Abstract

Based on single-mode rate equations, we present an improved equivalent-circuit model for distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers that accounts for the effects of parasitic parameters and nonradiative recombination. This equivalent-circuit model is composed of a parasitic circuit, an electrical circuit, an optical circuit, and a phase circuit, modeling the circuit equations transformed from the rate equations. The validity of the proposed circuit model is verified by comparing simulation results to measured results. The results show that the slope efficiency and threshold current of the model are 0.22 W/A and 13 mA respectively. It is also shown that increasing bias current results in the increase of the relaxation-oscillation frequency. Moreover, we show that the larger the bias current, the lower the frequency chirp, increasing the possibility of extending the transmission distance of an optical-fiber communication system. The results indicate that the proposed circuit model can accurately predict a DFB laser’s static and dynamic characteristics.

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  1. S. Kanazawa, W. Kobayashi, Y. Ueda, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ohno, T. Yoshimatsu, H. I shii, and H. Sanjoh30-km error-free transmission of directly modulated DFB laser array transmitter optical sub-assembly for 100-Gb applicationJ. Lightwave Technol.20163436463652
  2. Z. Deng, J. Li, M. Liao, W. Xie, and S. LuoInGaN/GaN distributed feedback laser diodes with surface gratings and sidewall gratingsMicromachines201910699
  3. M. Chen, S. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Dai, Y. Zhao, Y. Xu, T. Fang, J. Lu, B. Yang, and X. ChenStudy on DFB semiconductor laser based on sampled moiré grating integrated with grating reflectorIEEE J. Quantum Electron.2020562200109
  4. F. Vogelbacher, M. Sagmeister, J. Kraft, X. Zhou, J. Huang, M. Li, K. J. Jiang, Y. Song, K. Unterrainer, and R. HainbergerSlot-waveguide silicon nitride organic hybrid distributed feedback laserSci. Rep.2019918438
  5. K. Guo, J. He, K. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Xu, B. Du, G. Xu, and Y. WangSymmetric step-apodized distributed feedback fiber laser with improved efficiencyIEEE Photonics J.2019111600211
  6. R. Y. Chen, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chen, C. C. Wei, W. Lin, and Y. J. ChiuHigh-power long-waveguide 1300-nm directly modulated DFB laser for 45-Gb/s NRZ and 50-Gb/s PAM4IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.20183020912094
  7. Y. ChungSplit-step time-domain modeling of dual-mode DFB laser diode for terahertz wave generationMicrow. Opt. Technol. Lett.20196118951900
  8. A. Ghadimi and S. AlikhahSimulation and analysis of dependence of threshold current and gain of λ/4 shifted DFB laser through transfer matrixJ. Opt.201746479485
  9. P. Salík and R. RókaAnalysis of possibilities for numerical simulations of continuous wave DFB laserProc. International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and WorkshopsMunich, Germany2017Nov.215219
  10. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and M. WicksNumerical simulation of intensity and phase noise from extracted parameters for CW DFB lasersI EEE J. Quantum Electron.200642934941
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  15. S. J. Zhang, N. H. Zhu, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. ChungRate-equation-based circuit model of high-speed semiconductor lasersMicrow. Opt. Technol. Lett.200749539542
  16. R. Borras, J. del Rio, C. Oriach, and J. JuliachsLaser diodes optical output power modelMeasurement20191335667
  17. M. Darman and K. FasihiA new compact circuit-level model of semiconductor lasers: investigation of relative intensity noise and frequency noise spectraJ. Mod. Opt.20176418391845
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  19. W. Y. Chen, S. R. Yang, and S. LiuOptoelectronic devices circuit model and the circuit-level simulation of OEICNational Defense Industry PressBeijing, CN2001Chapter 2
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  22. J. C. Cartledge and G. S. BurleyThe effect of laser chirping on lightwave system performanceJ. Lightwave Technol.19897568573
  23. T. T. Shih, M. C. Lin, and W. H. ChengHigh-performance low-cost 10-Gb/s coaxial DFB laser module packaging by conventional TO-Can materials and processesIEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20061210091016
  24. L. Bjerkan, A. Royset, L. Hafskjaer, and D. MyhreMeasurement of laser parameters for simulation of high-speed fiberoptic systemsJ. Lightwave Technol.199614839850

Other (24)

S. Kanazawa, W. Kobayashi, Y. Ueda, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ohno, T. Yoshimatsu, H. I shii, and H. Sanjoh30-km error-free transmission of directly modulated DFB laser array transmitter optical sub-assembly for 100-Gb applicationJ. Lightwave Technol.20163436463652

Z. Deng, J. Li, M. Liao, W. Xie, and S. LuoInGaN/GaN distributed feedback laser diodes with surface gratings and sidewall gratingsMicromachines201910699

M. Chen, S. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Dai, Y. Zhao, Y. Xu, T. Fang, J. Lu, B. Yang, and X. ChenStudy on DFB semiconductor laser based on sampled moiré grating integrated with grating reflectorIEEE J. Quantum Electron.2020562200109

F. Vogelbacher, M. Sagmeister, J. Kraft, X. Zhou, J. Huang, M. Li, K. J. Jiang, Y. Song, K. Unterrainer, and R. HainbergerSlot-waveguide silicon nitride organic hybrid distributed feedback laserSci. Rep.2019918438

K. Guo, J. He, K. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Xu, B. Du, G. Xu, and Y. WangSymmetric step-apodized distributed feedback fiber laser with improved efficiencyIEEE Photonics J.2019111600211

R. Y. Chen, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chen, C. C. Wei, W. Lin, and Y. J. ChiuHigh-power long-waveguide 1300-nm directly modulated DFB laser for 45-Gb/s NRZ and 50-Gb/s PAM4IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.20183020912094

Y. ChungSplit-step time-domain modeling of dual-mode DFB laser diode for terahertz wave generationMicrow. Opt. Technol. Lett.20196118951900

A. Ghadimi and S. AlikhahSimulation and analysis of dependence of threshold current and gain of λ/4 shifted DFB laser through transfer matrixJ. Opt.201746479485

P. Salík and R. RókaAnalysis of possibilities for numerical simulations of continuous wave DFB laserProc. International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and WorkshopsMunich, Germany2017Nov.215219

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and M. WicksNumerical simulation of intensity and phase noise from extracted parameters for CW DFB lasersI EEE J. Quantum Electron.200642934941

P. Vankwikelberge, G. Morthier, and R. BaetsCLADISS-a longitudinal multimode model for the analysis of the static, dynamic, and stochastic behavior of diode lasers with distributed feedbackIEEE J. Quantum Electron.19902617281741

A. R. Zali, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and M. H. YavariSmall-signal equivalent circuit model of photonic crystal fano laserIEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2019254900108

M. Darman and K. FasihiAn equivalent circuit-level model for dual-wavelength quantum cascade lasersOptik2017136428434

M. Darman and K. FasihiA new compact circuit-level model of semiconductor lasers: investigation of relative intensity noise and frequency noise spectraJ. Mod. Opt.20176418391845

S. J. Zhang, N. H. Zhu, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. ChungRate-equation-based circuit model of high-speed semiconductor lasersMicrow. Opt. Technol. Lett.200749539542

R. Borras, J. del Rio, C. Oriach, and J. JuliachsLaser diodes optical output power modelMeasurement20191335667

M. Darman and K. FasihiA new compact circuit-level model of semiconductor lasers: investigation of relative intensity noise and frequency noise spectraJ. Mod. Opt.20176418391845

J. C. Cartledge and R. C. SrinivasanExtraction of DFB laser rate equation parameters for system simulation purposesJ. Lightwave Technol.199715852860

W. Y. Chen, S. R. Yang, and S. LiuOptoelectronic devices circuit model and the circuit-level simulation of OEICNational Defense Industry PressBeijing, CN2001Chapter 2

R. Tucker and D. PopeCircuit modeling of the effect of diffusion on damping in a narrow-stripe semiconductor laserIEEE J. Quantum Electron.19831911791183

L. Bjerkan, A. Royset, L. Hafskjaer, and D. MyhreMeasurement of laser parameters for simulation of high-speed fiberoptic systemJ. Lightwave Technol.199614839850

J. C. Cartledge and G. S. BurleyThe effect of laser chirping on lightwave system performanceJ. Lightwave Technol.19897568573

T. T. Shih, M. C. Lin, and W. H. ChengHigh-performance low-cost 10-Gb/s coaxial DFB laser module packaging by conventional TO-Can materials and processesIEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20061210091016

L. Bjerkan, A. Royset, L. Hafskjaer, and D. MyhreMeasurement of laser parameters for simulation of high-speed fiberoptic systemsJ. Lightwave Technol.199614839850

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