Abstract

Fringing-field effects on high-resolution liquid crystal microdisplay devices, including the reflection-type liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) and transmission-type poly-silicon thin-film-transistor liquid crystal displays are simulated by the beam propagation method. The electro-optic performances of six commonly used liquid crystal modes are analyzed by the two-dimensional optical simulator. The vertically aligned (VA) cell exhibits the highest contrast ratio, but its fringing-field effect is severe. A circularly polarized light illuminated LCOS device is presented to eliminate the fringing-field effect of the VA cell. Both simulated and confirming experimental results show that the long-standing problems of poor sharpness, low brightness, and slow transition time of the VA cell can be overcome by using a circularly polarized light.

© 2005 IEEE

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  27. P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, Oxford: U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1993.
  28. P. C. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays, New York: Wiley, 1999.
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  30. J. E. Anderson, J. Gandhi and M. E. Stefenov, "PH-VAN system design for high contrast rub-free microdisplays", in Soc. Inf. Display Tech. Dig., vol. 32, May 2001, pp. 340-343.
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  32. H. Kogelnik, "Couple wave theory for thick hologram grating", Bell. Syst. Tech. J., vol. 48, pp. 2909-2947, 1969.

Other

E. H. Stupp and M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Displays, New York: Wiley, 1998.

Y. Ji, J. Grandhi and M. E. Stefanov, "Fringing-field effects in reflective CMOS LCD", in Soc. Inf. Display Tech. Dig., vol. 30, May 1999, pp. 750 -753.

K. H. F. Chiang, S. H. Chen and S. T. Wu, "Diffraction effect on the high resolution liquid-crystal-on-silicon devices", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 44, pp. 3068-3072, May 2005 .

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, "Mixed-mode twisted nematic liquid crystal cells for reflective display", Appl. Phy. Lett., vol. 68, pp. 1455-1457, Mar. 1996.

P. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, J. Dean and R. Albu, "Design aspects of a scrolling color LCoS display", Displays, vol. 23, pp. 99-108, 2002.

J. Grinberg, A. Jacobson, W. Bleha, L. Boswell and G. Myer, "New real-time noncoherent to coherent light image converter-hybrid field-effect liquid-crystal light valve", Opt. Eng., vol. 14, pp. 217-225, Mar. 1975.

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, "A biaxial film-compensated thin homogenous cell for reflective liquid crystal display", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 83, pp. 4096-4100, Apr. 1998.

M. F. Schiekel and K. Fahewnschon, "Deformation of nematic liquid crystals with vertical orientation in electric fields", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 19, pp. 391-393, Nov. 1971.

W. Y. Chou, C. H. Hsu, S. W. Chang, H. C. Chiang and T. Y. Ho, "A novel design to eliminate fringe field effects for liquid crystal on silicon", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 41, pp. 7386-7390, Dec. 2002 .

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems I. Description and discussion of the calculus", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 31, pp. 488-493, July 1941 .

D. W. Berreman, "Optics in stratified and anisotropic media-4 4-matrix formulation", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 62, pp. 502-510, Apr. 1972.

A. Lien, "Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique-incidence", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 57, pp. 2767-2769, Dec. 1990.

B. Witzigmann, P. Regli and W. Fichtner, "Rigorous electromagnetic simulation of liquid crystal displays", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 15, pp. 753-757, Mar. 1998.

E. E. Kriezis and S. J. Elston, "Finite-difference time domain method for light wave propagation within liquid crystal devices", Opt. Commun., vol. 165, pp. 99 -105, July 1999.

E. E. Kriezis and S. J. Elston, "Light wave propagation in liquid crystal displays by the 2-D finite-difference time-domain method", Opt. Commun., vol. 177, pp. 69-77, Apr. 2000.

K. H. F. Chiang, S. T. Wu and S. H. Chen, "High-definition vertically-aligned liquid crystal microdisplays using a circularly polarized light", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 87, p. 031 110, Jul. 2005.

D. A. Yakovlev, V. I. Tsoy and V. G. Chigrinov, "Advanced Tools for Modeling of 2D-Optics of LCDs", in Soc. Inf. Display Tech. Dig., vol. 36, May 2005, pp. 58- 61.

E. E. Kriezis and S. J. Elston, "A wide angle beam propagation method for the analysis of tilted nematic liquid crystal structures", J. Mod. Opt., vol. 46, pp. 1201-1212, Jul. 1999.

E. E. Kriezis and S. J. Elston, "Wide-angle beam propagation method for liquid-crystal device calculations", Appl. Opt. , vol. 39, pp. 5707-5714, Nov. 2000.

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays, New York: Wiley, 2001.

G. R. Hadley, "Transparent boundary condition for the beam propagation method", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 363-370, Jan. 1992.

D. Cuypers, H. De Smet and A. Van Calster, "Fringing-field induced Disclinations in VAN LCoS Panels", in Int. Display Workshop, 2004, pp. 1679-1682.

id="ref23"twemrule="yes"> D. Cuypers, H. De Smet and A. Van Calster, "Fringing field effects in microdisplays", in Soc. Inf. Display Tech. Dig., vol. 36, May 2005, pp. 1298 -1301.

S. Zhang, M. Lu and K. H. Yang, "Direct observation of disclination evolution in vertically aligned liquid crystal light valves", in Soc. Inf. Display Tech. Dig., vol. 31, May 2000, pp. 898-902.

M. Lu and K. H. Yang, in"Asian Soc. Inf. Display Tech. Dig.", vol. 31, Oct. 2000, pp. 30 -33.

H. de Vries, "Rotatory power and other optical properties of certain liquid crystals", Acta Crystallogr., vol. 4, pp. 219-226, Mar. 1951.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, Oxford: U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1993.

P. C. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays, New York: Wiley, 1999.

B. A. Scott and W. L. DeBoynton, "Light Separation and Recombination System for an Off-Axis Projector", U.S. Patent 6 046 858, Apr. 2000 .

J. E. Anderson, J. Gandhi and M. E. Stefenov, "PH-VAN system design for high contrast rub-free microdisplays", in Soc. Inf. Display Tech. Dig., vol. 32, May 2001, pp. 340-343.

T. Yamazaki, M. Tokumi, T. Suzuki, S. Nakagaki and S. Shimizu, "The single-panel D-ILA hologram device for ILAMTM projection TV", in Int. Display Workshop, 2000, pp. 1077-1080.

H. Kogelnik, "Couple wave theory for thick hologram grating", Bell. Syst. Tech. J., vol. 48, pp. 2909-2947, 1969.

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