Abstract

In this paper, we examined the effect of post-packaging annealing on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes containing tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) or 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) in direct contact with a LiF-Al bilayer cathode. The detailed electroluminescent (EL) characteristics were compared before and after annealing at 70 °C for 5 hrs. It was found that better luminous efficiency as well as greater power efficiency could be achieved for devices with BCP/LiF/Al structure. However, other devices consisting of Alq3/LiF/Al were less affected. It is believed that the thermal treatment helps to enhance the electron injection for the former, and less helpful for the latter.

© 2006 IEEE

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  2. M. Hack, J. J. Brown, J. K. Mahon, R. Kwong, R. Hewitt, "Performance of high efficiency AMOLED display," J. Soc. Inf. Display 9, 191-195 (2001).
  3. S. H. Ju, S. H. Yu, J. H. Kwon, H. D. Kim, B. H. Kim, S. C. Kim, H. K. Chung, M. S. Weaver, M. H. Lu, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, "High performance 2.2-in. QCIF full-color AMOLED display based on electrophosphorescence," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2002) pp. 1096-1099.
  4. R. C. Kwong, M. R. Nugent, L. Michalski, T. Ngo, K. Rajan, Y. J. Tung, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, "Display properties of high-efficiency electrophosphorescent diodes," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers(2002) pp. 1365-1367.
  5. J. Brown, R. Kwong, Y. J. Tung, V. Adamovich, M. Weaver, M. Hack, "Recent progress in high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED technology," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 12, 329-332 (2004).
  6. J. Pommerehne, H. Vestweber, Y. H. Tak, H. Bassler, "Transient electroluminescence from single- and double-layer light-emitting diodes (LED's) based on polymer blends," Synthetic Metals 76, 67-70 (1996).
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  15. M. Y. Chan, S. L. Lai, F. L. Wong, O. Lengyel, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, "Efficiency enhancement and retarded dark-spots growth of organic light-emitting devices by high-temperature processing," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 700-706 (2003).
  16. C. Y. Kwong, A. B. Djurisic, V. A. L. Roy, P. T. Lai, W. K. Chan, "Influence of the substrate temperature to the performance of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum based organic light emitting diodes," Thin Solid Films 458, 281-286 (2004).
  17. B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, T. K. S. Wong, X. Hu, A. Uddin, "Organic light-emitting devices with in situ postgrowth annealed organic layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 063 505 (2005).
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  19. C. W. Chen, T. Y. Cho, C. C. Wu, H. L. Yu, T. Y. Luh, "Fuzzy-junction organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1570 (2002).
  20. C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, T. Y. Cho, "Three-color reconfigurable organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 611 (2003).
  21. G. Parthasarathy, C. Shen, A. Kahn, S. R. Forrest, "Lithium doping of semiconducting organic charge transport materials," J. Appl. Phys 89, 4986 (2001).
  22. J. H. Lee, J. J. Huang, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, Y. Chang, "Operation lifetimes of organic light-emitting devices with different layer structues," Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 335-339 (2005).
  23. Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, Y. T. Tao, C. H. Chien, Y. M. Cheng, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, C. S. Liu, "Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Os(II) emitters: generation of saturated red emission with very high external quantum efficiency," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 460-464 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).

D. S. Qin, D. H. Yan, L. X. Wang, "Comment on “Organic electroluminescent devices by high-temperature processing and crystalline hole transporting layer” [Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3269 (1999)]," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3113-3114 (2000).

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, T. Y. Cho, "Three-color reconfigurable organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 611 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. W. Chen, T. Y. Cho, C. C. Wu, H. L. Yu, T. Y. Luh, "Fuzzy-junction organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1570 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Q. Gao, W. Y. Lai, T. C. Wong, C. S. Lee, I. Bello, S. T. Lee, "Organic electroluminescent devices by high-temperature processing and crystalline hole transporting layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3269-3271 (1999).

Z. Q. Gao, W. Y. Lai, T. C. Wong, C. S. Lee, I. Bello, S. T. Lee, "Response to “Comment on “Organic electroluminescent devices by high-temperature processing and crystalline hole transporting layer”” [Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3113 (2000)]," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3115 (2000).

D. S. Qin, D. C. Li, Y. Wang, J. D. Zhang, Z. Y. Xie, G. Wang, L. X. Wang, D. H. Yan, "Effects of the morphologies and structures of light-emitting layers on the performance of organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 437-439 (2001).

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, T. K. S. Wong, X. Hu, A. Uddin, "Organic light-emitting devices with in situ postgrowth annealed organic layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 063 505 (2005).

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, Y. T. Lin, H. L. Yu, J. H. Hsu, T. Y. Luh, "Programmable organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3023 (2001).

C. F. Qiu, L. D. Wang, H. Y. Chen, M. Wong, H. S. Kwok, "Room-temperature ultraviolet emission from an organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2276-2278 (2001).

Chem. Phys. Lett.

M. Y. Chan, S. L. Lai, F. L. Wong, O. Lengyel, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, "Efficiency enhancement and retarded dark-spots growth of organic light-emitting devices by high-temperature processing," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 700-706 (2003).

J. H. Lee, J. J. Huang, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, Y. Chang, "Operation lifetimes of organic light-emitting devices with different layer structues," Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 335-339 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

L. C. Palilis, M. Uchida, Z. H. Kafafi, "Electron injection in “Electron-Only” devices based on a symmetric metal/silole/metal structure," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 79-88 (2004).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc.

K. Tamao, M. Uchida, T. Izumizawa, K. Furukawa, S. Yamaguchi, "Silole derivatives as efficient electron transporting materials," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 118, 11 974 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys

G. Parthasarathy, C. Shen, A. Kahn, S. R. Forrest, "Lithium doping of semiconducting organic charge transport materials," J. Appl. Phys 89, 4986 (2001).

J. Mater. Chem.

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, Y. T. Tao, C. H. Chien, Y. M. Cheng, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, C. S. Liu, "Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Os(II) emitters: generation of saturated red emission with very high external quantum efficiency," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 460-464 (2005).

J. Soc. Inf. Display

M. Hack, J. J. Brown, J. K. Mahon, R. Kwong, R. Hewitt, "Performance of high efficiency AMOLED display," J. Soc. Inf. Display 9, 191-195 (2001).

J. Soc. Inf. Displays

J. Brown, R. Kwong, Y. J. Tung, V. Adamovich, M. Weaver, M. Hack, "Recent progress in high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED technology," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 12, 329-332 (2004).

Synthetic Metals

J. Pommerehne, H. Vestweber, Y. H. Tak, H. Bassler, "Transient electroluminescence from single- and double-layer light-emitting diodes (LED's) based on polymer blends," Synthetic Metals 76, 67-70 (1996).

Thin Solid Films

C. Y. Kwong, A. B. Djurisic, V. A. L. Roy, P. T. Lai, W. K. Chan, "Influence of the substrate temperature to the performance of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum based organic light emitting diodes," Thin Solid Films 458, 281-286 (2004).

Other

S. H. Ju, S. H. Yu, J. H. Kwon, H. D. Kim, B. H. Kim, S. C. Kim, H. K. Chung, M. S. Weaver, M. H. Lu, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, "High performance 2.2-in. QCIF full-color AMOLED display based on electrophosphorescence," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2002) pp. 1096-1099.

R. C. Kwong, M. R. Nugent, L. Michalski, T. Ngo, K. Rajan, Y. J. Tung, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, "Display properties of high-efficiency electrophosphorescent diodes," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers(2002) pp. 1365-1367.

M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient deep blue organic light-emitting devices," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2005) pp. 810-813.

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