Abstract

High birefringence and low viscosity isothiocyanates liquid crystal single compounds and eutectic mixtures, based solely on laterally fluorinated aromatic rigid core structures, are reported. Extraordinarily high values of figure-of-merit were observed at room temperature and also elevated temperatures for the nematic mixtures we formulated. Potential applications of such mixtures for laser beam steering at λ=1.55 μm using optical phased arrays are emphasized.

© 2006 IEEE

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  27. P. T. Lin, S. T. Wu, C. Y. Chang, C. S. Hsu, "UV stability of high birefringence liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 411, 243-253 (2004).
  28. C. O. Catanescu, L. C. Chien, "High birefringence difluoro-isothiocyanate biphenyl tolane liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 33, 115-120 (2006).
  29. C. H. Wen, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, "Ultraviolet stability of liquid crystals containing cyano and isothiocyanato terminal groups," Liq. Cryst. 31, 1479-1485 (2004).
  30. I. K. Huh, Y. B. Kim, "Electro-optical properties of liquid crystal mixtures containing fluoroisothiocyanated compounds," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6484-6485 (2002).
  31. S. Gauza, J. Li, S. T. Wu, A. Spadlo, R. Dabrowski, Y. N. Tzeng, K. L. Cheng, "High birefringence and high resistivity isothiocyanate-based nematic liquid crystal mixtures," Liq. Cryst. 32, 1077-1085 (2005).

Adv. Funct. Mater.

N. Mizoshita, K. Hanabusa, T. Kato, "Fast and high-contrast electro-optical switching of liquid-crystalline physical gels: formation of oriented microphase-separated structures," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 313-317 (2003).

Appl. Opt.

S. T. Wu, A. M. Lackner, U. Efron, "Optimal operation temperature of liquid crystal modulators," Appl. Opt. 26, 3441-3445 (1987).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, L. R. Dalton, C. S. Hsu, S. H. Lung, "Room-temperature diphenyl-diacetylene liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 630-632 (1992).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, "Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074-1076 (1994).

Y. H. Fan, H. W. Ren, S. T. Wu, "Normal mode anisotropic liquid crystal gels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2945-2947 (2003).

Ferroelectrics

M. D. Wand, R. T. Vohra, W. N. Thurmes, K. M. More, "Tolane cinnamates-a new class of stable, high birefringence dopants," Ferroelectrics 180, 333-339 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys.

S. T. Wu, U. Finkenzeller, V. Reiffenrath, "Physical properties of diphenyldiacetylenicliquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4372-4376 (1989).

J. Mol. Liquids

J. A. Malecki, J. Nowak, "Intermolecular interactions in benzene solutions of 4-heptyl-3$^{\prime}$-cyano-biphenyl studied with non-linear dielectric effects," J. Mol. Liquids 81, 245-252 (1999).

J. Soc. Inf. Display

S. Kibe, N. Hattori, M. Ushioda, H. Yamamoto, S. Matsui, "Novel liquid-crystal materials for AMLCDs," J. Soc. Inf. Display 11, 449-455 (2003).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

I. K. Huh, Y. B. Kim, "Fluoro-isothiocyanated liquid crystal materials with high dielectric anisotropy and voltage holding ratio," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6466-6470 (2002).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, C. S. Hsu, "Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7634-7638 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

I. K. Huh, Y. B. Kim, "Electro-optical properties of liquid crystal mixtures containing fluoroisothiocyanated compounds," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6484-6485 (2002).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, R. Dabrowski, "High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 13463-3466 (2003).

Liq. Cryst.

C. Sekine, K. Iwakura, N. Konya, M. Minai, K. Fujisawa, "Synthesis and properties of some novel high birefringence phenylacetylene liquid crystal materials with lateral substituents," Liq. Cryst. 28, 1375-1387 (2001).

A. Spadlo, R. Dabrowski, M. Filipowicz, Z. Stolarz, J. Przedmojski, S. Gauza, Y. H. Fan, S. T. Wu, "Synthesis, mesomorphic and optical properties of isothiocyanatotolanes," Liq. Cryst. 30, 191-198 (2003).

S. Gauza, J. Li, S. T. Wu, A. Spadlo, R. Dabrowski, Y. N. Tzeng, K. L. Cheng, "High birefringence and high resistivity isothiocyanate-based nematic liquid crystal mixtures," Liq. Cryst. 32, 1077-1085 (2005).

C. O. Catanescu, L. C. Chien, "High birefringence difluoro-isothiocyanate biphenyl tolane liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 33, 115-120 (2006).

C. H. Wen, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, "Ultraviolet stability of liquid crystals containing cyano and isothiocyanato terminal groups," Liq. Cryst. 31, 1479-1485 (2004).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

P. T. Lin, S. T. Wu, C. Y. Chang, C. S. Hsu, "UV stability of high birefringence liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 411, 243-253 (2004).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

Y. Goto, T. Ogawa, S. Sawada, S. Sugimori, "Fluorinated liquid crystals for active matrix displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 209, 1-7 (1991).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

G. W. Gray, D. G. McDonnell, "Synthesis and liquid crystal properties of chiral alkyl-cyano-biphenyls (and -p-terphenyls) and of some related chiral compounds derived from biphenyl," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 37, 189-211 (1976).

C. Sekine, K. Fujisawa, K. Iwakura, M. Minai, "High birefringence phenylacetylene liquid crystals with low viscosity," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 364, 711-718 (2000).

C. O. Catanescu, L. C. Chien, "High birefringence nematic liquid crystals for display and telecom applications," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 411, 93-102 (2004).

Opt. Expr.

Y. Lu, F. Du, Y. H. Lin, S. T. Wu, "Variable optical attenuator based on polymer-stabilized twisted nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Expr. 12, 1221-1227 (2004).

Phase Transition

R. Dabrowski, J. Przedmojski, A. Spadlo, J. Dziaduszek, M. Tykarska, "Features of the smectic e phases in some strongly polar biphenyls and tolanes," Phase Transition 77, 1103-1110 (2004).

Phys. Rev. A

S. T. Wu, "Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 30, 1270-1274 (1986).

Proc. IEEE

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).

Other

T. Geelhaar, K. Tarumi, H. Hirschmann, "Trends in LC materials," SID Symp. Dig. (1996) pp. 167-170.

S. T. Wu, D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

J. L. Fergason, "Polymer encapsulated nematic liquid crystals for display and light control applications," SID Symp. Dig. (1985) pp. 68-70.

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