Abstract

Reported is the fabrication and demonstration of an array of >12 000 switchable liquid microlenses, each ~300 <i>µ</i>m in diameter and switchable through plano-concave to plano-convex. Electrowetting is used to modulate the contact angle of an aqueous/oil liquid system over a range of 100°, resulting in a switchable dioptric range of -360 m<sup>-1</sup> to 230 m<sup>-1</sup>. Compared to previous reports of single 2–6 mm electrowetting lenses, the fabrication process reported herein reduces the individual lenslet size by ~10x. To dose liquids into large arrays of these small liquid lenslets, a scalable self-assembled dosing process was developed. The completed liquid lens array has a fill factor of 50% which can be extended to >80%.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. K. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Lim, B. Lee, "Full parallax viewing-angle enhanced computer-generated holographic 3D display system using integral lens array," Opt. Expr. 13, 10494-10502 (2005).
  2. S. Yang, C. K. Ullal, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, J. Aizenberg, "Microlens arrays with integrated pores as a multippattern photomask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201121-1-201121-3 (2005).
  3. J. Kim, S. Nayak, L. A. Lyon, "Bioresponsive hydrogel microlenses," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 127, 9588-9592 (2005).
  4. V. Jungnickel, A. Forck, T. Haustein, U. Kruger, V. Pohl, C. von Helmolt, "Electronic tracking for wireless infrared communications," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 989-999 (2003).
  5. J. Pan, C. Wang, H. Lan, W. Sun, J. Chang, "Homogenized LED-illumination using microlens arrays for pocket-sized projector," Opt. Expr. 15, 10483-10491 (2007).
  6. Y. Hongbin, Z. Guangya, C. F. Siong, L. Feiwen, W. Shouhua, "A tunable Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based on liquid-filled microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 105017 (2008).
  7. H. Ren, Y. Fan, S. Wu, "Polymer network liquid crystals for tunable microlens arrays," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 400-403 (2004).
  8. D. Chandra, S. Yang, P. Lin, "Strain responsive concave and convex microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251912-1-251912-3 (2007).
  9. K. Jeong, G. L. Liu, N. Chronis, L. P. Lee, "Tunable microdoublet len array," Opt. Expr. 12, 2494-2500 (2004).
  10. B. Z. Ding, B. Ziaie, "A pH-tunable hydrogel microlens array with temperature-actuated light-switching capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081111-1-081111-3 (2009).
  11. B. Berge, J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. 7, 159-163 (2000).
  12. S. Kuiper, B. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
  13. J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, B. Raj, "Recent progress in arrayed electrowetting optics," OPN 20, 20-26 (2009).
  14. B. Sun, K. Zhou, Y. Lao, J. Heikenfeld, W. Cheng, "Scalable fabrication of electrowetting displays with self-assembled oil dosing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011106-1-011106-3 (2007).
  15. T. B. Jones, "An electromechanical interpretation of electrowetting," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 1184-1188 (2005).
  16. F. Mugele, J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phy. Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
  17. J. Zhang, D. Van Meter, L. Hou, N. Smith, A. Stalcup, R. Laughlin, J. Heikenfeld, "Preparation and analysis of 1-chloronaphthalene for highly refractive electrowetting optics," Langmuir 25, 10413-10416 (2009).

2009 (3)

B. Z. Ding, B. Ziaie, "A pH-tunable hydrogel microlens array with temperature-actuated light-switching capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081111-1-081111-3 (2009).

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, B. Raj, "Recent progress in arrayed electrowetting optics," OPN 20, 20-26 (2009).

J. Zhang, D. Van Meter, L. Hou, N. Smith, A. Stalcup, R. Laughlin, J. Heikenfeld, "Preparation and analysis of 1-chloronaphthalene for highly refractive electrowetting optics," Langmuir 25, 10413-10416 (2009).

2008 (1)

Y. Hongbin, Z. Guangya, C. F. Siong, L. Feiwen, W. Shouhua, "A tunable Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based on liquid-filled microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 105017 (2008).

2007 (3)

D. Chandra, S. Yang, P. Lin, "Strain responsive concave and convex microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251912-1-251912-3 (2007).

B. Sun, K. Zhou, Y. Lao, J. Heikenfeld, W. Cheng, "Scalable fabrication of electrowetting displays with self-assembled oil dosing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011106-1-011106-3 (2007).

J. Pan, C. Wang, H. Lan, W. Sun, J. Chang, "Homogenized LED-illumination using microlens arrays for pocket-sized projector," Opt. Expr. 15, 10483-10491 (2007).

2005 (5)

T. B. Jones, "An electromechanical interpretation of electrowetting," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 1184-1188 (2005).

F. Mugele, J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phy. Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).

K. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Lim, B. Lee, "Full parallax viewing-angle enhanced computer-generated holographic 3D display system using integral lens array," Opt. Expr. 13, 10494-10502 (2005).

S. Yang, C. K. Ullal, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, J. Aizenberg, "Microlens arrays with integrated pores as a multippattern photomask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201121-1-201121-3 (2005).

J. Kim, S. Nayak, L. A. Lyon, "Bioresponsive hydrogel microlenses," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 127, 9588-9592 (2005).

2004 (3)

K. Jeong, G. L. Liu, N. Chronis, L. P. Lee, "Tunable microdoublet len array," Opt. Expr. 12, 2494-2500 (2004).

H. Ren, Y. Fan, S. Wu, "Polymer network liquid crystals for tunable microlens arrays," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 400-403 (2004).

S. Kuiper, B. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).

2003 (1)

V. Jungnickel, A. Forck, T. Haustein, U. Kruger, V. Pohl, C. von Helmolt, "Electronic tracking for wireless infrared communications," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 989-999 (2003).

2000 (1)

B. Berge, J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. 7, 159-163 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Yang, C. K. Ullal, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, J. Aizenberg, "Microlens arrays with integrated pores as a multippattern photomask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201121-1-201121-3 (2005).

D. Chandra, S. Yang, P. Lin, "Strain responsive concave and convex microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251912-1-251912-3 (2007).

B. Z. Ding, B. Ziaie, "A pH-tunable hydrogel microlens array with temperature-actuated light-switching capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081111-1-081111-3 (2009).

S. Kuiper, B. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).

B. Sun, K. Zhou, Y. Lao, J. Heikenfeld, W. Cheng, "Scalable fabrication of electrowetting displays with self-assembled oil dosing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011106-1-011106-3 (2007).

Eur. Phys. J. (1)

B. Berge, J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. 7, 159-163 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

V. Jungnickel, A. Forck, T. Haustein, U. Kruger, V. Pohl, C. von Helmolt, "Electronic tracking for wireless infrared communications," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 989-999 (2003).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. Kim, S. Nayak, L. A. Lyon, "Bioresponsive hydrogel microlenses," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 127, 9588-9592 (2005).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (2)

Y. Hongbin, Z. Guangya, C. F. Siong, L. Feiwen, W. Shouhua, "A tunable Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based on liquid-filled microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 105017 (2008).

T. B. Jones, "An electromechanical interpretation of electrowetting," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 1184-1188 (2005).

J. Phy. Condens. Matter (1)

F. Mugele, J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phy. Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Ren, Y. Fan, S. Wu, "Polymer network liquid crystals for tunable microlens arrays," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 400-403 (2004).

Langmuir (1)

J. Zhang, D. Van Meter, L. Hou, N. Smith, A. Stalcup, R. Laughlin, J. Heikenfeld, "Preparation and analysis of 1-chloronaphthalene for highly refractive electrowetting optics," Langmuir 25, 10413-10416 (2009).

OPN (1)

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, B. Raj, "Recent progress in arrayed electrowetting optics," OPN 20, 20-26 (2009).

Opt. Expr. (3)

K. Jeong, G. L. Liu, N. Chronis, L. P. Lee, "Tunable microdoublet len array," Opt. Expr. 12, 2494-2500 (2004).

J. Pan, C. Wang, H. Lan, W. Sun, J. Chang, "Homogenized LED-illumination using microlens arrays for pocket-sized projector," Opt. Expr. 15, 10483-10491 (2007).

K. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Lim, B. Lee, "Full parallax viewing-angle enhanced computer-generated holographic 3D display system using integral lens array," Opt. Expr. 13, 10494-10502 (2005).

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