Abstract

In this paper, we review the properties of up-conversion (UC) materials and assess their potential for a new display technology. UC materials absorb near infrared light and re-emit in the visible. Some of their most appealing characteristics for displays are: a wide color gamut with very saturated colors, very high brightness operation without damage to the emitters, long lifetimes and efficiencies comparable to those of existing technologies. Other advantages include simplicity of fabrication, versatility of operation modes,and the potential for greatly reduced display weight and depth.

© 2006 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. N. Bloembergen, "Solid state infrared quantum counters", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 84-85, 1959.
  2. L. Esterowitz, A. Schnitzler, J. Noonan and J. Bahler, "Rare earth infrared quantum counter", Appl. Opt., vol. 7, pp. 2053-2070, 1968.
  3. L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan and J. Bahler, "Enhancement in a Ho3+ [single Bond] Yb3+ quantum counter by energy transfer", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 126-126, 1967.
  4. F. Auzel, "Application of resonant energy transfers to the laser effect in Er-doped glasses", Ann. Telecommun., vol. 24, pp. 363-376, 1969.
  5. J. E. Geusic, F. W. Ostermayer, H. M. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert and J. P. van der Ziel, "Efficiency of red, green and blue infrared-to-visible conversion sources", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, pp. 1958-1960, 1971.
  6. H. J. Guggenheim and L. F. Johnson, "New fluoride compounds for efficient infrared-to-visible conversion", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 51-52, 1969 .
  7. L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, H. J. Guggenheim, T. Kushida, S. Singh and L. G. Van Uitert, "Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 48-50, 1969.
  8. L. G. Van Uitert, S. Singh, H. J. Levinstein, L. F. Johnson, W. H. Grodkiewicz and J. E. Geusic, "Efficient infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth oxychlorides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 53-54, 1969.
  9. W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, "Upconversion lasers", Opt. Photon. News, vol. 3, pp. 8-8, 1992.
  10. X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass and B. H. T Chai, "Energy transfer in Yb sensitized upconversion laser crystals", in Summaries of Papers-Int. Quantum Electronics Conf. (IQEC '94), vol. 9, 1994, pp. 40-40.
  11. G. Huber, E. Heumann, T. Sandrock and K. Petermann, "Up-conversion processes in laser crystals", J. Luminescence, vol. 72-74, pp. 1-1, 1997.
  12. H. Scheife, G. Huber, E. Heumann, S. Bar and E. Osiac, "Advances in up-conversion lasers based on Er and Pr", Opt. Mater., vol. 26, pp. 365-365, 2004.
  13. E. Osiac, E. Heumann, G. Huber, S. Kuck, E. Sani, A. Toncelli and M. Tonelli, "Orange and red upconversion laser pumped by an avalanche mechanism in Pr, Yb:BaY2F8", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 3832-3832, 2003.
  14. R. J. Thrash and L. F. Johnson, "Upconversion laser emission from Yb-sensitized Tm in BaY2F8", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (Opt. Phys.), vol. 11, pp. 881-881, 1994.
  15. "SHEDS: The next revolution for the laser diode," in Photon. Spectra, 2005, pp. 89-118.
  16. M. L. F. Phillips, M. P. Hehlen, K. Nguyen, J. M. Sheldon and N. J. Cockroft, "Upconversion phosphors: Recent advances and new applications", in Proc. Eighth Int. Symp. Physics and Chemistry of Luminescent Materials, vol. 99-40, Honolulu, HI, Oct. 1999, pp. 123-127.
  17. R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, P. A. Waide, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke and W. K. Bischel, "Upconversion-pumped luminescence efficiency of rare-earth-doped hosts sensitized with trivalent ytterbium", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (Opt. Phys.), vol. 15, pp. 996 -1008, 1998.
  18. A. Rapaport, F. Szipocs, J. Milliez, H. Jenssen, M. Bass, K. Schafer, K. Belfield and M. Bass, "Optically written displays based on up-conversion of near infrared light", in Proc. Seventh Int.Display Workshops (IDW'00), Kobe, Japan, 2000, pp. 825 -828.
  19. A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, F. Szipocs, A. Cassanho, H. Jenssen and M. Bass, "Properties of a new, efficient, blue emitting material for applications in up-conversion displays: Yb,Tm: KY3F10", Appl. Opt., vol. 43, pp. 6477-6480, 2004.
  20. A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho and H. Jenssen, "Review of the properties of up-conversion phosphors for new emissive displays", in SID'2004 Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers , vol. XXXV, Seattle, WA, May 2004, pp. 1237-1239.
  21. A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho and H. Jenssen, "Role of pump duration on temperature and efficiency of up-conversion in fluoride crystals co-doped with ytterbium and thulium", Opt. Expr., vol. 12, pp. 5215-5220, 2004.
  22. J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, F. Szipocs, M. Bass, A. Cassanho and H. Jenssen, "Up-conversion efficiency of potential candidates for photonic displays", in SID'2003 Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXIV, Baltimore, MD, May 2003, pp. 1230-1233.
  23. M. Bass and K. Belfield, "Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts", Patent no. 6 844 387, Jan. 18, 2005.
  24. A. Travis, F. Payne, J. Zhong and J. Moore, "Flat panel display using projection within a wedge-shaped waveguide", in Conf. Rec. 20th Int. Display Res. Conf., Palm Beach, FL, Sep. 2000, pp. 292-295.
  25. A. R. L. Travis, "Achromatic Flat-Panel Display", Patent no. 6 883 919, Apr, 26, 2005.
  26. J. L. Sommerdijk, A. Bril, J. A. de Poorter and R. E. Breemer, "Fluorescence decay of Yb, Er-doped compounds. II. Cathode-ray excitation", Philips Res. Rep., vol. 29, pp. 13-24, 1974 .
  27. G. Ozen, D. J. P. Xu Wu, A. Kermaoui, F. Pelle and B. Blanzat, "Optical properties and upconverted emissions of Tm in Yb doped fluorophosphate glasses", J. Physics & Chemistry of Solids, vol. 54, pp. 1533-1533, 1993.
  28. R. A. Hewes and J. F. Sarver, "Infrared excitation processes for the visible luminescence of Er, Ho and Tm in Yb-sensitized rare-earth trifluorides", Phys. Rev., vol. 182, pp. 427-436, 1969.
  29. H. Berthou and C. K. Jorgensen, "Optical-fiber temperature sensor based on upconversion-excited fluorescence", Opt. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1100-1102, 1990.
  30. P. V. Dos Santos, M. T. De Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. M. Neto and A. S. B. Sombra, "Optical thermometry through infrared excited upconversion fluorescence emission in Er-and Er-Yb-doped chalcogenide glasses", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, pp. 395-399, 1999.
  31. A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho and H. Jenssen, "Numerical model of the temperature dependence of the up-conversion efficiency of fluoride crystals codoped with ytterbium and thulium", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 97, pp. 123 527-123 527, 2005.
  32. J. L. Sommerdijk, "On the excitation mechanisms of the infrared-excited visible luminescence in Yb, Er-doped fluorides", J. Luminescence, vol. 4, pp. 441-449, 1971.
  33. L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich and F. W. Ostermayer, "Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, pp. 1125-1137, 1972.
  34. S. L. Jacques, "Role of tissue optics and pulse duration on tissue effects during high-power laser irradiation", Appl. Opt., vol. 32, pp. 2447-2454, 1993.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (30)

P. V. Dos Santos, M. T. De Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. M. Neto and A. S. B. Sombra, "Optical thermometry through infrared excited upconversion fluorescence emission in Er-and Er-Yb-doped chalcogenide glasses", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, pp. 395-399, 1999.

A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho and H. Jenssen, "Numerical model of the temperature dependence of the up-conversion efficiency of fluoride crystals codoped with ytterbium and thulium", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 97, pp. 123 527-123 527, 2005.

J. L. Sommerdijk, "On the excitation mechanisms of the infrared-excited visible luminescence in Yb, Er-doped fluorides", J. Luminescence, vol. 4, pp. 441-449, 1971.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich and F. W. Ostermayer, "Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, pp. 1125-1137, 1972.

N. Bloembergen, "Solid state infrared quantum counters", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 84-85, 1959.

A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho and H. Jenssen, "Review of the properties of up-conversion phosphors for new emissive displays", in SID'2004 Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers , vol. XXXV, Seattle, WA, May 2004, pp. 1237-1239.

A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho and H. Jenssen, "Role of pump duration on temperature and efficiency of up-conversion in fluoride crystals co-doped with ytterbium and thulium", Opt. Expr., vol. 12, pp. 5215-5220, 2004.

J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, F. Szipocs, M. Bass, A. Cassanho and H. Jenssen, "Up-conversion efficiency of potential candidates for photonic displays", in SID'2003 Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXIV, Baltimore, MD, May 2003, pp. 1230-1233.

M. Bass and K. Belfield, "Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts", Patent no. 6 844 387, Jan. 18, 2005.

A. Travis, F. Payne, J. Zhong and J. Moore, "Flat panel display using projection within a wedge-shaped waveguide", in Conf. Rec. 20th Int. Display Res. Conf., Palm Beach, FL, Sep. 2000, pp. 292-295.

A. R. L. Travis, "Achromatic Flat-Panel Display", Patent no. 6 883 919, Apr, 26, 2005.

J. L. Sommerdijk, A. Bril, J. A. de Poorter and R. E. Breemer, "Fluorescence decay of Yb, Er-doped compounds. II. Cathode-ray excitation", Philips Res. Rep., vol. 29, pp. 13-24, 1974 .

G. Ozen, D. J. P. Xu Wu, A. Kermaoui, F. Pelle and B. Blanzat, "Optical properties and upconverted emissions of Tm in Yb doped fluorophosphate glasses", J. Physics & Chemistry of Solids, vol. 54, pp. 1533-1533, 1993.

R. A. Hewes and J. F. Sarver, "Infrared excitation processes for the visible luminescence of Er, Ho and Tm in Yb-sensitized rare-earth trifluorides", Phys. Rev., vol. 182, pp. 427-436, 1969.

L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan and J. Bahler, "Enhancement in a Ho3+ [single Bond] Yb3+ quantum counter by energy transfer", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 126-126, 1967.

F. Auzel, "Application of resonant energy transfers to the laser effect in Er-doped glasses", Ann. Telecommun., vol. 24, pp. 363-376, 1969.

J. E. Geusic, F. W. Ostermayer, H. M. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert and J. P. van der Ziel, "Efficiency of red, green and blue infrared-to-visible conversion sources", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, pp. 1958-1960, 1971.

H. J. Guggenheim and L. F. Johnson, "New fluoride compounds for efficient infrared-to-visible conversion", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 51-52, 1969 .

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, H. J. Guggenheim, T. Kushida, S. Singh and L. G. Van Uitert, "Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 48-50, 1969.

L. G. Van Uitert, S. Singh, H. J. Levinstein, L. F. Johnson, W. H. Grodkiewicz and J. E. Geusic, "Efficient infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth oxychlorides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 53-54, 1969.

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, "Upconversion lasers", Opt. Photon. News, vol. 3, pp. 8-8, 1992.

X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass and B. H. T Chai, "Energy transfer in Yb sensitized upconversion laser crystals", in Summaries of Papers-Int. Quantum Electronics Conf. (IQEC '94), vol. 9, 1994, pp. 40-40.

G. Huber, E. Heumann, T. Sandrock and K. Petermann, "Up-conversion processes in laser crystals", J. Luminescence, vol. 72-74, pp. 1-1, 1997.

H. Scheife, G. Huber, E. Heumann, S. Bar and E. Osiac, "Advances in up-conversion lasers based on Er and Pr", Opt. Mater., vol. 26, pp. 365-365, 2004.

E. Osiac, E. Heumann, G. Huber, S. Kuck, E. Sani, A. Toncelli and M. Tonelli, "Orange and red upconversion laser pumped by an avalanche mechanism in Pr, Yb:BaY2F8", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 3832-3832, 2003.

R. J. Thrash and L. F. Johnson, "Upconversion laser emission from Yb-sensitized Tm in BaY2F8", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (Opt. Phys.), vol. 11, pp. 881-881, 1994.

"SHEDS: The next revolution for the laser diode," in Photon. Spectra, 2005, pp. 89-118.

M. L. F. Phillips, M. P. Hehlen, K. Nguyen, J. M. Sheldon and N. J. Cockroft, "Upconversion phosphors: Recent advances and new applications", in Proc. Eighth Int. Symp. Physics and Chemistry of Luminescent Materials, vol. 99-40, Honolulu, HI, Oct. 1999, pp. 123-127.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, P. A. Waide, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke and W. K. Bischel, "Upconversion-pumped luminescence efficiency of rare-earth-doped hosts sensitized with trivalent ytterbium", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (Opt. Phys.), vol. 15, pp. 996 -1008, 1998.

A. Rapaport, F. Szipocs, J. Milliez, H. Jenssen, M. Bass, K. Schafer, K. Belfield and M. Bass, "Optically written displays based on up-conversion of near infrared light", in Proc. Seventh Int.Display Workshops (IDW'00), Kobe, Japan, 2000, pp. 825 -828.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.