Abstract

The low luminance levels of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) compared to arc lamps make it difficult to design high-brightness LED-based projectors. Besides, the specificities of LEDs do not always allow using the same design schemes as with arc lamp-based projection displays. This paper performs a taxonomy of the techniques that can be used to increase the brightness of LED-based projection displays. We show that, in étendue-limited systems, the perceived brightness depends on the system étendue limit, the efficiency of the light engine, and the source luminance. The ability to improve each of these parameters depends on the design constraints. The system étendue limit can be increased at the expense of bulkier, more complex, and more expensive designs. The light engine efficiency can be increased by using free-form shape components adapted to the shapes and the emission patterns of the considered LEDs. The apparent source luminance can be increased at the expense of the flux by either recycling light or restricting the light collection to a smaller étendue with higher average luminance. Luminance can also be increased by using multiple color primaries (spatial multiplexing) or pulsed LEDs (temporal multiplexing). Finally, we review how light recycling can be implemented to convert polarization without increasing étendue.

© 2007 IEEE

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  2. R. Winston, J. C. Minano, P. Benitez, W. T. Welford, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier Academic, 2005).
  3. C.-M. Cheng, J.-L. Chern, "Design of a dual-f-number illumination system and its application to DMD™ projection displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 819-827 (2006).
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  9. N. Breidenassel, S. Grotsch, W. Schnabel, "61.3: LED light source for RPTV applications," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 1816-1818.
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  11. C. Hoepfner, "61.1: Invited paper: PhlatLight™ photonic lattice LEDs for RPTV light engines," SID Symp. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 1808-1811.
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  13. M. G. Robinson, J. Chen, G. D. Sharp, Polarization Engineering for LCD Projection (Wiley, 2005).
  14. D. Armitage, I. Underwood, S.-T Wu, Introduction to Microdisplays (Wiley, 2006).
  15. H. Murat, D. Cuypers, H. De Smet, "Design of new collection systems for multi LED light engines," Photonics in Multimedia (2006).
  16. K. K. Li, S. Inatsugu, S. Sillyman, "Design and optimization of tapered light pipes," Nonimaging Optics and Efficient Illumination Systems (2004).
  17. J. M. Teijido, F. Ludley, O. Ripoll, M. Ueda, Y. Oshima, "73.2: Compact three panel LED projector engine for portable applications," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006).
  18. L. A. Whitehead, M. A. Mossman, "Off the beaten path with total internal reflection," 2006 Int. Opt. Des. Conf. BellinghamWA.
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  25. T. Ajito, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, "Expanded color gamut reproduced by six-primary projection display," Projection Displays 2000: Sixth in a Series (2000).
  26. S. Roth, W. Caldwell, "64.4: Four primary color projection display," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2005) pp. 1818-1821.
  27. H. Murat, H. De Smet, D. Cuypers, Y. Meuret, H. Thienpont, M. Vervaeke, L. Desmet, "Increased lumens per etendue by combining pulsed LEDs," Projection Displays XI (2005).
  28. J. Chaves, W. Falicoff, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, W. A. Parkyn, O. Dross, "Luminance enhancement of LED light sources for etendue-limited applications," Nonimaging Optics and Efficient Illumination Systems III (2006).
  29. L. Fu, R. Leutz, H. Ries, "Light recycling in solid state devices," Fifth Int. Conf. Solid State Lighting (2005).
  30. K. Beeson, S. Zimmerman, W. Livesay, R. Ross, C. Livesay, K. Livesay, "61.5: LED-based light-recycling light sources for projection displays," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 1823-1826.
  31. R. C. Allen, 3M Innovative Properties CompanySt. PaulMNUSABrightness enhancement film U.S. Patent 6 760 157 (2004).
  32. Y. Wang, "Efficiency enhancement of liquid crystal projection displays using light recycle technology," Projection Displays VIII (2002).

2007 (2)

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, H. Thienpont, "Using a fly's eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources," Opt. Eng. 46, 043001-6 (2007).

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Z. Ling, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

2006 (1)

C.-M. Cheng, J.-L. Chern, "Design of a dual-f-number illumination system and its application to DMD™ projection displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 819-827 (2006).

2001 (1)

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

C.-M. Cheng, J.-L. Chern, "Design of a dual-f-number illumination system and its application to DMD™ projection displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 819-827 (2006).

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, H. Thienpont, "Using a fly's eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources," Opt. Eng. 46, 043001-6 (2007).

Other (28)

M. G. Robinson, J. Chen, G. D. Sharp, Polarization Engineering for LCD Projection (Wiley, 2005).

D. Armitage, I. Underwood, S.-T Wu, Introduction to Microdisplays (Wiley, 2006).

H. Murat, D. Cuypers, H. De Smet, "Design of new collection systems for multi LED light engines," Photonics in Multimedia (2006).

K. K. Li, S. Inatsugu, S. Sillyman, "Design and optimization of tapered light pipes," Nonimaging Optics and Efficient Illumination Systems (2004).

J. M. Teijido, F. Ludley, O. Ripoll, M. Ueda, Y. Oshima, "73.2: Compact three panel LED projector engine for portable applications," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006).

L. A. Whitehead, M. A. Mossman, "Off the beaten path with total internal reflection," 2006 Int. Opt. Des. Conf. BellinghamWA.

M. P. Krijn, B. A. Salters, O. H. Willemsen, "LED-based mini-projectors," Photonics in Multimedia (2006).

W. Y. Lee, Y. C. Lee, K. Sokolov, H. J. Lee, I. Moon, "LED projection displays," Nonimaging Optics and Efficient Illumination Systems (2004).

W. J. Cassarly, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

T. L. R. Davenport, T. A. Hough, W. J. Cassarly, "Optimization for illumination systems: The next level of design," Photon Management (2004).

K. Gerhard, G. Stefan, B. Nicole, S. Wolfgang, W. Stefan, "58.3: A new LED light source for projection applications," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2005) pp. 1702-1705.

N. Breidenassel, S. Grotsch, W. Schnabel, "61.3: LED light source for RPTV applications," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 1816-1818.

C. Hoepfner, "61.1: Invited paper: PhlatLight™ photonic lattice LEDs for RPTV light engines," SID Symp. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 1808-1811.

C. DeCusatis, Handbook of Applied Photometry (AIP Press, 1997).

R. Winston, J. C. Minano, P. Benitez, W. T. Welford, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier Academic, 2005).

E. H. Stupp, M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Displays (Wiley, 1999).

J. Muschaweck, H. Ries, "Characterization of the thermodynamic quality of light sources," Nonimaging Optics and Efficient Illumination Systems II (2005).

R. Martinsen, K. Kennedy, A. Radl, "Speckle in laser imagery: Efficient methods of quantification and minimization," 1999 IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 12th Annu. Meeting (LEOS '99) San FranciscoCA (1999).

I. T. Jahja, "Speckle contrast reduction in laser projection displays," Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4657 (2002).

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics: Theory and Applications (Roberts & Co, 2007).

T. Ajito, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, "Expanded color gamut reproduced by six-primary projection display," Projection Displays 2000: Sixth in a Series (2000).

S. Roth, W. Caldwell, "64.4: Four primary color projection display," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2005) pp. 1818-1821.

H. Murat, H. De Smet, D. Cuypers, Y. Meuret, H. Thienpont, M. Vervaeke, L. Desmet, "Increased lumens per etendue by combining pulsed LEDs," Projection Displays XI (2005).

J. Chaves, W. Falicoff, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, W. A. Parkyn, O. Dross, "Luminance enhancement of LED light sources for etendue-limited applications," Nonimaging Optics and Efficient Illumination Systems III (2006).

L. Fu, R. Leutz, H. Ries, "Light recycling in solid state devices," Fifth Int. Conf. Solid State Lighting (2005).

K. Beeson, S. Zimmerman, W. Livesay, R. Ross, C. Livesay, K. Livesay, "61.5: LED-based light-recycling light sources for projection displays," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 1823-1826.

R. C. Allen, 3M Innovative Properties CompanySt. PaulMNUSABrightness enhancement film U.S. Patent 6 760 157 (2004).

Y. Wang, "Efficiency enhancement of liquid crystal projection displays using light recycle technology," Projection Displays VIII (2002).

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