Abstract

Ultra-small optical anisotropy of a rubbed polyimide (PI) alignment layer is quantitatively characterized using the improved reflection ellipsometer. Twisted nematic (TN) cells are fabricated using the rubbed PIs of known surface anisotropy as alignment layers. Distribution of liquid crystal (LC) molecules in the TN cell is characterized using transmission ellipsometry. The retardation of the rubbed PI surface increases as rubbing strength increases. The tilt angle of the optic axis of the rubbed PI surface decreases as rubbing strength especially as the angular speed of the rubbing roller increases. Pretilt angle of LC molecules in the TN cell shows strong correlation with tilt angle of the optic axis of the rubbed PI surface. Both the apparent order parameter and the effective twist angle of the LC molecules in the TN cell decrease as the pretilt angle of LC molecules increases.

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  1. P. Yeh and C. GuOptics of liquid crystal displaysJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc.2010Chapter 2
  2. M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S. T. WuAlignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cellsAppl. Phys. Lett.200892061102
  3. K. Ichimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Seki, Y. Kawanishi, and K. AokiReversible alignment change of liquid crystals induced by photochromic molecular films, 2. Reversible alignment change of a nematic liquid crystal induced by pendent azobenzene groups-containing polymer thin filmsMakromol. Chem., Rapid Commun.19891058
  4. B. JeromeSurface effects and anchoring in liquid crystalsRep. Prog. Phys.199154391
  5. K. IchimuraPhotoalignment of liquid-crystal systemsChem. Rev.200010018471874
  6. L. A. Goodman, J. T. McGinn, C. H. Anderson, and F. DiGeronimoTopography of obliquely evaporated silicon oxide films and its effect on liquid-crystal orientationIEEE Trans. Electron Devices197724795804
  7. G. RobertsLangmuir-Blodgett FilmsSpringer Science & Business Media2013Chapter 7
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  9. Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. UchidaRelationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystalJpn. J. Appl. Phys.199231L579
  10. A. J. Pidduck, G. P. Bryan-Brown, S. Haslam, R. Bannister, I. Kitely, T. J. McMaster, and L. BoogaardAtomic force microscopy studies of rubbed polyimide surfaces used for liquid crystal alignmentJ. Vac. Sci. Tech. A19961417231728
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  13. T. Sakai, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, N. Matsuie, Y. Yamamoto, H. Ishii, Y. Ouchi, H. Oji, and K. SekiSurface orientation of main and side chains of polyimide alignment layer studied by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopyJ. Phys. Chem. B200110591919195
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  15. D. S. Seo, K. Araya, N. Yoshida, M. Nishikawa, Y. Yabe, and S. KobayashiEffect of the polymer tlit angle for generation of pretilt angle in nematic liquid crystal on rubbed polyimide surfacesJpn. J. Appl. Phys.199534503506
  16. K. H. Lyum, S. U. Park, S. M. Yang, H. K. Yoon, and S. Y. KimPrecise measurement of ultra small retardation of LCD alignment layer using improved transmission ellipsometryKorean J. Opt. Photon.2013247785
  17. K. H. Lyum, H. K. Yoon, S. J. Kim, S. H. An, and S. Y. KimStudy of ultra-small optical anisotropy profile of rubbed polyimide film by using transmission ellipsometryJ. Opt. Soc. Korea201418156161
  18. J. H. Lee, M. S. Park, S. M. Yang, S. U. Park, M. H. Lee, and S. Y. KimPrecise measurement of the ultrasmall optical anisotropy of rubbed polyimide using an improved reflection ellipsometerKorean J. Opt. Photon.201526195202
  19. M. S. Park, S. M. Yang, S. U. Park, and S. Y. KimQuantitative characterization of uniaxial anisotropy of rubbed polyimide alignment layer using reflection ellipsometryProc. 22nd International Display WorkshopsJapan2015Dec.6869
  20. Retrieved from the world wide web; http://www.ellipsotech. com/Ellipsometer.html
  21. J. W. RyuStudy on the non-uniform distribution of anisotropy in wide view film using ellipsometry, Ph.D. DissertationAjou University201036113
  22. J. W. Ryu and S. Y. KimDetermination of the optic axis distribution of a hybridly aligned discotic material for wide-view filmsJ. Kor. Phys. Soc.201057233239
  23. S. Y. KimEllipsometryAjou University PressKorea2000Chapter 3-4
  24. H. FujiwaraSpectroscopic ellipsometry: principles and applicationsJohn Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Japan2007
  25. S. Y. KimEllipsometric expressions of multilayered substrate coated with a uniaxially anisotropic alignment layerKorean J. Opt. Photon.201324271278
  26. S. Y. KimEllipsometric expressions for a sample coated with uniaxially anisotropic layersKorean J. Opt. Photon.201526275282
  27. S. Y. Cho, S. U. Park, and S. Y. KimQuantitative characterization of optical anisotropy of rubbed polyimide alignment layers in relation with distribution of liquid crystal molecules using an improved reflection ellipsometerProc. 7th International Conference on Spectroscopic EllipsometryGermany2016Jun.322
  28. S. Y. Cho, S. U. Park, S. M. Yang, and S. Y. KimEllipsometric characterization of the surface of rubbed polyimide and distribution of liquid crystal molecules in TN cellsProc. 23rd International Display Workshops in Conjunction with Asia DisplayJapan2016Dec.159161
  29. P. G. de GennesShort range order effects in the isotropic phase of nematics and cholestericsMol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.197112193214
  30. V. G. K. M. Pisipati, D. Madhavi Latha, P. V. Datta Prasad, and G. Padmaja RaniOrder parameter studies from effective order geometry in a number of liquid crystals of different homologous seriesJ. Mol. Liq.201217414
  31. S. Patari, T. K. Devi, and A. NathStudies of optical texture, birefringence, order parameter, normalized polarizability and validation of the four-parameter model of a thermotropic mesogen 7OAOBJ. Mol. Liq.2016215244252
  32. M. F. VuksDetermination of the optical anisotropy of aromatic molecules from the double refraction of crystalsOpt. Spectrosc.196620361364
  33. A. KanwarMeasurement of order parameter, birefringence and polarizability of liquid crystalsJ. Opt.201342311315
  34. S. Y. KimThe explicitly quasi-linear relation between the order parameter and normalized birefringence of aligned uniaxially anisotropic molecules determined using a numerical methodKorean J. Opt. Photon.201627223
  35. S. Y. KimUniversality of the quasi-linear relation between the order parameter and the normalized birefringence of aligned uniaxially anisotropic moleculesKorean J. Opt. Photon.20172833

Other (35)

P. Yeh and C. GuOptics of liquid crystal displaysJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc.2010Chapter 2

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S. T. WuAlignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cellsAppl. Phys. Lett.200892061102

K. Ichimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Seki, Y. Kawanishi, and K. AokiReversible alignment change of liquid crystals induced by photochromic molecular films, 2. Reversible alignment change of a nematic liquid crystal induced by pendent azobenzene groups-containing polymer thin filmsMakromol. Chem., Rapid Commun.19891058

B. JeromeSurface effects and anchoring in liquid crystalsRep. Prog. Phys.199154391

K. IchimuraPhotoalignment of liquid-crystal systemsChem. Rev.200010018471874

L. A. Goodman, J. T. McGinn, C. H. Anderson, and F. DiGeronimoTopography of obliquely evaporated silicon oxide films and its effect on liquid-crystal orientationIEEE Trans. Electron Devices197724795804

G. RobertsLangmuir-Blodgett FilmsSpringer Science & Business Media2013Chapter 7

N. A. J. M. van Aerle, M. Barmentlo, and R. W. J. HolleringEffect of rubbing on the molecular orientation within polyimide orienting layers of liquid-crystal displaysJ. Appl. Phys.19937431113120

Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. UchidaRelationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystalJpn. J. Appl. Phys.199231L579

A. J. Pidduck, G. P. Bryan-Brown, S. Haslam, R. Bannister, I. Kitely, T. J. McMaster, and L. BoogaardAtomic force microscopy studies of rubbed polyimide surfaces used for liquid crystal alignmentJ. Vac. Sci. Tech. A19961417231728

I. HirosawaMethod of characterizing rubbed polyimide film for liquid crystal display devices using reflection ellipsometryJpn. J. Appl. Phys.19963558735875

I. Hirosawa, H. Miyairi, T. Matsushita, and S. SaitoThe relation between pretilt angle of liquid crystal and optical anisotropy of alignment layerMol. Cryst. and Liq. Cryst.2001368565571

T. Sakai, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, N. Matsuie, Y. Yamamoto, H. Ishii, Y. Ouchi, H. Oji, and K. SekiSurface orientation of main and side chains of polyimide alignment layer studied by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopyJ. Phys. Chem. B200110591919195

J. J. Ge, C. Y. Li, G. Xue, I. K. Mann, D. Zhang, S.-Y. Wang, F. W. Harris, S. Z. D. Cheng, S.-C. Hong, X. Zhuang, and Y. R. ShenRubbing-induced molecular reorientation on an alignment surface of an aromatic polyimide containing cyanobiphenyl side chainsJ. Am. Chem. Soc.200112357685776

D. S. Seo, K. Araya, N. Yoshida, M. Nishikawa, Y. Yabe, and S. KobayashiEffect of the polymer tlit angle for generation of pretilt angle in nematic liquid crystal on rubbed polyimide surfacesJpn. J. Appl. Phys.199534503506

K. H. Lyum, S. U. Park, S. M. Yang, H. K. Yoon, and S. Y. KimPrecise measurement of ultra small retardation of LCD alignment layer using improved transmission ellipsometryKorean J. Opt. Photon.2013247785

K. H. Lyum, H. K. Yoon, S. J. Kim, S. H. An, and S. Y. KimStudy of ultra-small optical anisotropy profile of rubbed polyimide film by using transmission ellipsometryJ. Opt. Soc. Korea201418156161

J. H. Lee, M. S. Park, S. M. Yang, S. U. Park, M. H. Lee, and S. Y. KimPrecise measurement of the ultrasmall optical anisotropy of rubbed polyimide using an improved reflection ellipsometerKorean J. Opt. Photon.201526195202

M. S. Park, S. M. Yang, S. U. Park, and S. Y. KimQuantitative characterization of uniaxial anisotropy of rubbed polyimide alignment layer using reflection ellipsometryProc. 22nd International Display WorkshopsJapan2015Dec.6869

Retrieved from the world wide web; http://www.ellipsotech. com/Ellipsometer.html

J. W. RyuStudy on the non-uniform distribution of anisotropy in wide view film using ellipsometry, Ph.D. DissertationAjou University201036113

J. W. Ryu and S. Y. KimDetermination of the optic axis distribution of a hybridly aligned discotic material for wide-view filmsJ. Kor. Phys. Soc.201057233239

S. Y. KimEllipsometryAjou University PressKorea2000Chapter 3-4

H. FujiwaraSpectroscopic ellipsometry: principles and applicationsJohn Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Japan2007

S. Y. KimEllipsometric expressions of multilayered substrate coated with a uniaxially anisotropic alignment layerKorean J. Opt. Photon.201324271278

S. Y. KimEllipsometric expressions for a sample coated with uniaxially anisotropic layersKorean J. Opt. Photon.201526275282

S. Y. Cho, S. U. Park, and S. Y. KimQuantitative characterization of optical anisotropy of rubbed polyimide alignment layers in relation with distribution of liquid crystal molecules using an improved reflection ellipsometerProc. 7th International Conference on Spectroscopic EllipsometryGermany2016Jun.322

S. Y. Cho, S. U. Park, S. M. Yang, and S. Y. KimEllipsometric characterization of the surface of rubbed polyimide and distribution of liquid crystal molecules in TN cellsProc. 23rd International Display Workshops in Conjunction with Asia DisplayJapan2016Dec.159161

P. G. de GennesShort range order effects in the isotropic phase of nematics and cholestericsMol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.197112193214

V. G. K. M. Pisipati, D. Madhavi Latha, P. V. Datta Prasad, and G. Padmaja RaniOrder parameter studies from effective order geometry in a number of liquid crystals of different homologous seriesJ. Mol. Liq.201217414

S. Patari, T. K. Devi, and A. NathStudies of optical texture, birefringence, order parameter, normalized polarizability and validation of the four-parameter model of a thermotropic mesogen 7OAOBJ. Mol. Liq.2016215244252

M. F. VuksDetermination of the optical anisotropy of aromatic molecules from the double refraction of crystalsOpt. Spectrosc.196620361364

A. KanwarMeasurement of order parameter, birefringence and polarizability of liquid crystalsJ. Opt.201342311315

S. Y. KimThe explicitly quasi-linear relation between the order parameter and normalized birefringence of aligned uniaxially anisotropic molecules determined using a numerical methodKorean J. Opt. Photon.201627223

S. Y. KimUniversality of the quasi-linear relation between the order parameter and the normalized birefringence of aligned uniaxially anisotropic moleculesKorean J. Opt. Photon.20172833

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