Abstract

Organic light-emitting devices exhibiting high power conversion efficiency and long operating lifetime may potentially be achieved with the polymer light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) configuration. An LEC device typically uses a thin layer of conjugated polymer sandwiched between two contact electrodes. The polymer layer contains an ionically conductive species that are essential in the formation of a light-emitting p-i-n junction. LEC devices are characterized with balanced electron and hole injections, high current density at relatively low bias voltages (2–4 V), and high electroluminescent power efficiency. We will describe the working mechanism of the LECs and review the recent developments in LEC materials, device fabrication and performance. Among the important developments are planar (surface-typed) LECs, bilayer LECs that emit different colors at forward and reverse biases, frozen p-i-n junction LECs that functions like diodes, and phosphorescent LECs. Extensive efforts have been made to improve the LEC performance by controlling the blend morphology, including the use of bipolar surfactant additives and new electrolytes, the synthesis of conjugated polymers with ion-transporting main chain segments or side groups and polyelectrolyte. Degradation mechanisms that limit the lifetime of the LECs will also be discussed.

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2006 (4)

Y. Hu, C. Tracy, J. Gao, "High-resolution imaging of electrochemical doping and dedoping processes in luminescent conjugated polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

J. Shin, A. Dzwilewski, S. Xiao, A. Fransson, G. N. Ankah, L. Edman, "Light emission at 5 V from a polymer device with a millimeter-sized interelectrode gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006).

Q. J. Sun, B. H. Fan, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, Y. Yang, "White light from polymer light-emitting diodes: Utilization of fluorenone defects and exciplex," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

N. Armaroli, G. Accorsi, M. Holler, O. Moudam, J. F. Nerrengarten, Z. Zhou, R. T. Wegh, R. Welter, "Highly luminescent Cu-I complexes for light-emitting electrochemical cells," Adv. Mater. 18, 1313-1316 (2006).

2005 (4)

J. H. Shin, S. Xiao, A. Fransson, L. Edman, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells: Frozen-junction operation of an ‘ionic liquid’ device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, (2005).

D. Dini, "Electrochemiluminescence from organic emitters," Chem. Mater. 17, 1933-1945 (2005).

Y. H. Xu, J. B. Peng, Y. Q. Mo, Q. Hou, Y. Cao, "Efficient polymer white-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005).

J. Dane, C. Tracy, J. Gao, "Direct observation of a frozen junction in polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005).

2004 (4)

J. Gao, J. Dane, "Visualization of electrochemical doping and light-emitting junction formation in conjugated polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2778-2780 (2004).

G. Ho, H. Meng, S. Lin, S. Horng, C. Hsu, L. Chen, S. Chang, "Efficient white light emission in conjugated polymer homojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4576-4578 (2004).

Q. J. Sun, X. W. Zhan, B. Zhang, C. H. Yang, Y. Q. Liu, Y. F. Li, D. B. Zhu, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cell based on a novel poly(aryleneethynylene) consisting of ethynylfluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units," Polym. Adv. Technol. 15, 70-74 (2004).

J. Dane, J. Gao, "Imaging the degradation of polymer light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3905-3907 (2004).

2003 (7)

F. R. F. Fan, A. J. Bard, "Scanning probe microscopy studies of solid-state molecular electroluminescent devices based on ${\hbox{tris}}(2,2^{\prime}-{\hbox{bipyridine}}){\hbox{ruthenium}}({\hbox{II}})$ complexes," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1781-1787 (2003).

G. Kalyuzhny, M. Buda, J. McNeill, P. Barbara, A. J. Bard, "Stability of thin-film solid-state electroluminescent devices based on ${\rm tris}(2,2^{\prime}-{\hbox{bipyridine}}){\hbox{ruthenium}}({\hbox{II}})$ complexes," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 125, 6272-6283 (2003).

J. Slinker, D. Bernards, P. L. Houston, H. D. Abruna, S. Bernhard, G. G. Maliaras, "Solid-state electroluminescent devices based on transition metal complexes," Chem. Commun. 2392-2399 (2003).

Q. J. Sun, H. Q. Wang, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, "Synthesis and electroluminescence of novel copolymers containing crown ether spacers," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 800-806 (2003).

Q. J. Sun, H. Q. Wang, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cell based on a novel block copolymer containing tri(ethylene oxide) spacers," Synth. Met. 137, 1087-1088 (2003).

C. H. Yang, Q. J. Sun, J. Qiao, Y. F. Li, "Ionic liquid doped polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12981-12988 (2003).

Q. J. Sun, C. H. Yang, G. F. He, Y. F. Li, "Effects of electrode modifications on the performance of polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," Synth. Met. 138, 561-565 (2003).

2002 (11)

W. Lu, A. G. Fadeev, B. H. Qi, E. Smela, B. R. Mattes, J. Ding, G. M. Spinks, J. Mazurkiewicz, D. Z. Zhou, G. G. Wallace, D. R. MacFarlane, S. A. Forsyth, M. Forsyth, "Use of ionic liquids for pi-conjugated polymer electrochemical devices," Science 297, 983-987 (2002).

S. Panozzo, M. Armand, O. Stephan, "Light-emitting electrochemical cells using a molten delocalized salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 679-681 (2002).

T. Ouisse, T. M. Armand, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, "Fully transparent, organic light-emitting electrochemical cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3131-3133 (2002).

T. Ouisse, O. Stephan, M. Armand, J. C. Lepretre, "Double-layer formation in organic light-emitting electrochemical cells," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2795-2802 (2002).

Q. J. Sun, H. Q. Wang, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, "Blue-green light-emission LECs based on block copolymers containing di(alpha-naphthalene vinylene)benzene chromophores and tri(ethylene oxide) spacers," Synth. Met. 128, 161-165 (2002).

Q. J. Sun, H. Q. Wang, C. H. Yang, X. G. Wang, D. S. Liu, Y. F. Li, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells with the block copolymers containing PEO segments," Thin Solid Films 417, 14-19 (2002).

F. C. Chen, Y. Yang, Q. B. Pei, "Phosphorescent light-emitting electrochemical cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4278-4280 (2002).

C. Y. Liu, A. J. Bard, "Individually addressable submicron scale light-emitting devices based on electroluminescence of solid ${\hbox{Ru}}({\hbox{bpy}})_{3}{({\hbox{ClO}}_{4})}_{2}$ films," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 4190-4191 (2002).

M. Buda, G. Kalyuzhny, A. J. Bard, "Thin-film solid-state electroluminescent devices based on ${\rm tris}(2,2^{\prime}-{\rm bipyridine}){\rm ruthenium}({\rm II})$ complexes," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6090-6098 (2002).

S. Bernhard, J. A. Barron, P. L. Houston, H. D. Abruna, J. L. Ruglovsky, X. Gao, G. G. Malliara, "Electroluminescence in ruthenium(II) complexes," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 124, 13624-13628 (2002).

H. Rudmann, S. Shimada, M. F. Rubner, "Solid-state light-emitting devices based on tris-chelated ruthenium(II) complexes. 4. High efficiency light-emitting devices based on derivatives of the ${\hbox{tris}}(2,2^{\prime}-{\hbox{bipyridine}}){\hbox{ruthenium}}({\hbox{II}})$ complex," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 124, 4918-4921 (2002).

2001 (7)

H. Rudmann, M. F. Rubner, "Single layer light-emitting devices with high efficiency and long lifetime based on ${\hbox{tris}}(2,2^{\prime}{\hbox{bipyridyl}}){\hbox{ruthenium}}({\hbox{II}})$ hexafluorophosphate," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4338-4345 (2001).

Y. Kervella, M. Armand, O. Stephan, "Organic light-emitting electrochemical cells based on polyfluorene—Investigation of the failure modes," J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, H155-H160 (2001).

F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, W. J. Feast, P. W. Lovenich, "Poly(distyrylbenzene-block-sexi(ethylene oxide)), a highly luminescent processable derivative of PPV," Chem. Commun. 1778-1779 (2001).

L. F. Santos, L. M. Carvalho, F. E. G. Guimaraes, D. Goncalves, R. M. Faria, "Electrical and optical properties of light emitting electrochemical cells using MEH-PPV/PEO: Lithium-salt blends," Synth. Met. 121, 1697-1698 (2001).

J. Morgado, F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, B. S. Chuah, H. Rost, A. B. Holmes, "Light-emitting devices based on a poly(p-phenylenevinylene) statistical copolymer with oligo(ethylene oxide) side groups," Macromolecules 34, 3094-3099 (2001).

J. Morgado, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, B. S. Chuah, H. Rost, S. C. Moratti, A. B. Holmes, "Light-emitting electrochemical cells based on poly(p-phenylene vinylene) copolymers with ion-transporting side groups," Synth. Met. 122, 111-113 (2001).

C. Huang, W. Huang, J. Guo, C. Z. Yang, E. T. Kang, "A novel rigid-rod alternating poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivative with oligo(ethylene oxide) side chains," Polymer 42, 3929-3938 (2001).

2000 (3)

J. Morgado, F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, B. S. Chuah, S. C. Moratti, A. B. Holmes, "Luminescence properties of PPV-based copolymers with crown ether substituents," Synth. Met. 111, 449-452 (2000).

M. Sampietro, R. Sotgiu, F. P. Wenzl, L. Holzer, S. Tasch, G. Leising, "Electrical characteristics of light-emitting electrochemical cells based on a wide bandgap polymer," Phys. Rev. B 61, 266-271 (2000).

F. G. Gao, A. J. Bard, "Solid-state organic light-emitting diodes based on ${\rm tris}(2,2^{\prime}-{\rm bipyridine}){\rm ruthenium}({\rm II})$ complexes," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 7426-7427 (2000).

1999 (12)

E. S. Handy, A. J. Pal, M. F. Rubner, "Solid-state light-emitting devices based on the tris-chelated ruthenium(II) complexes. 2. tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) as a high-brightness emitter," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 121, 3525-3528 (1999).

T. Johansson, W. Mammo, M. R. Andersson, O. Inganas, "Light-emitting electrochemical cells from oligo(ethylene oxide)-substituted polythiophenes: Evidence for in situ doping," Chem. Mater. 11, 3133-3139 (1999).

J. Gao, Y. F. Li, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells with frozen junctions," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4594-4599 (1999).

J. Gao, A. J. Heeger, I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, "Direct observation of junction formation in polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," Phys. Rev. B 59, R2482-R2485 (1999).

T. M. Brown, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, R. Daik, W. J. Feast, "Built-in field electroabsorption spectroscopy of polymer light-emitting diodes incorporating a doped poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1679-1681 (1999).

T. Q. Nguyen, V. Doan, B. J. Schwartz, "Conjugated polymer aggregates in solution: Control of interchain interactions," J. Chem. Phys. 110, 4068-4078 (1999).

Y. F. Li, Y. Cao, J. Gao, D. L. Wang, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, "Electrochemical properties of luminescent polymers and polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," Synth. Met. 99, 243-248 (1999).

C. H. Yang, G. F. He, R. Q. Wang, Y. F. Li, "Luminescent block copolymer containing PEO-like segments for polymer light-emitting devices," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 337, 473-476 (1999).

L. Holzer, B. Winkler, F. P. Wenzl, S. Tasch, L. Dai, A. W. H. Mau, G. Leising, "Light-emitting electrochemical cells and light-emitting diodes based on ionic conductive poly(phenylene vinylene): A new chemical sensor system," Synth. Met. 100, 71-77 (1999).

S. Tasch, L. Holzer, F. P. Wenzl, J. Gao, B. Winkler, L. Dai, A. W. H. Mau, R. Sotgiu, M. Sampietro, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. J. Heeger, G. Leising, "Light-emitting electrochemical cells with microsecond response times based on PPPs and novel PPVs," Synth. Met. 102, 1046-1049 (1999).

J. Morgado, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, B. S. Chuah, S. C. Moratti, A. B. Holmes, "Light-emitting devices based on a poly(p-phenylene vinylene) derivative with ion-coordinating side groups," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6392-6395 (1999).

L. Holzer, F. P. Wenzl, S. Tasch, G. Leising, B. Winkler, L. Dai, A. W. H. Mau, "Ionochromism in a light-emitting electrochemical cell with low response time based on an ionic conductive poly-phenylene vinylene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2014-2016 (1999).

1998 (9)

J. A. Manzanares, H. Riess, A. J. Heeger, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells: A theoretical study of junction formation under steady-state conditions," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 4327-4336 (1998).

A. Kraft, A. C. Grimsdale, A. B. Holmes, "Electroluminescent conjugated polymers—Seeing polymers in a new light," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 402-428 (1998).

Y. F. Li, J. Gao, G. Yu, Y. Cao, A. J. Heeger, "Ac impedance of polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells and light-emitting diodes: A comparative study," Chem. Phys. Lett. 287, 83-88 (1998).

I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, C. J. Neef, J. P. Ferraris, "Capacitance measurements of junction formation and structure in polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2565-2567 (1998).

G. Yu, Y. Cao, C. Zhang, Y. F. Li, J. Gao, A. J. Heeger, "Complex admittance measurements of polymer light-emitting electrochemical-cells: Ionic and electronic contributions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 111-113 (1998).

Y. F. Li, J. Gao, D. L. Wang, G. Yu, Y. Cao, A. J. Heeger, "Ac impedance of frozen junction polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," Synth. Met. 97, 191-194 (1998).

G. Yu, Y. Cao, M. Andersson, J. Gao, A. J. Heeger, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells with frozen p-i-n junction at room temperature," Adv. Mater. 10, 385-388 (1998).

C. M. Elliott, F. Pichot, C. J. Bloom, L. S. Rider, "Highly efficient solid-state electrochemically generated chemiluminescence from ester-substituted trisbipyridineruthenium(II)-based polymers," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 120, 6781-6784 (1998).

C. H. Lyons, E. D. Abbas, J. K. Lee, M. F. Rubner, "Solid-state electroluminescent devices based on trischelated ruthenium(II) complexes. 1. Thin film blends with poly(ethylene oxide)," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12100-12107 (1998).

1997 (14)

K. M. Maness, H. Masui, R. M. Wightman, R. W. Murry, "Solid-state electrochemically generated luminescence based on serial frozen concentration gradients of Ru III/II and Ru II/I couples in a molten ruthenium $2,2^{\prime}-{\hbox{bipyridine}}$ complex," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 119, 3987-3993 (1997).

K. M. Maness, R. H. Terrill, T. J. Meyer, R. W. Murry, R. M. Wightman, "Solid-state diode-like chemiluminescence based on serial, immobilized concentration gradients in mixed-valent ${\rm poly}[{\hbox{Ru}}({\rm vbpy})_{3}{({\hbox{PF}}_{6})}_{2}$ films," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 118, 10609-10616 (1997).

J. Gao, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells with frozen p-i-n junction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1293-1295 (1997).

D. L. Smith, "Steady state model for polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2869-2880 (1997).

I. Riess, D. Cahen, "Analysis of light emitting polymer electrochemical cells," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3147-3151 (1997).

Y. Greenwald, F. Hide, J. Gao, F. Wudl, A. J. Heeger, "Cyclic voltammetry studies of light-emitting electrochemical cells," J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, L70-L72 (1997).

Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. Zhang, R. Menon, A. J. Heeger, "Polymer light-emitting diodes with polyethylene dioxythiophene-polystyrene sulfonate as the transparent anode," Synth. Met. 87, 171-174 (1997).

Q. B. Pei, Y. Yang, G. Yu, Y. Cao, A. J. Heeger, "Solid state polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells: Recent developments," Synth. Met. 85, 1229-1232 (1997).

Y. Yang, "Polymer electroluminescent devices," MRS Bulletin 22, 31-38 (1997).

Y. Yang, Q. B. Pei, "Efficient blue-green and white light-emitting electrochemical cells based on poly[9,9-bis(3,6-dioxaheptyl)-fluorene-2,7-diyl," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 3294-3298 (1997).

U. Lauter, W. H. Meyer, G. Wegner, "Molecular composites from rigid-rod poly(p-phenylene)s with oligo(oxyethylene) side chains as novel polymer electrolytes," Macromolecules 30, 2092-2101 (1997).

G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, "High efficiency photonic devices made with semiconducting polymers," Synth. Met. 85, 1183-1186 (1997).

G. Yu, Q. B. Pei, A. J. Heeger, "Planar light-emitting devices fabricated with luminescent electrochemical polyblends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 934-936 (1997).

Y. Cao, Q. B. Pei, M. R. Andersson, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, "Light-emitting electrochemical cells with crown ether as solid electrolyte," J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, L317-L320 (1997).

1996 (11)

Y. Yang, Q. B. Pei, "Voltage controlled two color light-emitting electrochemical cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2708-2710 (1996).

Y. Cao, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, C. Y. Yang, "Efficient, fast response light-emitting electrochemical cells: Electroluminescent and solid electrolyte polymers with interpenetrating network morphology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3218-3220 (1996).

Q. B. Pei, Y. Yang, "Efficient photoluminescence and electroluminescence from a soluble polyfluorene," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 7416-7417 (1996).

J. W. Baltchford, S. W. Jessen, L.-B. Lin, T. L. Gustafson, D.-K. Fu, H.-L. Wang, T. M. Swager, A. G. MacDiarmid, A. J. Epstein, "Photoluminescence in pyridine-based polymers: Role of aggregates," Phys. Rev. B 54, 9180-9189 (1996).

R. F. Mahrt, T. Pauck, U. Lemmer, U. Siegner, M. Hopmeier, R. Hennig, H. Bassler, E. O. Gobel, P. H. Bolivar, G. Wegmann, H. Kurz, U. Scherf, "Dynamics of optical excitations in a ladder-type pi-conjugated polymer containing aggregate states," Phys. Rev. B 54, 1759-1765 (1996).

J. W. Blatchford, A. J. Epstein, "Resource letter ERA-1: Electronic polymers and their applications," Amer. J. Phys. 64, 120-135 (1996).

Q. B. Pei, Y. Yang, G. Yu, C. Zhang, A. J. Heeger, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells: In situ formation of a light-emitting p-n junction," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 3922-3929 (1996).

Q. B. Pei, Y. Yang, "Solid-state polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," Synth. Met. 80, 131-136 (1996).

D. J. Dick, A. J. Heeger, Y. Yang, Q. B. Pei, "Imaging the structure of the p-n junction in polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," Adv. Mater. 8, 985-987 (1996).

V. Cimrova, W. Schmidt, R. Rulkens, M. Schulze, W. Meyer, D. Neher, "Efficient blue light emitting devices based on rigid-rod polyelectrolytes," Adv. Mater. 8, 585-588 (1996).

J. K. Lee, D. S. Yoo, E. S. Handy, M. F. Rubner, "Thin film light emitting devices from an electroluminescent ruthenium complex," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1686-1688 (1996).

1995 (3)

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, A. J. Heeger, "Polymer photovoltaic cells—Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions," Science 270, 1789-1791 (1995).

Q. B. Pei, G. Yu, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, A. J. Heeger, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical-cells," Science 269, 1086-1088 (1995).

H. Djellab, M. Armand, D. Delabouglise, "Stabilization of the conductivity of poly(3-methylthiophene) by triflimide anions," Synth. Met. 74, 223-226 (1995).

1994 (4)

J. E. Denness, D. Parker, H. V. A. Hubbard, "Synthesis of crown-ether polymers incorporating 12-membered and 13-membered tetraoxa rings linked to poly(propylene oxide) and poly(phosphazene) backbones and behavior of the lithium-doped materials," J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, 1445-1453 (1994).

M. M. Richter, F. R. F. Fan, F. Klavetter, A. J. Heeger, A. J. Bard, "Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence of films of the conjugated polymer 4-methoxy-(2-ethylhexoxyl)-2,5-polyphenylenevinylene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 226, 115-120 (1994).

S. Lascaud, M. Perrier, A. Vallee, S. Besner, J. Prudhomme, M. Armand, "Phase-diagrams and conductivity behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) molten-salt rubbery electrolytes," Macromolecules 27, 7469-7477 (1994).

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, T. M. Miller, "Deffect quenching of conjugated polymer luminescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 744-747 (1994).

1993 (1)

L. Collie, D. Parker, C. Tachon, H. V. S. Hubbard, G. R. Davies, I. M. Ward, S. C. Wellings, "Synthesis and lithium transport in ionically conducting crown-ether polymers," Polymer 34, 1541-1543 (1993).

1992 (1)

G. Gustafsson, Y. Cao, G. M. Treacy, F. Flavetter, N. Colaneri, A. J. Heeger, "Flexible light-emitting diodes made from soluble conducting polymer," Nature 357, 477-479 (1992).

1991 (1)

D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, "Visible-light emission from semiconducting polymer diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1982-1984 (1991).

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, A. B. Holmes, "Light-emitting diode based on conjugated polymers," Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).

1989 (1)

L. Geng, R. A. Reed, M. H. Kim, T. T. Wooster, B. N. Oliver, J. Egekeze, R. T. Kennedy, J. W. Jorgenson, J. F. Parcher, R. W. Murray, "Chemical phenomena in solid-state voltammetry in polymer solvents," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 111, 1614-1619 (1989).

1988 (2)

J. H. Burroughes, C. A. Jonnes, R. H. Friend, "New semiconductor device physics in polymer diodes and transistors," Nature 335, 137-141 (1988).

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Adv. Mater. (4)

D. J. Dick, A. J. Heeger, Y. Yang, Q. B. Pei, "Imaging the structure of the p-n junction in polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," Adv. Mater. 8, 985-987 (1996).

V. Cimrova, W. Schmidt, R. Rulkens, M. Schulze, W. Meyer, D. Neher, "Efficient blue light emitting devices based on rigid-rod polyelectrolytes," Adv. Mater. 8, 585-588 (1996).

G. Yu, Y. Cao, M. Andersson, J. Gao, A. J. Heeger, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells with frozen p-i-n junction at room temperature," Adv. Mater. 10, 385-388 (1998).

N. Armaroli, G. Accorsi, M. Holler, O. Moudam, J. F. Nerrengarten, Z. Zhou, R. T. Wegh, R. Welter, "Highly luminescent Cu-I complexes for light-emitting electrochemical cells," Adv. Mater. 18, 1313-1316 (2006).

Amer. J. Phys. (1)

J. W. Blatchford, A. J. Epstein, "Resource letter ERA-1: Electronic polymers and their applications," Amer. J. Phys. 64, 120-135 (1996).

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

A. Kraft, A. C. Grimsdale, A. B. Holmes, "Electroluminescent conjugated polymers—Seeing polymers in a new light," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 402-428 (1998).

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J. Gao, J. Dane, "Visualization of electrochemical doping and light-emitting junction formation in conjugated polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2778-2780 (2004).

L. Holzer, F. P. Wenzl, S. Tasch, G. Leising, B. Winkler, L. Dai, A. W. H. Mau, "Ionochromism in a light-emitting electrochemical cell with low response time based on an ionic conductive poly-phenylene vinylene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2014-2016 (1999).

J. H. Shin, S. Xiao, A. Fransson, L. Edman, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells: Frozen-junction operation of an ‘ionic liquid’ device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, (2005).

J. K. Lee, D. S. Yoo, E. S. Handy, M. F. Rubner, "Thin film light emitting devices from an electroluminescent ruthenium complex," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1686-1688 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. J. Sun, B. H. Fan, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, Y. Yang, "White light from polymer light-emitting diodes: Utilization of fluorenone defects and exciplex," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

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G. Ho, H. Meng, S. Lin, S. Horng, C. Hsu, L. Chen, S. Chang, "Efficient white light emission in conjugated polymer homojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4576-4578 (2004).

Y. H. Xu, J. B. Peng, Y. Q. Mo, Q. Hou, Y. Cao, "Efficient polymer white-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005).

Y. Cao, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, C. Y. Yang, "Efficient, fast response light-emitting electrochemical cells: Electroluminescent and solid electrolyte polymers with interpenetrating network morphology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3218-3220 (1996).

S. Panozzo, M. Armand, O. Stephan, "Light-emitting electrochemical cells using a molten delocalized salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 679-681 (2002).

T. Ouisse, T. M. Armand, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, "Fully transparent, organic light-emitting electrochemical cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3131-3133 (2002).

J. Gao, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, "Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells with frozen p-i-n junction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1293-1295 (1997).

Y. Zhang, Y. Hu, J. Gao, "Improving the efficiency of polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells by controlled doping relaxation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (200).

J. Dane, C. Tracy, J. Gao, "Direct observation of a frozen junction in polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005).

Y. Hu, C. Tracy, J. Gao, "High-resolution imaging of electrochemical doping and dedoping processes in luminescent conjugated polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, "Visible-light emission from semiconducting polymer diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1982-1984 (1991).

G. Yu, Q. B. Pei, A. J. Heeger, "Planar light-emitting devices fabricated with luminescent electrochemical polyblends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 934-936 (1997).

J. Shin, A. Dzwilewski, S. Xiao, A. Fransson, G. N. Ankah, L. Edman, "Light emission at 5 V from a polymer device with a millimeter-sized interelectrode gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006).

Y. Yang, Q. B. Pei, "Voltage controlled two color light-emitting electrochemical cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2708-2710 (1996).

I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, C. J. Neef, J. P. Ferraris, "Capacitance measurements of junction formation and structure in polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2565-2567 (1998).

G. Yu, Y. Cao, C. Zhang, Y. F. Li, J. Gao, A. J. Heeger, "Complex admittance measurements of polymer light-emitting electrochemical-cells: Ionic and electronic contributions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 111-113 (1998).

T. M. Brown, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, R. Daik, W. J. Feast, "Built-in field electroabsorption spectroscopy of polymer light-emitting diodes incorporating a doped poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1679-1681 (1999).

F. C. Chen, Y. Yang, Q. B. Pei, "Phosphorescent light-emitting electrochemical cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4278-4280 (2002).

J. Dane, J. Gao, "Imaging the degradation of polymer light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3905-3907 (2004).

Chem. Commun. (2)

J. Slinker, D. Bernards, P. L. Houston, H. D. Abruna, S. Bernhard, G. G. Maliaras, "Solid-state electroluminescent devices based on transition metal complexes," Chem. Commun. 2392-2399 (2003).

F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, W. J. Feast, P. W. Lovenich, "Poly(distyrylbenzene-block-sexi(ethylene oxide)), a highly luminescent processable derivative of PPV," Chem. Commun. 1778-1779 (2001).

Chem. Mater. (2)

T. Johansson, W. Mammo, M. R. Andersson, O. Inganas, "Light-emitting electrochemical cells from oligo(ethylene oxide)-substituted polythiophenes: Evidence for in situ doping," Chem. Mater. 11, 3133-3139 (1999).

D. Dini, "Electrochemiluminescence from organic emitters," Chem. Mater. 17, 1933-1945 (2005).

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