Abstract

As CT scanning is a very common medical imaging method, we propose new hardware-based algorithms using GPU (Graphical Processor Unit) programming for rapid visualization. Firstly, 3D volumes are constructed from CT scans. Then volume rendering is used to display anatomical structures via algorithms founded on improved ray casting and 2D textures. Our methods achieve interactive rendering rates and require an ordinary PC with an off-the-shelf graphics card. We expect our approach to be useful to medical practitioners for handling modern, large-scale medical datasets.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. NAMA“DICOM,” http://medical.nema.org/, retrieved on 06/02/2008.
  2. L. White, J. Kim, M. Mehta, N. Merchant, M. Schweitzer, W. Morrison, C. Hutchinson, A. Gross, "Complications of total hip arthroplasty: MR imaging—Initial experience," Radiology 215, 254-262 (2000).
  3. Barts and The London NHS Trust“Improving server effieciency,” http://www.bartsandthelondon.org.uk/docs/ARsection_4.pdf, retrieved on 06/02/2008.
  4. K. Iron, R. Przybysz, A. Laupacis, Access to MRI in Ontario: Addressing the Information Gap Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Investigative Report (2003).
  5. I. Bitter, R. V. Uitert, I. Wolf, L. Ibanez, J.-M. Kuhnigk, "Comparison of four freely available frameworks for image processing and visualization that use ITK," IEEE Trans. on Visualization & Comp. Graphics 13, 483-493 (2007).
  6. M. Krokos, A. Savenko, G. J. Clapworthy, H. Lin, R. Mayoral, M. Viceconti, S. Van Sint Jan, "Real-Time visualization within the multimode application framework," Proc. IEEE Inf. Visualisation (2004) pp. 21-26.
  7. J. X. Chen, D. B. Carr, H. Wechsler, Z. Pan, "Interactive visualization of multivariate statistical data," Int. J. Virtual Reality 5, 67-73 (2006).
  8. Z. Pan, J. Lu, "A Bayes-based region-growing algorithm for medical image segmentation," Computing in Sci. & Eng. 9, 32-38 (2007).
  9. J. Lu, Z. Pan, H. Lin, M. Zhang, J. Shi, "Virtual learning environment for medical education based on VRML and VTK," Computers & Graphics 29, 283-288 (2005).
  10. A. Fujimoto, T. Tanaka, "Accelerated ray tracing," Proc. Comput. Graphics, Visual Technol. & Art (1985) pp. 40-65.
  11. D. Meagher, "Geometric modelling using octree encoding," Computer Graphics & Image Process. 19, 129-147 (1982).
  12. F. Dong, M. Krokos, G. J. Clapworthy, "Fast volume rendering and data classification using multiresolution min-max octrees," Computer Graphics Forum 19, 359-368 (2000).
  13. S. Guthe, M. Wand, J. Gosner, W. Straßer, "Interactive rendering of large volume data sets," Proc. IEEE Visualization (2002) pp. 53-60.
  14. Y. Heng, L. Gu, "GPU-based volume rendering for medical image visualization," 27th Annu. Int. Conf. Eng. in Med. and Biol. Soc., 5. (2005) pp. 5145-5148.
  15. M. Hadwiger, C. Sigg, H. Scharsach, K. Bühler, M. Gross, "Real-Time ray-casting and advanced shading of discrete isosurfaces," Proc. Eurographics (2005) pp. 303-312.
  16. S. Bruckner, E. Gröller, "VolumeShop: An interactive system for direct volume illustration," Proc. IEEE Visualization (2005) pp. 671-678.
  17. P. Muigg, M. Hadwiger, H. Doleisch, H. Hauser, "Scalable hybrid unstructured and structured grid raycasting," IEEE Trans. .Visualiz. & Comput. Graphics 13, 1592-1599 (2007).
  18. Toshinba Corp.Japan“Aquilon ONE: The world's first dynamic volume CT,” http://www.toshiba-medical.co.uk/ct-systems.asp, retrieved on 06/24/2008.
  19. K. Engel, M. Hadwiger, J. M. Kniss, A. Lefohn, C. Rezk-Salama, D. Weiskopf, "Real-Time volume graphics," Proc. of SIGGRAPH 2004, Course Notes (2004).
  20. VTK“The visualization toolkit,” http://public.kitware.com/VTK/index.php, retrieved on 06/02/2008.
  21. ITK“Insight segmentation and registration toolkit,” http://www.itk.org, retrieved on 06/02/2008.
  22. L. Westover, "Footprint evaluation for volume rendering," Computer Graphics, Proc. of SIGGRAPH 1990 (1990) pp. 367-376.
  23. C. Rezk-Salama, K. Engel, M. Bauer, G. Greiner, T. Ert, "Interactive volume rendering on standard PC graphics hardware using multi-textures and multi-stage rasterization," Eurographics/SIGGRAPH Workshop on Graphics Hardware (2000) pp. 109-118.

2007 (3)

I. Bitter, R. V. Uitert, I. Wolf, L. Ibanez, J.-M. Kuhnigk, "Comparison of four freely available frameworks for image processing and visualization that use ITK," IEEE Trans. on Visualization & Comp. Graphics 13, 483-493 (2007).

Z. Pan, J. Lu, "A Bayes-based region-growing algorithm for medical image segmentation," Computing in Sci. & Eng. 9, 32-38 (2007).

P. Muigg, M. Hadwiger, H. Doleisch, H. Hauser, "Scalable hybrid unstructured and structured grid raycasting," IEEE Trans. .Visualiz. & Comput. Graphics 13, 1592-1599 (2007).

2006 (1)

J. X. Chen, D. B. Carr, H. Wechsler, Z. Pan, "Interactive visualization of multivariate statistical data," Int. J. Virtual Reality 5, 67-73 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. Lu, Z. Pan, H. Lin, M. Zhang, J. Shi, "Virtual learning environment for medical education based on VRML and VTK," Computers & Graphics 29, 283-288 (2005).

2000 (2)

L. White, J. Kim, M. Mehta, N. Merchant, M. Schweitzer, W. Morrison, C. Hutchinson, A. Gross, "Complications of total hip arthroplasty: MR imaging—Initial experience," Radiology 215, 254-262 (2000).

F. Dong, M. Krokos, G. J. Clapworthy, "Fast volume rendering and data classification using multiresolution min-max octrees," Computer Graphics Forum 19, 359-368 (2000).

1982 (1)

D. Meagher, "Geometric modelling using octree encoding," Computer Graphics & Image Process. 19, 129-147 (1982).

Computer Graphics & Image Process. (1)

D. Meagher, "Geometric modelling using octree encoding," Computer Graphics & Image Process. 19, 129-147 (1982).

Computer Graphics Forum (1)

F. Dong, M. Krokos, G. J. Clapworthy, "Fast volume rendering and data classification using multiresolution min-max octrees," Computer Graphics Forum 19, 359-368 (2000).

Computers & Graphics (1)

J. Lu, Z. Pan, H. Lin, M. Zhang, J. Shi, "Virtual learning environment for medical education based on VRML and VTK," Computers & Graphics 29, 283-288 (2005).

Computing in Sci. & Eng. (1)

Z. Pan, J. Lu, "A Bayes-based region-growing algorithm for medical image segmentation," Computing in Sci. & Eng. 9, 32-38 (2007).

IEEE Trans. .Visualiz. & Comput. Graphics (1)

P. Muigg, M. Hadwiger, H. Doleisch, H. Hauser, "Scalable hybrid unstructured and structured grid raycasting," IEEE Trans. .Visualiz. & Comput. Graphics 13, 1592-1599 (2007).

IEEE Trans. on Visualization & Comp. Graphics (1)

I. Bitter, R. V. Uitert, I. Wolf, L. Ibanez, J.-M. Kuhnigk, "Comparison of four freely available frameworks for image processing and visualization that use ITK," IEEE Trans. on Visualization & Comp. Graphics 13, 483-493 (2007).

Int. J. Virtual Reality (1)

J. X. Chen, D. B. Carr, H. Wechsler, Z. Pan, "Interactive visualization of multivariate statistical data," Int. J. Virtual Reality 5, 67-73 (2006).

Radiology (1)

L. White, J. Kim, M. Mehta, N. Merchant, M. Schweitzer, W. Morrison, C. Hutchinson, A. Gross, "Complications of total hip arthroplasty: MR imaging—Initial experience," Radiology 215, 254-262 (2000).

Other (15)

Barts and The London NHS Trust“Improving server effieciency,” http://www.bartsandthelondon.org.uk/docs/ARsection_4.pdf, retrieved on 06/02/2008.

K. Iron, R. Przybysz, A. Laupacis, Access to MRI in Ontario: Addressing the Information Gap Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Investigative Report (2003).

M. Krokos, A. Savenko, G. J. Clapworthy, H. Lin, R. Mayoral, M. Viceconti, S. Van Sint Jan, "Real-Time visualization within the multimode application framework," Proc. IEEE Inf. Visualisation (2004) pp. 21-26.

NAMA“DICOM,” http://medical.nema.org/, retrieved on 06/02/2008.

A. Fujimoto, T. Tanaka, "Accelerated ray tracing," Proc. Comput. Graphics, Visual Technol. & Art (1985) pp. 40-65.

Toshinba Corp.Japan“Aquilon ONE: The world's first dynamic volume CT,” http://www.toshiba-medical.co.uk/ct-systems.asp, retrieved on 06/24/2008.

K. Engel, M. Hadwiger, J. M. Kniss, A. Lefohn, C. Rezk-Salama, D. Weiskopf, "Real-Time volume graphics," Proc. of SIGGRAPH 2004, Course Notes (2004).

VTK“The visualization toolkit,” http://public.kitware.com/VTK/index.php, retrieved on 06/02/2008.

ITK“Insight segmentation and registration toolkit,” http://www.itk.org, retrieved on 06/02/2008.

L. Westover, "Footprint evaluation for volume rendering," Computer Graphics, Proc. of SIGGRAPH 1990 (1990) pp. 367-376.

C. Rezk-Salama, K. Engel, M. Bauer, G. Greiner, T. Ert, "Interactive volume rendering on standard PC graphics hardware using multi-textures and multi-stage rasterization," Eurographics/SIGGRAPH Workshop on Graphics Hardware (2000) pp. 109-118.

S. Guthe, M. Wand, J. Gosner, W. Straßer, "Interactive rendering of large volume data sets," Proc. IEEE Visualization (2002) pp. 53-60.

Y. Heng, L. Gu, "GPU-based volume rendering for medical image visualization," 27th Annu. Int. Conf. Eng. in Med. and Biol. Soc., 5. (2005) pp. 5145-5148.

M. Hadwiger, C. Sigg, H. Scharsach, K. Bühler, M. Gross, "Real-Time ray-casting and advanced shading of discrete isosurfaces," Proc. Eurographics (2005) pp. 303-312.

S. Bruckner, E. Gröller, "VolumeShop: An interactive system for direct volume illustration," Proc. IEEE Visualization (2005) pp. 671-678.

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