Abstract

This paper reviews the extended Cauchy model and the four-parameter model for describing the wavelength and temperature effects of liquid crystal (LC) refractive indices. The refractive indices of nine commercial LCs, MLC-9200-000, MLC-9200-100, MLC-6608, MLC-6241-000, 5PCH, 5CB, TL-216, E7, and E44 are measured by the Multi-wavelength Abbe Refractometer. These experimental data are used to validate the theoretical models. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is obtained.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. E. H. Stupp and M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Displays, New York: Wiley, 1998.
  2. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays, New York, NJ: Wiley, 2001.
  3. M. F. Vuks, "Determination of the optical anisotropy of aromatic molecules from the double refraction of crystals", Opt. Spektrosk. , vol. 20, p. 644, 1966.
  4. W. H. de Jeu, Physical Properties of Liquid Crystalline Materials, New York: Gordon and Breach, 1980, ch. 4.
  5. S. T. Wu, "Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals", Phys. Rev. A, vol. 33, p. 1270, 1986.
  6. S. T. Wu, "A semiempirical model for liquid-crystal refractive index dispersions", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 69, p. 2080, 1991.
  7. S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, M. Warenghem and M. Ismaili, "Refractive index dispersions of liquid crystals", Opt. Eng. , vol. 32, p. 1775, 1993.
  8. E. M. Averyanov, "Dispersion of refractive indices in nematic liquid crystals", J. Opt. Technol., vol. 64, no. 5, p. 417, 1997.
  9. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. New York: Pergamon, 1980, ch. 2.
  10. H. Mada and S. Kobayashi, "Wavelength and voltage dependences of refractive indices of nematic liquid crystals", Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. , vol. 33, p. 47, 1976.
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  12. J. Li and S. T. Wu, "Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 95, p. 896, 2004.
  13. J. Li and S. T. Wu, "Two-coefficient Cauchy model for low birefringence liquid crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, p. 170, 2004.
  14. J. Li, S. Gauza and S. T. Wu, "Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, p. 19, 2004.
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  17. S. T. Wu, "Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 84, no. 8, p. 4462, 1998.
  18. I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals,: Singapore: World Scientific, 1993.
  19. T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann and J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers", Opt. Express, vol. 11, p. 2589, 2003.
  20. T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lagsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, Anawati, J. Li and S. T. Wu, "All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers", Opt. Express, vol. 12, p. 5857, 2004.
  21. M. Warenghem, J. F. Henninot and G. Abbate, "Non linearly induced self waveguiding structure in dye doped nematic liquid crystals confined in capillaries", Opt. Express, vol. 2, p. 483, 1998.
  22. M. Warenghem, J. F. Henninot, F. Derrin and G. Abbate, "Thermal and orientational spatial optical solitons in dye-doped liquid crystals", Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., vol. 373, p. 213, 2002.
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  24. J. Li and S. T. Wu, "Self-consistency of Vuks equations for liquid-crystal refractive indices", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, p. 6253, 2004.
  25. J. Li, S. Gauza and S. T. Wu, "High temperature-gradient refractive index liquid crystals", Opt. Express, vol. 12, p. 2002, 2004.
  26. I. Haller, "Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals", Prog. Solid State Chem., vol. 10, p. 103, 1975.
  27. P. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, J. Dean and R. Albu, "Design aspects of a scrolling color LCoS display", Displays , vol. 23, p. 99, 2002.
  28. C. H. Wen, S. Gauza and S. T. Wu, "Ultraviolet stability of liquid crystal alignment layers and mixtures", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5740, 2005, pp. 67-75.
  29. J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, S. Faetti and R. Meucci, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 97, 2005.
  30. L. M. Blinov, Electro-Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals, New York: Wiley, 1983.

Other

E. H. Stupp and M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Displays, New York: Wiley, 1998.

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays, New York, NJ: Wiley, 2001.

M. F. Vuks, "Determination of the optical anisotropy of aromatic molecules from the double refraction of crystals", Opt. Spektrosk. , vol. 20, p. 644, 1966.

W. H. de Jeu, Physical Properties of Liquid Crystalline Materials, New York: Gordon and Breach, 1980, ch. 4.

S. T. Wu, "Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals", Phys. Rev. A, vol. 33, p. 1270, 1986.

S. T. Wu, "A semiempirical model for liquid-crystal refractive index dispersions", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 69, p. 2080, 1991.

S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, M. Warenghem and M. Ismaili, "Refractive index dispersions of liquid crystals", Opt. Eng. , vol. 32, p. 1775, 1993.

E. M. Averyanov, "Dispersion of refractive indices in nematic liquid crystals", J. Opt. Technol., vol. 64, no. 5, p. 417, 1997.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. New York: Pergamon, 1980, ch. 2.

H. Mada and S. Kobayashi, "Wavelength and voltage dependences of refractive indices of nematic liquid crystals", Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. , vol. 33, p. 47, 1976.

L. Pohl and U. Finkenzeller, Liquid Crystals: Applications and Uses, B. Bahadur, Ed. Singapore: World Scientific, 1990,vol. 1,ch. 4.

J. Li and S. T. Wu, "Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 95, p. 896, 2004.

J. Li and S. T. Wu, "Two-coefficient Cauchy model for low birefringence liquid crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, p. 170, 2004.

J. Li, S. Gauza and S. T. Wu, "Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, p. 19, 2004.

V. Reiffenrath and M. Bremer, "First nematic calamitic liquid crystals with negative birefringence", Merck Liquid Crystal Newsletter, no. 15, p. 21, 2000.

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, "Mixed-mode twisted nematic liquid crystal cell for reflective display", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 68, p. 1455, 1996.

S. T. Wu, "Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 84, no. 8, p. 4462, 1998.

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals,: Singapore: World Scientific, 1993.

T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann and J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers", Opt. Express, vol. 11, p. 2589, 2003.

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lagsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, Anawati, J. Li and S. T. Wu, "All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers", Opt. Express, vol. 12, p. 5857, 2004.

M. Warenghem, J. F. Henninot and G. Abbate, "Non linearly induced self waveguiding structure in dye doped nematic liquid crystals confined in capillaries", Opt. Express, vol. 2, p. 483, 1998.

M. Warenghem, J. F. Henninot, F. Derrin and G. Abbate, "Thermal and orientational spatial optical solitons in dye-doped liquid crystals", Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., vol. 373, p. 213, 2002.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1962, ch. 4.

J. Li and S. T. Wu, "Self-consistency of Vuks equations for liquid-crystal refractive indices", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, p. 6253, 2004.

J. Li, S. Gauza and S. T. Wu, "High temperature-gradient refractive index liquid crystals", Opt. Express, vol. 12, p. 2002, 2004.

I. Haller, "Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals", Prog. Solid State Chem., vol. 10, p. 103, 1975.

P. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, J. Dean and R. Albu, "Design aspects of a scrolling color LCoS display", Displays , vol. 23, p. 99, 2002.

C. H. Wen, S. Gauza and S. T. Wu, "Ultraviolet stability of liquid crystal alignment layers and mixtures", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5740, 2005, pp. 67-75.

J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, S. Faetti and R. Meucci, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 97, 2005.

L. M. Blinov, Electro-Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals, New York: Wiley, 1983.

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