Abstract

A new secret-key-sharing cryptosystem using optical phase-shifting digital holography is proposed. The proposed secret-key-sharing algorithm is based on the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol, which is modified to an optical cipher system implemented by a two-step quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic encryption method using orthogonal polarization. Two unknown users’ private keys are encrypted by two-step phase-shifting digital holography and are changed into three digital-hologram ciphers, which are stored by computer and are opened to a public communication network for secret-key-sharing. Two-step phase-shifting digital holograms are acquired by applying a phase step of 0 or π/2 in the reference beam’s path. The encrypted digital hologram in the optical setup is a Fourier-transform hologram, and is recorded on CCDs with 256 quantized gray-level intensities. The digital hologram shows an analog-type noise-like randomized cipher with a two-dimensional array, which has a stronger security level than conventional electronic cryptography, due to the complexity of optical encryption, and protects against the possibility of a replay attack. Decryption with three encrypted digital holograms generates the same shared secret key for each user. Schematically, the proposed optical configuration has the advantage of producing a kind of double-key encryption, which can enhance security strength compared to the conventional Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. Another advantage of the proposed secret-key-sharing cryptosystem is that it is free to change each user’s private key in generating the public keys at any time. The proposed method is very effective cryptography when applied to a secret-key-exchange cryptosystem with high security strength.

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  18. W. Diffie and M. HellmanNew directions in cryptographyIEEE Trans. Inf. Theory197622644654
  19. S. H. Jeon and S. K. Gil2-step phase-shifting digital holographic optical encryption and error analysisJ. Opt. Soc. Korea201115244251
  20. S. K. Gil2-step quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic optical encryption using orthogonal polarization and error analysisJ. Opt. Soc. Korea201216354364
  21. S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, and J. R. JungApplication to optical secret key sharing cryptography using phase-shifting digital holographyProc. SPIE20181055810558W

Other (21)

P. Refregier and B. JavidiOptical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encodingOpt. Lett.199520767769

G. Unnikrishnan and K. SinghDouble random fractional Fourier domain encoding for optical securityOpt. Eng.20003928532859

Z. Liu, L. Xu, T. Liu, H. Chen, P. Li, C. Lin, and S. LiuColor image encryption by using Arnold transform and color-blend operation in discrete cosine transform domainsOpt. Commun.2011284123128

O. Matoba and B. JavidiEncrypted optical memory system using three-dimensional keys in the Fresnel domainOpt. Lett.199924762764

Z. Liu, L. Xu, C. Lin, and S. LiuImage encryption by encoding with a nonuniform optical beam in gyrator transform domainsAppl. Opt.20104956325637

M. Cho and B. JavidiThree-dimensional photon counting double-random phase encryptionOpt. Lett.20133831983201

W. Chen, X. Chen, and C. J. R. SheppardOptical image encryption based on diffractive imagingOpt. Lett.20103538173819

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. ChengHierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domainJ. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.2007910701075

W. Qin and X. PengAsymmetric cryptosystem based on phase-truncated Fourier transformsOpt. Lett.201035118120

G. Situ and J. ZhangMultiple-image encryption by wavelength multiplexingOpt. Lett.20053013061308

D. Weber and J. TrolingerNovel implementation of nonlinear joint transform correlators in optical security and validationOpt. Eng.1999386268

B. Javidi and T. NomuraSecuring information by means of digital holographyOpt. Lett.2000252830

X. Wang, D. Zhao, F. Jing, and X. WeiInformation synthesis (complex amplitude addition and subtraction) and encryption with digital holography and virtual opticsOpt. Exp.20061414761486

J.-W. Han, C.-S. Park, D.-H. Ryu, and E.-S. KimOptical image encryption based on XOR operationsOpt. Eng.1999384754

S. H. Jeon and S. K. GilOptical secret key sharing method based on Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithmJ. Opt. Soc. Korea201418477484

S. H. Jeon and S. K. GilOptical implementation of asymmetric cryptosystem combined with D-H secret key sharing and triple DESJ. Opt. Soc. Korea201519592603

B. Javidi and T. NomuraPolarization encoding for optical security systemsOpt. Eng.20003924392443

W. Diffie and M. HellmanNew directions in cryptographyIEEE Trans. Inf. Theory197622644654

S. H. Jeon and S. K. Gil2-step phase-shifting digital holographic optical encryption and error analysisJ. Opt. Soc. Korea201115244251

S. K. Gil2-step quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic optical encryption using orthogonal polarization and error analysisJ. Opt. Soc. Korea201216354364

S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, and J. R. JungApplication to optical secret key sharing cryptography using phase-shifting digital holographyProc. SPIE20181055810558W

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