Abstract

We report on a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) optimized for mid-infrared emission above 5.0 µm. The OPO is based on a magnesium-oxide-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN) crystal with a fan-out grating design. A linear two-mirror cavity resonating both at the pump and signal wavelengths is stabilized to the pump laser by using the modified Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) method. The idler wavelength is continuously tunable from 4.7 µm up to 5.3 µm by varying the poling period of the fan-out grating crystal. Pumped by a diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser with a power of 1.1 W at 1064 nm, the maximum idler output power is measured to be 5.3 mW at 4.8 µm. The output power above 5.0 µm is reduced to the hundreds of µW level due to increased absorption in the crystal, but is stable and strong enough to be measured with a conventional detector.

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  1. J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. MillerTunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequenciesPhys. Rev. Lett.196514973976
  2. K. Devi, S. C. Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-ZadehTunable, continuous-wave, ultraviolet source based on intracavity sum-frequency-generation in an optical parametric oscillator using BiB3O6Opt. Express2013212482924836
  3. R. L. SutherlandHandbook of Nonlinear Optics2nd ed.Marcel DekkerNew York2003Chapter 3
  4. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. PierceQuasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19951221022116
  5. I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. ItoAbsolute scale of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficientsJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B19971422682294
  6. L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. BosenbergQuasi-phase-matched 1.064-µm-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3Opt. Lett.1995205254
  7. T. J. Kulp, S. E. Bison, R. P. Bambha, T. A. Reichardt, U.-B. Goers, K. W. Aniolek, D. A. V. Kliner, B. A. Richman, K. M. Armstrong, R. Sommers, R. Schmitt, P. E. Powers, O. Levi, T. Pinguet, M. Fejer, J. P. Koplow, L. Goldberg, and T. G. McRaeThe application of quasiphase-matched parametric light sources to practical infrared chemical sensing systemsAppl. Phys. B200275317327
  8. A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, G. V. Basum, and F. J. M. HarrenAutomatically tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy and sensitive trace-gas detectionAppl. Phys. B200685173180
  9. S. Zaske, D.-H. Lee, and C. BecherGreen-pumped cw singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on MgO: PPLN with frequency stabilization to an atomic resonanceAppl. Phys. B201098729735
  10. W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. ByerContinuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled LiNbO3Opt. Lett.199621713715
  11. P. E. Powers, T. J. Kulp, and S. E. BissonContinuous tuning of a continuous-wave periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator by use of a fan-out grating designOpt. Lett.199823159161
  12. F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. FriedIrina, T. Sorokina and Konstantin L. VodopyanovSolid-State Mid-Infrared Laser SourcesSpringerBerlin, Heidelberg2003458529Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy
  13. B. M. Walsh, H. R. Lee, and N. P. BarnesMid infrared lasers for remote sensing applicationsJ. Lumin.2016169400405
  14. A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. CurlApplication of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysisAppl. Phys. B200890165176
  15. M. W. SigristMid-infrared laser-spectroscopic sensing of chemical speciesJ. Adv. Res.20156529533
  16. K. K. Choi, J. N. Mait, J. M. Pellegrino, and G. L. WoodOptics research at the U.S. Army Research LaboratoryAppl. Opt.201756B103B115
  17. M. M. J. W. V. Herpen, S. E. Bisson, and F. J. M. HarrenContinuous-wave operation of a single-frequency optical parametric oscillator at 4-5 µm based on periodically poled LiNbO3Opt. Lett.20032824972499
  18. M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. HalonenThermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillatorsAppl. Phys. B200994411427
  19. J. Kiessling, R. Sowade, I. Breunig, K. Buse, and V. DierolfCascaded optical parametric oscillations generating tunable terahertz waves in periodically poled lithium niobate crystalsOpt. Express2009178791
  20. J. Krieg, A. Klemann, I. Gottbehüt, S. Thorwirth, T. F. Giesen, and S. SchlemmerA continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator around 5-µm wavelength for highresolution spectroscopyRev. Sci. Instruments201182063105
  21. D. J. M. Stothard, I. D. Lindsay, and M. H. DunnContinuous-wave pump-enhanced optical parametric oscillator with ring resonator for wide and continuous tuning of singlefrequency radiationOpt. Express200412502511
  22. G. A. Turnbull, D. McGloin, I. D. Lindsay, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and M. H. DunnExtended mode-hop-free tuning by use of a dual-cavity, pump-enhanced optical parametric oscillatorOpt. Lett.200025341343
  23. M. A. Watson, M. V. O’Connor, P. S. Lloyd, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, C. B. E. Gawith, L. Ming, P. G. R. Smith, and O. BalachninaiteExtended operation of synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators to longer idler wavelengthsOpt. Lett.20022321062108
  24. G. Robertson, M. J. Padgett, and M. H. DunnContinuous wave singly resonant pump-enhanced type II LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillatorOpt. Lett.19941917351737
  25. S. Schiller, K. Schneider, and J. MlynekTheory of an optical parametric oscillator with resonant pump and signalJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B19991615121524
  26. A. Carleton, D. J. M. Stothard, I. D. Lindsay, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and M. H. DunnCompact, continuouswave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled RbTiOAsO4 in a Nd:YVO4 laserOpt. Lett.200328555557
  27. I. D. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, C. F. Rae, and M. H. DunnContinuous-wave, pump-enhanced optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled RbTiOAsO4Opt. Express200311134140
  28. K. Schneider, P. Kramper, S. Schiller, and J. MlynekToward an optical synthesizer: a single-frequency parametric oscillator using periodically poled LiNbO3Opt. Lett.19972212931295
  29. O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. ArieTemperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3Appl. Phys. B200891343348
  30. S. T. Lin, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, A. C. Chiang, and J. T. ShyObservation of thermal-induced optical guiding and bistability in a mid-IR continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillatorOpt. Lett.20083323382340
  31. I.-H. Bae, H. S. Moon, S.-K. Kim, S. N. Park, and D.-H. LeeSelf-guided operation of singly resonant continuouswave optical parametric oscillator based on bulk MgO-doped PPLNAppl. Phys. B2012106797801
  32. D.-H. Lee, M. E. Klein, and K.-J. BollerIntensity noise of pump-enhanced continuous-wave optical parametric oscillatorsAppl. Phys. B199866747753

Other (32)

J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. MillerTunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequenciesPhys. Rev. Lett.196514973976

K. Devi, S. C. Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-ZadehTunable, continuous-wave, ultraviolet source based on intracavity sum-frequency-generation in an optical parametric oscillator using BiB3O6Opt. Express2013212482924836

R. L. SutherlandHandbook of Nonlinear Optics2nd ed.Marcel DekkerNew York2003Chapter 3

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. PierceQuasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19951221022116

I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. ItoAbsolute scale of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficientsJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B19971422682294

L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. BosenbergQuasi-phase-matched 1.064-µm-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3Opt. Lett.1995205254

T. J. Kulp, S. E. Bison, R. P. Bambha, T. A. Reichardt, U.-B. Goers, K. W. Aniolek, D. A. V. Kliner, B. A. Richman, K. M. Armstrong, R. Sommers, R. Schmitt, P. E. Powers, O. Levi, T. Pinguet, M. Fejer, J. P. Koplow, L. Goldberg, and T. G. McRaeThe application of quasiphase-matched parametric light sources to practical infrared chemical sensing systemsAppl. Phys. B200275317327

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, G. V. Basum, and F. J. M. HarrenAutomatically tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy and sensitive trace-gas detectionAppl. Phys. B200685173180

S. Zaske, D.-H. Lee, and C. BecherGreen-pumped cw singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on MgO: PPLN with frequency stabilization to an atomic resonanceAppl. Phys. B201098729735

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. ByerContinuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled LiNbO3Opt. Lett.199621713715

P. E. Powers, T. J. Kulp, and S. E. BissonContinuous tuning of a continuous-wave periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator by use of a fan-out grating designOpt. Lett.199823159161

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. FriedIrina, T. Sorokina and Konstantin L. VodopyanovSolid-State Mid-Infrared Laser SourcesSpringerBerlin, Heidelberg2003458529Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy

B. M. Walsh, H. R. Lee, and N. P. BarnesMid infrared lasers for remote sensing applicationsJ. Lumin.2016169400405

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. CurlApplication of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysisAppl. Phys. B200890165176

M. W. SigristMid-infrared laser-spectroscopic sensing of chemical speciesJ. Adv. Res.20156529533

K. K. Choi, J. N. Mait, J. M. Pellegrino, and G. L. WoodOptics research at the U.S. Army Research LaboratoryAppl. Opt.201756B103B115

M. M. J. W. V. Herpen, S. E. Bisson, and F. J. M. HarrenContinuous-wave operation of a single-frequency optical parametric oscillator at 4-5 µm based on periodically poled LiNbO3Opt. Lett.20032824972499

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. HalonenThermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillatorsAppl. Phys. B200994411427

J. Kiessling, R. Sowade, I. Breunig, K. Buse, and V. DierolfCascaded optical parametric oscillations generating tunable terahertz waves in periodically poled lithium niobate crystalsOpt. Express2009178791

J. Krieg, A. Klemann, I. Gottbehüt, S. Thorwirth, T. F. Giesen, and S. SchlemmerA continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator around 5-µm wavelength for highresolution spectroscopyRev. Sci. Instruments201182063105

D. J. M. Stothard, I. D. Lindsay, and M. H. DunnContinuous-wave pump-enhanced optical parametric oscillator with ring resonator for wide and continuous tuning of singlefrequency radiationOpt. Express200412502511

G. A. Turnbull, D. McGloin, I. D. Lindsay, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and M. H. DunnExtended mode-hop-free tuning by use of a dual-cavity, pump-enhanced optical parametric oscillatorOpt. Lett.200025341343

M. A. Watson, M. V. O’Connor, P. S. Lloyd, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, C. B. E. Gawith, L. Ming, P. G. R. Smith, and O. BalachninaiteExtended operation of synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators to longer idler wavelengthsOpt. Lett.20022321062108

G. Robertson, M. J. Padgett, and M. H. DunnContinuous wave singly resonant pump-enhanced type II LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillatorOpt. Lett.19941917351737

S. Schiller, K. Schneider, and J. MlynekTheory of an optical parametric oscillator with resonant pump and signalJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B19991615121524

A. Carleton, D. J. M. Stothard, I. D. Lindsay, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and M. H. DunnCompact, continuouswave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled RbTiOAsO4 in a Nd:YVO4 laserOpt. Lett.200328555557

I. D. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, C. F. Rae, and M. H. DunnContinuous-wave, pump-enhanced optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled RbTiOAsO4Opt. Express200311134140

K. Schneider, P. Kramper, S. Schiller, and J. MlynekToward an optical synthesizer: a single-frequency parametric oscillator using periodically poled LiNbO3Opt. Lett.19972212931295

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. ArieTemperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3Appl. Phys. B200891343348

S. T. Lin, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, A. C. Chiang, and J. T. ShyObservation of thermal-induced optical guiding and bistability in a mid-IR continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillatorOpt. Lett.20083323382340

I.-H. Bae, H. S. Moon, S.-K. Kim, S. N. Park, and D.-H. LeeSelf-guided operation of singly resonant continuouswave optical parametric oscillator based on bulk MgO-doped PPLNAppl. Phys. B2012106797801

D.-H. Lee, M. E. Klein, and K.-J. BollerIntensity noise of pump-enhanced continuous-wave optical parametric oscillatorsAppl. Phys. B199866747753

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