled monolayer resists for hafnium dioxide atomic layer deposition," Chem. Mater. 17, 536 (2005).
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2008 (5)

B. Bayraktaroglu, K. Leedy, R. Neidhard, "Microwave ZnO thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 1024 (2008).

D. H. Levy, D. Freeman, S. F. Nelson, P. J. Cowdery-Corvan, L. M. Irving, "Stable ZnO thin film transistors by fast open air atomic layer deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 192101 (2008).

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, H. Y. Jeong, H. Y. Chu, K. I. Cho, "Transparent ZnO-TFT arrays fabricated by atomic layer deposition," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 11, H10 (2008).

B. Bayraktaroglu, K. Leedy, "Pulsed laser deposited ZnO for thin film transistor applications," ECS Trans. 16, 61 (2008).

J. K. Jeong, H. W. Yang, J. H. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Origin of threshold voltage instability in indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123508 (2008).

2007 (5)

X. Jiang, S. F. Bent, "Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum on YSZ substrates using microcontact printed SAMs," J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, D648 (2007).

R. Gupta, B. G. Willis, "Nanometer spaced electrodes using selective area atomic layer deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253102 (2007).

S. J. Lim, S.-J. Kwon, H. Kim, J.-S. Park, "High performance thin film transistor with low temperature atomic layer deposition nitrogen-doped ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183517 (2007).

P. Görrn, P. Hölzer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, S. Kipp, "Stability of transparent zinc tin oxide transistors under bias stress," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063502 (2007).

M. Kim, J. H. Jeong, H. J. Lee, T. K. Ahn, H. S. Shin, J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "High mobility bottom gate InGaZnO thin film transistors with SiOx etch stopper," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212114 (2007).

2006 (5)

A. Sinha, D. W. Hess, C. L. Henderson, "Area selective atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide: Effect of precursor chemistry," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2523 (2006).

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, M. D. Groner, S. M. George, "Ca test of ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ gas diffusion barriers grown by atomic layer deposition on polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031915 (2006).

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, "High-performance ZnO thin-film transistors on gate dielectrics grown by atomic layer deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 123509 (2006).

K. J. Park, G. N. Parsons, "Selective area atomic layer deposition of rhodium and effective work function characterization in capacitor structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043111 (2006).

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, H.-S. Kwack, J.-H. Lee, H. Y. Chu, "Characteristics of ZnO thin films by means of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 9, G299 (2006).

2005 (6)

R. L. Puurunen, "Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: A case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005).

G. Krautheim, T. Hecht, S. Jakschik, U. Schröder, W. Zahn, "Mechanical stress in ALD- ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 200 (2005).

B. Sun, H. Sirringhaus, "Solution-processed Zinc Oxide field-effect transistors based on self-assembly of colloidal nanorods," Nanoletters 5, 2408 (2005).

Y. J. Li, Y. W. Kwon, M. Jones, Y. W. Heo, J. Zhou, S. C. Luo, P. H. Holloway, E. Douglas, D. P. Norton, Z. Park, S. Li, "Progress in semiconducting oxide-based thin-film transistors for displays," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 720 (2005).

R. Chen, H. Kim, P. C. McIntyre, D. W. Porter, S. F. Bent, "Achieving area-selective atomic layer deposition on patterned substrates by selective surface modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191910 (2005).

R. Chen, H. Kim, P. C. McIntyre, S. F. Bent, "Investigation of self-assembled monolayer resists for hafnium dioxide atomic layer deposition," Chem. Mater. 17, 536 (2005).

2004 (5)

R. L. Puurunen, W. Vandervorst, "Island growth as a growth mode in atomic layer deposition: A phenomenological model," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7686 (2004).

R. Chen, H. Kim, P. C. McIntyre, S. F. Bent, "Self-assembled monolayer resist for atomic layer deposition of ${\rm HfO}_{2}$ and ${\rm ZrO}_{2}$ high- gate dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4017 (2004).

E. M. C. Fortunato, P. M. C. Barquinha, A. C. M. B. G. Pimentel, A. M. F. Gonçalves, A. J. S. Marques, R. F. P. Martins, L. M. N. Pereira, "Wide-bandgap high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors produced at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2541 (2004).

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano1, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488 (2004).

J. D. Ferguson, E. R. Smith, A. W. Weimer, S. M. George, "ALD of ${\rm SiO}_{2}$ at room temperature using TEOS and H2O with NH3 as the catalyst," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G528 (2004).

2003 (7)

J. W. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. P. Mardilovich, S. M. George, "Conformal coating on ultrahigh- aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition," Chem. Mater. 15, 3507 (2003).

R. Kuse, M. Kundu, T. Yasuda, N. Miyata, A. Toriumi, "Effect of precursor concentration in atomic layer deposition of Al2O3," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6411 (2003).

S. Masuda, K. Kitamura, Y. Okumura, S. Miyatake, H. Tabata, T. Kawai, "Transparent thin-film transistors using ZnO as an active channel layer and their electrical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1624 (2003).

R. L. Hoffman, B. J. Norris, J. F. Wager, "ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 733 (2003).

O. Nomura, K. Ueda, H. Hirano, "Thin-film transistor fabricated in single-crystalline transparent oxide semiconductor," Science 300, 1269 (2003).

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, G. Nunes, Jr."Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1117 (2003).

B. J. Norris, J. Anderson, J. F. Wager, D. A. Keszler, "Spin-coated zinc oxide transparent transistors," J. Phys. D 36, L105 (2003).

2002 (2)

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, S. M. George, "Electrical characterization of thin ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates," Thin Solid Films 413, 186 (2002).

J. W. Elam, M. D. Groner, S. M. George, "Viscous flow reactor with quartz crystal microbalance for thin film growth by atomic layer deposition," Rev. Sci. Inst. 73, 2981 (2002).

2001 (2)

M. Yan, Y. Koide, J. R. Babcock, P. R. Markworth, J. A. Belot, T. J. Marks, R. P. H. Chang, "Selective-area atomic layer epitaxy growth of ZnO features on soft lithography-patterned substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1709 (2001).

N. Ohya, T. Ban, "Thin film transistor of ZnO fabricated by chemical solution deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I 40, 297 (2001).

2000 (5)

M. Copel, M. Gribelyuk, E. Gusev, "Structure and stability of ultrathin zirconium oxide layers on Si(001)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 436 (2000).

R. Matero, A. Rahtu, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, T. Sajavaara, "Effect of water dose on the atomic layer deposition rate of oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 368, 1 (2000).

E. B. Yousfi, J. Fouache, D. Lincot, "Study of atomic layer epitaxy of zinc oxide by in-situ quartz crystal microgravimetry," Appl. Surf. Sci. 153, 223 (2000).

Z. Bao, "Materials and fabrication needs for low-cost organic transistor circuits," Adv. Materials 12, 227 (2000).

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, E. P. Woo, "High- resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits," Science 290, 2123 (2000).

Adv. Materials (1)

Z. Bao, "Materials and fabrication needs for low-cost organic transistor circuits," Adv. Materials 12, 227 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (16)

J. K. Jeong, H. W. Yang, J. H. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Origin of threshold voltage instability in indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123508 (2008).

R. Chen, H. Kim, P. C. McIntyre, S. F. Bent, "Self-assembled monolayer resist for atomic layer deposition of ${\rm HfO}_{2}$ and ${\rm ZrO}_{2}$ high- gate dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4017 (2004).

R. Chen, H. Kim, P. C. McIntyre, D. W. Porter, S. F. Bent, "Achieving area-selective atomic layer deposition on patterned substrates by selective surface modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191910 (2005).

R. L. Hoffman, B. J. Norris, J. F. Wager, "ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 733 (2003).

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, G. Nunes, Jr."Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1117 (2003).

P. Görrn, P. Hölzer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, S. Kipp, "Stability of transparent zinc tin oxide transistors under bias stress," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063502 (2007).

D. H. Levy, D. Freeman, S. F. Nelson, P. J. Cowdery-Corvan, L. M. Irving, "Stable ZnO thin film transistors by fast open air atomic layer deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 192101 (2008).

E. M. C. Fortunato, P. M. C. Barquinha, A. C. M. B. G. Pimentel, A. M. F. Gonçalves, A. J. S. Marques, R. F. P. Martins, L. M. N. Pereira, "Wide-bandgap high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors produced at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2541 (2004).

S. J. Lim, S.-J. Kwon, H. Kim, J.-S. Park, "High performance thin film transistor with low temperature atomic layer deposition nitrogen-doped ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183517 (2007).

M. Copel, M. Gribelyuk, E. Gusev, "Structure and stability of ultrathin zirconium oxide layers on Si(001)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 436 (2000).

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, M. D. Groner, S. M. George, "Ca test of ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ gas diffusion barriers grown by atomic layer deposition on polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031915 (2006).

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, "High-performance ZnO thin-film transistors on gate dielectrics grown by atomic layer deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 123509 (2006).

M. Kim, J. H. Jeong, H. J. Lee, T. K. Ahn, H. S. Shin, J.-S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "High mobility bottom gate InGaZnO thin film transistors with SiOx etch stopper," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212114 (2007).

K. J. Park, G. N. Parsons, "Selective area atomic layer deposition of rhodium and effective work function characterization in capacitor structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043111 (2006).

R. Gupta, B. G. Willis, "Nanometer spaced electrodes using selective area atomic layer deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253102 (2007).

M. Yan, Y. Koide, J. R. Babcock, P. R. Markworth, J. A. Belot, T. J. Marks, R. P. H. Chang, "Selective-area atomic layer epitaxy growth of ZnO features on soft lithography-patterned substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1709 (2001).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

G. Krautheim, T. Hecht, S. Jakschik, U. Schröder, W. Zahn, "Mechanical stress in ALD- ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 200 (2005).

E. B. Yousfi, J. Fouache, D. Lincot, "Study of atomic layer epitaxy of zinc oxide by in-situ quartz crystal microgravimetry," Appl. Surf. Sci. 153, 223 (2000).

Chem. Mater. (2)

J. W. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. P. Mardilovich, S. M. George, "Conformal coating on ultrahigh- aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition," Chem. Mater. 15, 3507 (2003).

R. Chen, H. Kim, P. C. McIntyre, S. F. Bent, "Investigation of self-assembled monolayer resists for hafnium dioxide atomic layer deposition," Chem. Mater. 17, 536 (2005).

ECS Trans. (1)

B. Bayraktaroglu, K. Leedy, "Pulsed laser deposited ZnO for thin film transistor applications," ECS Trans. 16, 61 (2008).

Electrochem. Solid State Lett. (2)

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, H.-S. Kwack, J.-H. Lee, H. Y. Chu, "Characteristics of ZnO thin films by means of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 9, G299 (2006).

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, H. Y. Jeong, H. Y. Chu, K. I. Cho, "Transparent ZnO-TFT arrays fabricated by atomic layer deposition," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 11, H10 (2008).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

B. Bayraktaroglu, K. Leedy, R. Neidhard, "Microwave ZnO thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 1024 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

S. Masuda, K. Kitamura, Y. Okumura, S. Miyatake, H. Tabata, T. Kawai, "Transparent thin-film transistors using ZnO as an active channel layer and their electrical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1624 (2003).

R. Kuse, M. Kundu, T. Yasuda, N. Miyata, A. Toriumi, "Effect of precursor concentration in atomic layer deposition of Al2O3," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6411 (2003).

R. L. Puurunen, "Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: A case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005).

R. L. Puurunen, W. Vandervorst, "Island growth as a growth mode in atomic layer deposition: A phenomenological model," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7686 (2004).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

X. Jiang, S. F. Bent, "Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum on YSZ substrates using microcontact printed SAMs," J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, D648 (2007).

J. D. Ferguson, E. R. Smith, A. W. Weimer, S. M. George, "ALD of ${\rm SiO}_{2}$ at room temperature using TEOS and H2O with NH3 as the catalyst," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G528 (2004).

J. Phys. D (1)

B. J. Norris, J. Anderson, J. F. Wager, D. A. Keszler, "Spin-coated zinc oxide transparent transistors," J. Phys. D 36, L105 (2003).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

A. Sinha, D. W. Hess, C. L. Henderson, "Area selective atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide: Effect of precursor chemistry," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2523 (2006).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I (1)

N. Ohya, T. Ban, "Thin film transistor of ZnO fabricated by chemical solution deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I 40, 297 (2001).

Nanoletters (1)

B. Sun, H. Sirringhaus, "Solution-processed Zinc Oxide field-effect transistors based on self-assembly of colloidal nanorods," Nanoletters 5, 2408 (2005).

Nature (1)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano1, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488 (2004).

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

J. W. Elam, M. D. Groner, S. M. George, "Viscous flow reactor with quartz crystal microbalance for thin film growth by atomic layer deposition," Rev. Sci. Inst. 73, 2981 (2002).

Science (2)

O. Nomura, K. Ueda, H. Hirano, "Thin-film transistor fabricated in single-crystalline transparent oxide semiconductor," Science 300, 1269 (2003).

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, E. P. Woo, "High- resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits," Science 290, 2123 (2000).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. J. Li, Y. W. Kwon, M. Jones, Y. W. Heo, J. Zhou, S. C. Luo, P. H. Holloway, E. Douglas, D. P. Norton, Z. Park, S. Li, "Progress in semiconducting oxide-based thin-film transistors for displays," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 720 (2005).

Thin Solid Films (2)

R. Matero, A. Rahtu, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, T. Sajavaara, "Effect of water dose on the atomic layer deposition rate of oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 368, 1 (2000).

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, S. M. George, "Electrical characterization of thin ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates," Thin Solid Films 413, 186 (2002).

Other (4)

B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley, 1978) pp. 102.

D. Levy, L. Irving, A. Childs, "Solution-processed Zinc Oxide thin-film transistors," SID Sympos. Dig. (2007) pp. 230.

T. Suntola, J. Antson, Method for Producing Compound Thin Films U.S. Patent 4 058 430 (1977).

T. S. Suntola, A. J. Pakkala, S. G. Lindfors, Method for Performing Growth of Compound Thin Films U.S. Patent 4 413 022 (1983).

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