Abstract

This paper reviews our recent progress of GaN-based high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Firstly, by adopting chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrates in GaN-based LEDs, not only could increase the extraction quantum efficiency, but also improve the internal quantum efficiency. Secondly, we present a high light-extraction 465-nm GaN-based vertical light-emitting diode structure with double diffuse surfaces. The external quantum efficiency was demonstrated to be about 40%. The high performance LED was achieved mainly due to the strong guided-light scattering efficiency while employing double diffuse surfaces.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, 2003).
  2. A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid-State Light (Wiley-Interscience, 2002).
  3. M. Koike, N. Shibata, H. Kato, Y. Takahashi, "Development of high efficiency GaN-based multiquantum-well light-emitting diodes and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 271-277 (2002).
  4. S. D. Lester, F. A. Ponce, M. G. Craford, D. A. Steigerwald, "High dislocation densities in high efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1249-1251 (1995).
  5. M. Broditsky, E. Yablonovitch, "Light-emitting-diode extraction efficiency," Proc. SPI E (1997) pp. 119-122.
  6. S. J. Kim, "Vertical electrode GaN-based light-emitting diode fabricated by selective wet etching technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2921-2924 (2005).
  7. S. J. Kim, "Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diode by indium-tin-oxide transparent electrode and vertical electrode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1617-1619 (2005).
  8. Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "GaN-based LEDs with Al-deposited V-shape sapphire facet mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 724-726 (2006).
  9. K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, T. Taguchi, "High output power InGaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L583-L585 (2001).
  10. M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, T. Mukai, "InGaN-Based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1431-L1433 (2002).
  11. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, J. S. Fang, "Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN–GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 288-290 (2005).
  12. Z. H. Feng, K. M. Lau, "Enhanced luminescence from GaN-based blue LEDs grown on grooved sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1812-1814 (2005).
  13. Y. J. Lee, T. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, Y. L. Yang, S. N. Yen, Y. T. Chu, Y. J. Shen, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, "Improvement in light-output efficiency of near-ultraviolet InGaN–GaN LEDs fabricated on stripe patterned sapphire substrates," Mater. Sci. Eng.: B 122, 184-187 (2005).
  14. Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Enhancing output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1152-1154 (2006).
  15. J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Z. G. Xing, Y. Wang, H. Chen, J. M. Zhou, "Origin of selective growth of GaN on maskless V-grooved sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L982-L984 (2005).
  16. J. K. Kim, H. Luo, Y. Xi, J. M. Shah, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, "Light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diodes using diffuse omnidirectional reflectors," J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, G105-G107 (2006).
  17. D. I. Florescu, S. M. Ting, J. C. Ramer, D. S. Lee, V. N. Merai, A. Parkeh, D. Lu, E. A. Armour, L. Chernyak, "Investigation of V-defects and embedded inclusions in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 33-35 (2003).
  18. S. M. Ting, J. C. Ramer, D. I. Florescu, V. N. Merai, B. E. Albert, A. Parkeh, D. S. Lee, D. Lu, D. V. Christini, L. Liu, E. A. Armour, "Morphological evolution of InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructures grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1461-1467 (2003).
  19. A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. N. D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, P. Hinze, "Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127402 (2005).
  20. T. Gessmann, Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, J. K. Sheu, "GaInN light-emitting diodes with omni directional reflectors," Proc. SPIE (2003) pp. 139-144.
  21. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-855 (2004).
  22. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102 (2005).

2006 (3)

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "GaN-based LEDs with Al-deposited V-shape sapphire facet mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 724-726 (2006).

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Enhancing output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1152-1154 (2006).

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, Y. Xi, J. M. Shah, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, "Light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diodes using diffuse omnidirectional reflectors," J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, G105-G107 (2006).

2005 (8)

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Z. G. Xing, Y. Wang, H. Chen, J. M. Zhou, "Origin of selective growth of GaN on maskless V-grooved sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L982-L984 (2005).

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. N. D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, P. Hinze, "Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127402 (2005).

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102 (2005).

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, J. S. Fang, "Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN–GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 288-290 (2005).

Z. H. Feng, K. M. Lau, "Enhanced luminescence from GaN-based blue LEDs grown on grooved sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1812-1814 (2005).

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, Y. L. Yang, S. N. Yen, Y. T. Chu, Y. J. Shen, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, "Improvement in light-output efficiency of near-ultraviolet InGaN–GaN LEDs fabricated on stripe patterned sapphire substrates," Mater. Sci. Eng.: B 122, 184-187 (2005).

S. J. Kim, "Vertical electrode GaN-based light-emitting diode fabricated by selective wet etching technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2921-2924 (2005).

S. J. Kim, "Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diode by indium-tin-oxide transparent electrode and vertical electrode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1617-1619 (2005).

2004 (1)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-855 (2004).

2003 (2)

D. I. Florescu, S. M. Ting, J. C. Ramer, D. S. Lee, V. N. Merai, A. Parkeh, D. Lu, E. A. Armour, L. Chernyak, "Investigation of V-defects and embedded inclusions in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 33-35 (2003).

S. M. Ting, J. C. Ramer, D. I. Florescu, V. N. Merai, B. E. Albert, A. Parkeh, D. S. Lee, D. Lu, D. V. Christini, L. Liu, E. A. Armour, "Morphological evolution of InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructures grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1461-1467 (2003).

2002 (2)

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, T. Mukai, "InGaN-Based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1431-L1433 (2002).

M. Koike, N. Shibata, H. Kato, Y. Takahashi, "Development of high efficiency GaN-based multiquantum-well light-emitting diodes and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 271-277 (2002).

2001 (1)

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, T. Taguchi, "High output power InGaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L583-L585 (2001).

1995 (1)

S. D. Lester, F. A. Ponce, M. G. Craford, D. A. Steigerwald, "High dislocation densities in high efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1249-1251 (1995).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. D. Lester, F. A. Ponce, M. G. Craford, D. A. Steigerwald, "High dislocation densities in high efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1249-1251 (1995).

D. I. Florescu, S. M. Ting, J. C. Ramer, D. S. Lee, V. N. Merai, A. Parkeh, D. Lu, E. A. Armour, L. Chernyak, "Investigation of V-defects and embedded inclusions in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 33-35 (2003).

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-855 (2004).

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Enhancing output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1152-1154 (2006).

Z. H. Feng, K. M. Lau, "Enhanced luminescence from GaN-based blue LEDs grown on grooved sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1812-1814 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Koike, N. Shibata, H. Kato, Y. Takahashi, "Development of high efficiency GaN-based multiquantum-well light-emitting diodes and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 271-277 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. J. Kim, "Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diode by indium-tin-oxide transparent electrode and vertical electrode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1617-1619 (2005).

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "GaN-based LEDs with Al-deposited V-shape sapphire facet mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 724-726 (2006).

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, J. S. Fang, "Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN–GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 288-290 (2005).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, Y. Xi, J. M. Shah, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, "Light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diodes using diffuse omnidirectional reflectors," J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, G105-G107 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. M. Ting, J. C. Ramer, D. I. Florescu, V. N. Merai, B. E. Albert, A. Parkeh, D. S. Lee, D. Lu, D. V. Christini, L. Liu, E. A. Armour, "Morphological evolution of InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructures grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1461-1467 (2003).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, T. Mukai, "InGaN-Based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1431-L1433 (2002).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. J. Kim, "Vertical electrode GaN-based light-emitting diode fabricated by selective wet etching technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2921-2924 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, T. Taguchi, "High output power InGaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L583-L585 (2001).

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Z. G. Xing, Y. Wang, H. Chen, J. M. Zhou, "Origin of selective growth of GaN on maskless V-grooved sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L982-L984 (2005).

Mater. Sci. Eng.: B (1)

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, Y. L. Yang, S. N. Yen, Y. T. Chu, Y. J. Shen, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, "Improvement in light-output efficiency of near-ultraviolet InGaN–GaN LEDs fabricated on stripe patterned sapphire substrates," Mater. Sci. Eng.: B 122, 184-187 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. N. D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, P. Hinze, "Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127402 (2005).

Other (4)

T. Gessmann, Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, J. K. Sheu, "GaInN light-emitting diodes with omni directional reflectors," Proc. SPIE (2003) pp. 139-144.

M. Broditsky, E. Yablonovitch, "Light-emitting-diode extraction efficiency," Proc. SPI E (1997) pp. 119-122.

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, 2003).

A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid-State Light (Wiley-Interscience, 2002).

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