Abstract

Integral imaging is a technique capable of displaying 3–D images with continuous parallax in full natural color. It is one of the most promising methods for producing smooth 3–D images. Extracting depth information from integral image has various applications ranging from remote inspection, robotic vision, medical imaging, virtual reality, to content-based image coding and manipulation for integral imaging based 3–D TV. This paper presents a method of generating a depth map from unidirectional integral images through viewpoint image extraction and using a hybrid disparity analysis algorithm combining multi-baseline, neighborhood constraint and relaxation strategies. It is shown that a depth map having few areas of uncertainty can be obtained from both computer and photographically generated integral images using this approach. The acceptable depth maps can be achieved from photographic captured integral images containing complicated object scene.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. T. Motoki, H. Isono, I. Yuyama, "Present status of three-dimensional television research," Proc. IEEE 83, 1009-1021 (1995).
  2. S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, H. Thwaites, "A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3-D HDTV/HDTV images," Displays 23, 191-201 (2002).
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  4. N. Davis, M. McCormick, M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).
  5. S. Monaleche, A. Aggoun, A. McCormick, N. Davies, S. Y. Kung, "Analytical model of a 3d recording camera system using circular and hexagonal based spherical microlenses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 18, 1814-1821 (2001).
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  8. M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez Cuenca, G. Saavedra, "Formation of real, orthoscopic integral images by smart pixel mapping," Opt. Expr. 13, 9175-9180 (2005).
  9. B. Javidi, F. Okano, Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).
  10. S. Manolache, M. McCormick, S. Y. Kung, "Hierarchical adaptive regularization method for depth extraction from planar recording of 3-D-integral images," Proc. ICASSP (2001) pp. 1433-1436.
  11. S. Manolache, S. Y. Kung, "A Aggoun and M McCormick “3-D-object space reconstruction from planar recorded data of 3-D-integral images”," J. VLSI Signal Process. Syst. for Signal, Image, and Video Technol. 35, 18-35 (2003).
  12. Y. Frauel, B. Javidi, "Digital three-dimensional correlation by use of computer reconstructed integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 41, 5488-5496 (2002).
  13. C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, S. Y. Kung, "Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique," Proc. SPIE 4660, 135-143 (2002).
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  16. J. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, B. Lee, "Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification," Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
  17. S. Kishk, B. Javidi, "Improved resolution 3-D object sensing and recognition using time multiplexed computational integral imaging," Opt. Expr. 11, 3528-3541 (2003).
  18. S. Yeom, B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional distortion-tolerant object recognition using integral imaging," Opt. Expr. 12, 5795-5808.
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  21. T. Kanade, M. Okutomi, "A stereo matching algorithm with an adaptive window: Theory and experiment," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. (1991) pp. 1088-1095.
  22. Y. K. Chen, Y. T. Lin, S. Y. Kung, "A feature tracking algorithm using neighbourhood relaxation with multi-candidate pre-screen," Proc. ICIP(II) (1996) pp. 513-516.
  23. J. Huang, H. Liu, "Stereo vision using a microcanonical mean field annealing neural network," Network: Comput. Neural Syst 87-104 (1997).
  24. F. Dufaux, F. Moscheni, "Motion estimation techniques for digital TV: A review and a new contribution," Proc. IEEE 857-876 (1995).

2005 (2)

M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez Cuenca, G. Saavedra, "Formation of real, orthoscopic integral images by smart pixel mapping," Opt. Expr. 13, 9175-9180 (2005).

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Extended depth-of-field 3-D display and visualization by combination of amplitude-modulated microlenses and deconvolution tools," J. Display Technol. 1, 321-327 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, B. Lee, "Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification," Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).

2003 (2)

S. Kishk, B. Javidi, "Improved resolution 3-D object sensing and recognition using time multiplexed computational integral imaging," Opt. Expr. 11, 3528-3541 (2003).

S. Manolache, S. Y. Kung, "A Aggoun and M McCormick “3-D-object space reconstruction from planar recorded data of 3-D-integral images”," J. VLSI Signal Process. Syst. for Signal, Image, and Video Technol. 35, 18-35 (2003).

2002 (4)

Y. Frauel, B. Javidi, "Digital three-dimensional correlation by use of computer reconstructed integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 41, 5488-5496 (2002).

C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, S. Y. Kung, "Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique," Proc. SPIE 4660, 135-143 (2002).

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, H. Thwaites, "A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3-D HDTV/HDTV images," Displays 23, 191-201 (2002).

J. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, B. Lee, "A novel depth extraction algorithm incorporating a lens array and a camera by reassembling pixel columns of elemental images," Proc. SPIE 4929, 49-58 (2002).

2001 (2)

S. Monaleche, A. Aggoun, A. McCormick, N. Davies, S. Y. Kung, "Analytical model of a 3d recording camera system using circular and hexagonal based spherical microlenses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 18, 1814-1821 (2001).

H. Arimoto, B. Javidi, "Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 26, 157-159 (2001).

1997 (2)

J. Huang, H. Liu, "Stereo vision using a microcanonical mean field annealing neural network," Network: Comput. Neural Syst 87-104 (1997).

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, "Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1604 (1997).

1995 (2)

F. Dufaux, F. Moscheni, "Motion estimation techniques for digital TV: A review and a new contribution," Proc. IEEE 857-876 (1995).

T. Motoki, H. Isono, I. Yuyama, "Present status of three-dimensional television research," Proc. IEEE 83, 1009-1021 (1995).

1994 (1)

N. Davis, M. McCormick, M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).

1993 (1)

M. Okutomi, T. Kanade, "A multiple-baseline stereo," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 353-363 (1993).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, B. Lee, "Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification," Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Displays (1)

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, H. Thwaites, "A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3-D HDTV/HDTV images," Displays 23, 191-201 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

M. Okutomi, T. Kanade, "A multiple-baseline stereo," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 353-363 (1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

S. Monaleche, A. Aggoun, A. McCormick, N. Davies, S. Y. Kung, "Analytical model of a 3d recording camera system using circular and hexagonal based spherical microlenses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 18, 1814-1821 (2001).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. VLSI Signal Process. Syst. for Signal, Image, and Video Technol. (1)

S. Manolache, S. Y. Kung, "A Aggoun and M McCormick “3-D-object space reconstruction from planar recorded data of 3-D-integral images”," J. VLSI Signal Process. Syst. for Signal, Image, and Video Technol. 35, 18-35 (2003).

Network: Comput. Neural Syst (1)

J. Huang, H. Liu, "Stereo vision using a microcanonical mean field annealing neural network," Network: Comput. Neural Syst 87-104 (1997).

Opt. Expr. (1)

M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez Cuenca, G. Saavedra, "Formation of real, orthoscopic integral images by smart pixel mapping," Opt. Expr. 13, 9175-9180 (2005).

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Davis, M. McCormick, M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).

Opt. Expr. (2)

S. Kishk, B. Javidi, "Improved resolution 3-D object sensing and recognition using time multiplexed computational integral imaging," Opt. Expr. 11, 3528-3541 (2003).

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional distortion-tolerant object recognition using integral imaging," Opt. Expr. 12, 5795-5808.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

F. Dufaux, F. Moscheni, "Motion estimation techniques for digital TV: A review and a new contribution," Proc. IEEE 857-876 (1995).

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. Motoki, H. Isono, I. Yuyama, "Present status of three-dimensional television research," Proc. IEEE 83, 1009-1021 (1995).

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, S. Y. Kung, "Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique," Proc. SPIE 4660, 135-143 (2002).

J. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, B. Lee, "A novel depth extraction algorithm incorporating a lens array and a camera by reassembling pixel columns of elemental images," Proc. SPIE 4929, 49-58 (2002).

Other (6)

T. Kanade, M. Okutomi, "A stereo matching algorithm with an adaptive window: Theory and experiment," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. (1991) pp. 1088-1095.

Y. K. Chen, Y. T. Lin, S. Y. Kung, "A feature tracking algorithm using neighbourhood relaxation with multi-candidate pre-screen," Proc. ICIP(II) (1996) pp. 513-516.

E. Trucco, Introductory Techniques for 3-D Computer Vision (Prentice Hall, 1998).

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

B. Javidi, F. Okano, Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).

S. Manolache, M. McCormick, S. Y. Kung, "Hierarchical adaptive regularization method for depth extraction from planar recording of 3-D-integral images," Proc. ICASSP (2001) pp. 1433-1436.

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