Abstract

Since the recent slowdown in the smartphone market, studies for wearable devices are briskly being carried out to find new markets, such as virtual reality devices. In this paper, a head-mounted display (HMD) which provides expanded virtual images before human eyes by enlarging images of a small display was designed, and the tolerance analysis method for a focus-adjustable HMD based on afocal optical systems was studied. There are two types of HMDs: a see-through type that allows the user to view the surroundings, and a see-close type where the user can only view the display screen; the former is used in this study. While designing the system, we allowed a lens within the system to be shifted to adjust its focus from +1 to −4 D (diopters).The yield of the designed systems was calculated by taking the worst-case scenario of a uniform distribution into account. Additionally, a longitudinal aberration was used rather than MTF for the tolerance analysis with respect to system performance. The sensitivity of the designed system was calculated by assigning a certain tolerance, and the focus lens shift was calculated to adjust the image surface variations resulting from the tolerance. The smaller the tolerance, the more expensive the unit price of the products. Very small tolerances may even be impossible to fabricate. Considering this, the appropriate tolerance was assigned; the maximum shift of the focus lens in which the image surface can be adjusted was obtained to find the changes in aberration and a good yield.

© 2017 Optical Society of Korea

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References

  • View by:

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  28. J. H. Jo, J. M. Ryu, The base and application of optical design with lens design program .
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2012 (1)

J. M. Ryu, Y. S. Kim, J. H. Jo, G. M. Kang, H. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, "Statistical analysis of focus adjustment method for a floating imaging system with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 23, 189‒196 (2012)
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Ryu, J. Jo, G. Kang, H. Lee, S. Yoneyama, "Focus adjustment method with statistical analysis for an inter-changeable zoom lens with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 22, 230‒238 (2011)
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J.-M. Ryu, G.-M. Kang, H.-J. Lee, H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Jo, "Correction method for the variation of the image plane generated by various symmetric error factors of zoom lenses of digital still cameras and estimation of defect rate due to the correction," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 17, 420‒429 (2006)
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. Rolland, H. Hua, "Head-mounted display systems," Encycl. Opt. Eng. 1‒13 (2005)

2004 (1)

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. Agard, J. W. Sedat, "Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy," J. Microsc. 216, 32‒48 (2004)
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. Wedekind, M. Milinski, "Cooperation through image scoring in humans," Sci. 288, 850‒852 (2000)
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

K. Worhoff, P. V. Lambeck, A. Driessen, "Design tolerance analysis and fabrication of silicon oxynitride based planar optical waveguides for communication devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1401‒1407 (1999)
[Crossref]

D. Samson, M. Terziovski, "The relationship between total quality management practices and operational performance," J. Oper. Manag. 17, 393‒409 (1999)
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 1949‒1957 (1994)
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

M. Rosenblatt, "A central limit theorem and a strong mixing condition," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 42, 43‒47 (1956)
[Crossref]

Agard, D.

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. Agard, J. W. Sedat, "Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy," J. Microsc. 216, 32‒48 (2004)
[Crossref]

Bille, J. F.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 1949‒1957 (1994)
[Crossref]

Brownlee, K. A.

K. A. Brownlee, K. A. Brownlee, Statistical theory and methodology in science and engineering .

K. A. Brownlee, K. A. Brownlee, Statistical theory and methodology in science and engineering .

K. A. Brownlee, K. A. Brownlee, Statistical theory and methodology in science and engineering .

K. A. Brownlee, K. A. Brownlee, Statistical theory and methodology in science and engineering .

Craig, A. T.

R. V. Hogg, A. T. Craig, Introduction to mathematical statistics .

Driessen, A.

Erfle, H.

H. Erfle, Ocular U.S. Patents .

Fergason, J. L.

J. L. Fergason, Optical system for a head mounted display using a retro-reflector and method of displaying an image U.S. Patent .

Goelz, S.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 1949‒1957 (1994)
[Crossref]

Grimm, B.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 1949‒1957 (1994)
[Crossref]

Gustafsson, M. G.

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. Agard, J. W. Sedat, "Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy," J. Microsc. 216, 32‒48 (2004)
[Crossref]

Hanser, B. M.

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. Agard, J. W. Sedat, "Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy," J. Microsc. 216, 32‒48 (2004)
[Crossref]

Hogg, R. V.

R. V. Hogg, A. T. Craig, Introduction to mathematical statistics .

Hua, H.

J. Rolland, H. Hua, "Head-mounted display systems," Encycl. Opt. Eng. 1‒13 (2005)

Jo, J.

J. Ryu, J. Jo, G. Kang, H. Lee, S. Yoneyama, "Focus adjustment method with statistical analysis for an inter-changeable zoom lens with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 22, 230‒238 (2011)
[Crossref]

Jo, J. H.

J. M. Ryu, Y. S. Kim, J. H. Jo, G. M. Kang, H. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, "Statistical analysis of focus adjustment method for a floating imaging system with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 23, 189‒196 (2012)
[Crossref]

J. H. Jo, J. M. Ryu, The base and application of optical design with lens design program .

J. H. Jo, J. M. Ryu, The base and application of optical design with lens design program .

Jo, J.-H.

J.-M. Ryu, G.-M. Kang, H.-J. Lee, H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Jo, "Correction method for the variation of the image plane generated by various symmetric error factors of zoom lenses of digital still cameras and estimation of defect rate due to the correction," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 17, 420‒429 (2006)
[Crossref]

Joglekar, A. M.

A. M. Joglekar, Statistical methods for six sigma .

Kang, G.

J. Ryu, J. Jo, G. Kang, H. Lee, S. Yoneyama, "Focus adjustment method with statistical analysis for an inter-changeable zoom lens with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 22, 230‒238 (2011)
[Crossref]

Kang, G. M.

J. M. Ryu, Y. S. Kim, J. H. Jo, G. M. Kang, H. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, "Statistical analysis of focus adjustment method for a floating imaging system with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 23, 189‒196 (2012)
[Crossref]

Kang, G.-M.

J.-M. Ryu, G.-M. Kang, H.-J. Lee, H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Jo, "Correction method for the variation of the image plane generated by various symmetric error factors of zoom lenses of digital still cameras and estimation of defect rate due to the correction," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 17, 420‒429 (2006)
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. S.

J. M. Ryu, Y. S. Kim, J. H. Jo, G. M. Kang, H. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, "Statistical analysis of focus adjustment method for a floating imaging system with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 23, 189‒196 (2012)
[Crossref]

Y. S. Kim, S. C Park, Y. T Park, Y. H Seo, H. J Yoo, D. G Lee, Quality management .

Lambeck, P. V.

Lee, D. G

Y. S. Kim, S. C Park, Y. T Park, Y. H Seo, H. J Yoo, D. G Lee, Quality management .

Lee, H.

J. Ryu, J. Jo, G. Kang, H. Lee, S. Yoneyama, "Focus adjustment method with statistical analysis for an inter-changeable zoom lens with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 22, 230‒238 (2011)
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

J. M. Ryu, Y. S. Kim, J. H. Jo, G. M. Kang, H. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, "Statistical analysis of focus adjustment method for a floating imaging system with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 23, 189‒196 (2012)
[Crossref]

Lee, H. K.

J. M. Ryu, Y. S. Kim, J. H. Jo, G. M. Kang, H. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, "Statistical analysis of focus adjustment method for a floating imaging system with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 23, 189‒196 (2012)
[Crossref]

Lee, H.-J.

J.-M. Ryu, G.-M. Kang, H.-J. Lee, H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Jo, "Correction method for the variation of the image plane generated by various symmetric error factors of zoom lenses of digital still cameras and estimation of defect rate due to the correction," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 17, 420‒429 (2006)
[Crossref]

Lee, H.-K.

J.-M. Ryu, G.-M. Kang, H.-J. Lee, H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Jo, "Correction method for the variation of the image plane generated by various symmetric error factors of zoom lenses of digital still cameras and estimation of defect rate due to the correction," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 17, 420‒429 (2006)
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 1949‒1957 (1994)
[Crossref]

Little, R. J.

R. J. Little, D. B. Rubin, Statistical analysis with missing data .

Macdonald, J.

P. Mouroulis, J. Macdonald, Geometrical optics and optical design .

Milinski, M.

C. Wedekind, M. Milinski, "Cooperation through image scoring in humans," Sci. 288, 850‒852 (2000)
[Crossref]

Miller, G. D.

G. D. Miller, See-through display with an optical assemblyincluding a wedge-shaped illumination system U.S. Patents .

Mouroulis, P.

P. Mouroulis, J. Macdonald, Geometrical optics and optical design .

Park, S. C

Y. S. Kim, S. C Park, Y. T Park, Y. H Seo, H. J Yoo, D. G Lee, Quality management .

Park, Y. T

Y. S. Kim, S. C Park, Y. T Park, Y. H Seo, H. J Yoo, D. G Lee, Quality management .

Rolland, J.

J. Rolland, H. Hua, "Head-mounted display systems," Encycl. Opt. Eng. 1‒13 (2005)

Rosenblatt, M.

M. Rosenblatt, "A central limit theorem and a strong mixing condition," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 42, 43‒47 (1956)
[Crossref]

Rubin, D. B.

R. J. Little, D. B. Rubin, Statistical analysis with missing data .

Ryu, J.

J. Ryu, J. Jo, G. Kang, H. Lee, S. Yoneyama, "Focus adjustment method with statistical analysis for an inter-changeable zoom lens with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 22, 230‒238 (2011)
[Crossref]

Ryu, J. M.

J. M. Ryu, Y. S. Kim, J. H. Jo, G. M. Kang, H. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, "Statistical analysis of focus adjustment method for a floating imaging system with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 23, 189‒196 (2012)
[Crossref]

J. H. Jo, J. M. Ryu, The base and application of optical design with lens design program .

J. H. Jo, J. M. Ryu, The base and application of optical design with lens design program .

Ryu, J.-M.

J.-M. Ryu, G.-M. Kang, H.-J. Lee, H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Jo, "Correction method for the variation of the image plane generated by various symmetric error factors of zoom lenses of digital still cameras and estimation of defect rate due to the correction," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 17, 420‒429 (2006)
[Crossref]

Samson, D.

D. Samson, M. Terziovski, "The relationship between total quality management practices and operational performance," J. Oper. Manag. 17, 393‒409 (1999)
[Crossref]

Sedat, J. W.

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. Agard, J. W. Sedat, "Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy," J. Microsc. 216, 32‒48 (2004)
[Crossref]

Seo, Y. H

Y. S. Kim, S. C Park, Y. T Park, Y. H Seo, H. J Yoo, D. G Lee, Quality management .

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical engineering .

Terziovski, M.

D. Samson, M. Terziovski, "The relationship between total quality management practices and operational performance," J. Oper. Manag. 17, 393‒409 (1999)
[Crossref]

Wedekind, C.

C. Wedekind, M. Milinski, "Cooperation through image scoring in humans," Sci. 288, 850‒852 (2000)
[Crossref]

Worhoff, K.

Yoneyama, S.

J. Ryu, J. Jo, G. Kang, H. Lee, S. Yoneyama, "Focus adjustment method with statistical analysis for an inter-changeable zoom lens with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 22, 230‒238 (2011)
[Crossref]

Yoo, H. J

Y. S. Kim, S. C Park, Y. T Park, Y. H Seo, H. J Yoo, D. G Lee, Quality management .

Encycl. Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Rolland, H. Hua, "Head-mounted display systems," Encycl. Opt. Eng. 1‒13 (2005)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Microsc. (1)

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. Agard, J. W. Sedat, "Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy," J. Microsc. 216, 32‒48 (2004)
[Crossref]

J. Oper. Manag. (1)

D. Samson, M. Terziovski, "The relationship between total quality management practices and operational performance," J. Oper. Manag. 17, 393‒409 (1999)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 1949‒1957 (1994)
[Crossref]

Korean J. Opt. Photonics (3)

J. M. Ryu, Y. S. Kim, J. H. Jo, G. M. Kang, H. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, "Statistical analysis of focus adjustment method for a floating imaging system with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 23, 189‒196 (2012)
[Crossref]

J.-M. Ryu, G.-M. Kang, H.-J. Lee, H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Jo, "Correction method for the variation of the image plane generated by various symmetric error factors of zoom lenses of digital still cameras and estimation of defect rate due to the correction," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 17, 420‒429 (2006)
[Crossref]

J. Ryu, J. Jo, G. Kang, H. Lee, S. Yoneyama, "Focus adjustment method with statistical analysis for an inter-changeable zoom lens with symmetric error factors," Korean J. Opt. Photonics 22, 230‒238 (2011)
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

M. Rosenblatt, "A central limit theorem and a strong mixing condition," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 42, 43‒47 (1956)
[Crossref]

Sci. (1)

C. Wedekind, M. Milinski, "Cooperation through image scoring in humans," Sci. 288, 850‒852 (2000)
[Crossref]

Other (19)

H. Erfle, Ocular U.S. Patents .

J. H. Jo, J. M. Ryu, The base and application of optical design with lens design program .

R. J. Little, D. B. Rubin, Statistical analysis with missing data .

R. V. Hogg, A. T. Craig, Introduction to mathematical statistics .

K. A. Brownlee, K. A. Brownlee, Statistical theory and methodology in science and engineering .

K. A. Brownlee, K. A. Brownlee, Statistical theory and methodology in science and engineering .

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical engineering .

.

.

.

.

.

G. D. Miller, See-through display with an optical assemblyincluding a wedge-shaped illumination system U.S. Patents .

A. M. Joglekar, Statistical methods for six sigma .

Y. S. Kim, S. C Park, Y. T Park, Y. H Seo, H. J Yoo, D. G Lee, Quality management .

The presentation of Gyeonbuk industry-university convergence district in Year 4 .

J. L. Fergason, Optical system for a head mounted display using a retro-reflector and method of displaying an image U.S. Patent .

J. H. Jo, J. M. Ryu, The base and application of optical design with lens design program .

P. Mouroulis, J. Macdonald, Geometrical optics and optical design .

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