Abstract

The benefits of network coding in all-optical multicast networks have been widely demonstrated. In this paper, we mainly discuss the multicast service efficiently provisioning problem in the network coding enabled elastic optical networks (EONs). Although most research on routing and spectrum allocation (RSA) has been widely studied in the elastic optical networks (EONs), rare research studies RSA for multicast in the network coding enabled EON, especially considering the time delay constraint. We propose an efficient heuristic algorithm, called Network Coding based Multicast Capable-Multipath Routing and Spectrum Allocation (NCMC-MRSA) to solve the multipath RSA for multicast services in the network coding enabled EON. The well-known layered graph approach is utilized for NCMC-MRSA, and two request ordering strategies are utilized for multiple multicast requests. From the simulation results, we observe that the proposed algorithm NCMC-MRSA performs more efficient spectrum utilization compared with the benchmark algorithms. NCMC-MRSA utilizing the spectrum request balancing (SRB) ordering strategy shows the most efficient spectrum utilization performance among other algorithms in most test networks. Note that we also observe that the efficiency of NCMC-MRSA shows more obvious than the benchmark algorithm in large networks. We also conduct the performance comparisons of two request ordering strategies for NCMC-MRSA. Besides, we also evaluate the impact of the number of the link-disjoint parallel w paths on the spectrum utilization performance of the proposed algorithm NCMC-MRSA. It is interesting to find that the change of the parameter w in a certain range has a significant impact on the performance of NCMC-MRSA. As the parameter w increases to a certain value, the performances of NCMC-MRSA cannot be affected by the change of w any more.

© 2017 Optical Society of Korea

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  28. L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, "Design for multigranularity multicast traffic transmitting in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based flexible-grid optical networks," Opt. Eng. 53, 1709‒1717 (2013)
  29. L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, L. Bai, Z. T. Huang, "All-optical OFDM network coding scheme for all-optical virtual private communication in PON," Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 61‒67 (2013)
  30. X. Wang, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, RSA for the hybrid unicast and network coding based multicast services over the flexible optical networks .
  31. J. Chen, S.-H. Chan, V. Li, "Multipath routing for video delivery over bandwidth-limited networks," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1920‒1932 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  32. M. klinkowski, K. Walkowiak, "On the advantages of elastic optical networks for provisioning of cloud computing traffic," IEEE Netw. 27, 44‒51 (2013)
    [Crossref]
  33. J. F. Myoupo, A. C. Fabret, "A modular systolic linearization of the Warshall-Floyd algorithm," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 7, 449‒455 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  34. L. Ruan, N. Xiao, "Survivable multipath routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based flexible optical networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 172‒182 (2013)
    [Crossref]
  35. M. klinkowski, K. Walkowiak, "On the advantages of elastic optical networks for provisioning of cloud computing traffic," IEEE Netw. 27, 44‒51 (2013)
    [Crossref]
  36. H. L. Xing, R. Qu, L. Bai, Y. F. Ji, "On minimizing coding operations in network coding based multicast: an evolutionary algorithm," Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 820‒836 (2014)

2017 (1)

X. Wang, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, "Hybrid services efficient provisioning over the network coding enabled elastic optical networks," Opt. Eng. 56, 036101(1-14) (2017)
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

Y. F. Ji, J. W. Zhang, Y. L. Zhao, X. S. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Chen, "Prospects and research issues in multidimensional all optical networks," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 101301 (2016)
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ji, X. X. Wang, S. Z. Zhang, R. T. Gu, Z. Z. Ge, "Dual-layer efficiency enhancement for future passive optical network," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 022313 (2016)

X. Wang, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, "Ring-like reliable PON planning with physical constraints for a smart grid," J. Opt. Fiber Technol. 27, 24‒34 (2016)
[Crossref]

H. X. Wang, J. X. Zhao, H. Li, Y. F. Ji, "Opaque virtual network mapping algorithms based on available spectrum adjacency for elastic optical networks," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 042302 (2016)
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

X. Wang, K. X. Kuang, S. Wang, S. Z. Xu, H. Liu, G.N. Liu, "Dynamic routing and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks with mixed line rates," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6, 1115‒1127 (2014)
[Crossref]

H. L. Xing, R. Qu, L. Bai, Y. F. Ji, "On minimizing coding operations in network coding based multicast: an evolutionary algorithm," Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 820‒836 (2014)

2013 (9)

L. Ruan, N. Xiao, "Survivable multipath routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based flexible optical networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 172‒182 (2013)
[Crossref]

M. klinkowski, K. Walkowiak, "On the advantages of elastic optical networks for provisioning of cloud computing traffic," IEEE Netw. 27, 44‒51 (2013)
[Crossref]

L. Gong, X. Zhou, X. H. Liu, W. W. Zhao, W. Lu, Z. Q. Zhu, "Efficient resource allocation for all-optical multicasting over spectrum-sliced elastic optical networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 836‒847 (2013)
[Crossref]

M. klinkowski, K. Walkowiak, "On the advantages of elastic optical networks for provisioning of cloud computing traffic," IEEE Netw. 27, 44‒51 (2013)
[Crossref]

J. H. Guo, J. Y. Wang, H. Li, Y. F. Ji, "A new asymmetric spectrum assignment method to improve spectrum efficiency for spectrum-sliced optical network," Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 565‒573 (2013)
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, N. Ansari, "Dynamic service provisioning in elastic optical networks with hybrid single-/multi-path routing," J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 15‒22 (2013)
[Crossref]

W. Lu, "Dynamic multi-path service provisioning under differential delay constraint in elastic optical networks," IEEE Commun. Lett. 17, 158‒161 (2013)
[Crossref]

L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, "Design for multigranularity multicast traffic transmitting in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based flexible-grid optical networks," Opt. Eng. 53, 1709‒1717 (2013)

L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, L. Bai, Z. T. Huang, "All-optical OFDM network coding scheme for all-optical virtual private communication in PON," Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 61‒67 (2013)

2012 (1)

M. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, S. J. B. Yoo, "Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, s12‒s20 (2012)
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Y. F. Ji, D. P. Ren, H. Li, X. J. Liu, Z. Z. Wang, "Analysis and experimentation of key technologies in service-oriented optical internet," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 54, 215‒226 (2011)
[Crossref]

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1354‒1366 (2011)
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical network [Topics in Optical Communications]," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 138‒145 (2010)

2009 (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, S. Matsuoka, "Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture benefits and enabling technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 66‒73 (2009)

2006 (1)

T. Ho, M. Médard, R. Koetter, D. R. Karger, M. Effros, J. Shi, B. Leong, "A random linear network coding approach to multicast," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 4413‒4430 (2006)
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Chen, S.-H. Chan, V. Li, "Multipath routing for video delivery over bandwidth-limited networks," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1920‒1932 (2004)
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, R. Yeung, "Network information flow," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 46, 1204‒1216 (2000)
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. F. Myoupo, A. C. Fabret, "A modular systolic linearization of the Warshall-Floyd algorithm," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 7, 449‒455 (1996)
[Crossref]

Ahlswede, R.

R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, R. Yeung, "Network information flow," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 46, 1204‒1216 (2000)
[Crossref]

Ansari, N.

Armstrong, J.

Bai, L.

H. L. Xing, R. Qu, L. Bai, Y. F. Ji, "On minimizing coding operations in network coding based multicast: an evolutionary algorithm," Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 820‒836 (2014)

L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, L. Bai, Z. T. Huang, "All-optical OFDM network coding scheme for all-optical virtual private communication in PON," Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 61‒67 (2013)

Bertsekas, D.

D. Bertsekas, R. Gallager, Data Networks .

Cai, N.

R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, R. Yeung, "Network information flow," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 46, 1204‒1216 (2000)
[Crossref]

Chan, S.-H.

J. Chen, S.-H. Chan, V. Li, "Multipath routing for video delivery over bandwidth-limited networks," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1920‒1932 (2004)
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, S.-H. Chan, V. Li, "Multipath routing for video delivery over bandwidth-limited networks," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1920‒1932 (2004)
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. F. Ji, J. W. Zhang, Y. L. Zhao, X. S. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Chen, "Prospects and research issues in multidimensional all optical networks," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 101301 (2016)
[Crossref]

X. Chen, J. H. Li, P. Zhu, R. Z. Tang, Z. Y. Chen, Y. Q. He, "Fragmentation-aware routing and spectrum allocationscheme based on distribution of traffic bandwidth in elasticoptical networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7, 1064‒1074 (2015)
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. Y.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, E. A. Varvarigos, Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks .

Djordjevic, I.

W. Shieh, I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications .

Effros, M.

T. Ho, M. Médard, R. Koetter, D. R. Karger, M. Effros, J. Shi, B. Leong, "A random linear network coding approach to multicast," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 4413‒4430 (2006)
[Crossref]

Fabret, A. C.

J. F. Myoupo, A. C. Fabret, "A modular systolic linearization of the Warshall-Floyd algorithm," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 7, 449‒455 (1996)
[Crossref]

Gallager, R.

D. Bertsekas, R. Gallager, Data Networks .

Ge, Z. Z.

Y. F. Ji, X. X. Wang, S. Z. Zhang, R. T. Gu, Z. Z. Ge, "Dual-layer efficiency enhancement for future passive optical network," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 022313 (2016)

Gerstel, M.

M. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, S. J. B. Yoo, "Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, s12‒s20 (2012)
[Crossref]

Gong, L.

Gu, R. T.

X. Wang, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, "Hybrid services efficient provisioning over the network coding enabled elastic optical networks," Opt. Eng. 56, 036101(1-14) (2017)
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ji, X. X. Wang, S. Z. Zhang, R. T. Gu, Z. Z. Ge, "Dual-layer efficiency enhancement for future passive optical network," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 022313 (2016)

X. Wang, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, "Ring-like reliable PON planning with physical constraints for a smart grid," J. Opt. Fiber Technol. 27, 24‒34 (2016)
[Crossref]

L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, L. Bai, Z. T. Huang, "All-optical OFDM network coding scheme for all-optical virtual private communication in PON," Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 61‒67 (2013)

L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, "Design for multigranularity multicast traffic transmitting in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based flexible-grid optical networks," Opt. Eng. 53, 1709‒1717 (2013)

X. Wang, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, RSA for the hybrid unicast and network coding based multicast services over the flexible optical networks .

Guo, J. H.

J. H. Guo, J. Y. Wang, H. Li, Y. F. Ji, "A new asymmetric spectrum assignment method to improve spectrum efficiency for spectrum-sliced optical network," Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 565‒573 (2013)
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks .

He, Y. Q.

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical network [Topics in Optical Communications]," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 138‒145 (2010)

Ho, T.

T. Ho, M. Médard, R. Koetter, D. R. Karger, M. Effros, J. Shi, B. Leong, "A random linear network coding approach to multicast," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 4413‒4430 (2006)
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks .

Hua, N.

X. Wan, L. Wang, N. Hua, H. Zhang, X. Zheng, Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in flexible optical path networks .

Huang, Z. T.

L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, L. Bai, Z. T. Huang, "All-optical OFDM network coding scheme for all-optical virtual private communication in PON," Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 61‒67 (2013)

Ji, Y. F.

X. Wang, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, "Hybrid services efficient provisioning over the network coding enabled elastic optical networks," Opt. Eng. 56, 036101(1-14) (2017)
[Crossref]

H. X. Wang, J. X. Zhao, H. Li, Y. F. Ji, "Opaque virtual network mapping algorithms based on available spectrum adjacency for elastic optical networks," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 042302 (2016)
[Crossref]

X. Wang, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, "Ring-like reliable PON planning with physical constraints for a smart grid," J. Opt. Fiber Technol. 27, 24‒34 (2016)
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ji, X. X. Wang, S. Z. Zhang, R. T. Gu, Z. Z. Ge, "Dual-layer efficiency enhancement for future passive optical network," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 022313 (2016)

Y. F. Ji, J. W. Zhang, Y. L. Zhao, X. S. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Chen, "Prospects and research issues in multidimensional all optical networks," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 101301 (2016)
[Crossref]

H. L. Xing, R. Qu, L. Bai, Y. F. Ji, "On minimizing coding operations in network coding based multicast: an evolutionary algorithm," Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 820‒836 (2014)

L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, "Design for multigranularity multicast traffic transmitting in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based flexible-grid optical networks," Opt. Eng. 53, 1709‒1717 (2013)

L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, L. Bai, Z. T. Huang, "All-optical OFDM network coding scheme for all-optical virtual private communication in PON," Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 61‒67 (2013)

J. H. Guo, J. Y. Wang, H. Li, Y. F. Ji, "A new asymmetric spectrum assignment method to improve spectrum efficiency for spectrum-sliced optical network," Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 565‒573 (2013)
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ji, D. P. Ren, H. Li, X. J. Liu, Z. Z. Wang, "Analysis and experimentation of key technologies in service-oriented optical internet," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 54, 215‒226 (2011)
[Crossref]

X. Wang, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, RSA for the hybrid unicast and network coding based multicast services over the flexible optical networks .

Jin, Y.

W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks .

Jinno, M.

M. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, S. J. B. Yoo, "Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, s12‒s20 (2012)
[Crossref]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical network [Topics in Optical Communications]," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 138‒145 (2010)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, S. Matsuoka, "Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture benefits and enabling technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 66‒73 (2009)

Karger, D. R.

T. Ho, M. Médard, R. Koetter, D. R. Karger, M. Effros, J. Shi, B. Leong, "A random linear network coding approach to multicast," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 4413‒4430 (2006)
[Crossref]

klinkowski, M.

M. klinkowski, K. Walkowiak, "On the advantages of elastic optical networks for provisioning of cloud computing traffic," IEEE Netw. 27, 44‒51 (2013)
[Crossref]

M. klinkowski, K. Walkowiak, "On the advantages of elastic optical networks for provisioning of cloud computing traffic," IEEE Netw. 27, 44‒51 (2013)
[Crossref]

M. Klinkowski, K. Walkowiak, Offline RSA algorithms for elastic optical networks with dedicated path protection consideration .

Koetter, R.

T. Ho, M. Médard, R. Koetter, D. R. Karger, M. Effros, J. Shi, B. Leong, "A random linear network coding approach to multicast," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 4413‒4430 (2006)
[Crossref]

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical network [Topics in Optical Communications]," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 138‒145 (2010)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, S. Matsuoka, "Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture benefits and enabling technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 66‒73 (2009)

Kuang, K. X.

Leong, B.

T. Ho, M. Médard, R. Koetter, D. R. Karger, M. Effros, J. Shi, B. Leong, "A random linear network coding approach to multicast," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 4413‒4430 (2006)
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. X. Wang, J. X. Zhao, H. Li, Y. F. Ji, "Opaque virtual network mapping algorithms based on available spectrum adjacency for elastic optical networks," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 042302 (2016)
[Crossref]

J. H. Guo, J. Y. Wang, H. Li, Y. F. Ji, "A new asymmetric spectrum assignment method to improve spectrum efficiency for spectrum-sliced optical network," Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 565‒573 (2013)
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ji, D. P. Ren, H. Li, X. J. Liu, Z. Z. Wang, "Analysis and experimentation of key technologies in service-oriented optical internet," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 54, 215‒226 (2011)
[Crossref]

Li, J. H.

Li, L. J.

L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, L. Bai, Z. T. Huang, "All-optical OFDM network coding scheme for all-optical virtual private communication in PON," Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 61‒67 (2013)

L. J. Li, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, "Design for multigranularity multicast traffic transmitting in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based flexible-grid optical networks," Opt. Eng. 53, 1709‒1717 (2013)

Li, S.-Y.

R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, R. Yeung, "Network information flow," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 46, 1204‒1216 (2000)
[Crossref]

Li, V.

J. Chen, S.-H. Chan, V. Li, "Multipath routing for video delivery over bandwidth-limited networks," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1920‒1932 (2004)
[Crossref]

Liu, G.N.

Liu, H.

Liu, X. H.

Liu, X. J.

Y. F. Ji, D. P. Ren, H. Li, X. J. Liu, Z. Z. Wang, "Analysis and experimentation of key technologies in service-oriented optical internet," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 54, 215‒226 (2011)
[Crossref]

Lord, A.

M. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, S. J. B. Yoo, "Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, s12‒s20 (2012)
[Crossref]

Lu, W.

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, S. Matsuoka, "Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture benefits and enabling technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 66‒73 (2009)

Médard, M.

T. Ho, M. Médard, R. Koetter, D. R. Karger, M. Effros, J. Shi, B. Leong, "A random linear network coding approach to multicast," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 4413‒4430 (2006)
[Crossref]

Myoupo, J. F.

J. F. Myoupo, A. C. Fabret, "A modular systolic linearization of the Warshall-Floyd algorithm," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 7, 449‒455 (1996)
[Crossref]

Qu, R.

H. L. Xing, R. Qu, L. Bai, Y. F. Ji, "On minimizing coding operations in network coding based multicast: an evolutionary algorithm," Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 820‒836 (2014)

Ren, D. P.

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M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, S. Matsuoka, "Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture benefits and enabling technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 66‒73 (2009)

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M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical network [Topics in Optical Communications]," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 138‒145 (2010)

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H. L. Xing, R. Qu, L. Bai, Y. F. Ji, "On minimizing coding operations in network coding based multicast: an evolutionary algorithm," Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 820‒836 (2014)

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Y. F. Ji, J. W. Zhang, Y. L. Zhao, X. S. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Chen, "Prospects and research issues in multidimensional all optical networks," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 101301 (2016)
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H. X. Wang, J. X. Zhao, H. Li, Y. F. Ji, "Opaque virtual network mapping algorithms based on available spectrum adjacency for elastic optical networks," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 042302 (2016)
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Zhao, Y. L.

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W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks .

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X. Wan, L. Wang, N. Hua, H. Zhang, X. Zheng, Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in flexible optical path networks .

Zhou, X.

Zhu, P.

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W. Lu, "Dynamic multi-path service provisioning under differential delay constraint in elastic optical networks," IEEE Commun. Lett. 17, 158‒161 (2013)
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M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, S. Matsuoka, "Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture benefits and enabling technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 66‒73 (2009)

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M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical network [Topics in Optical Communications]," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 138‒145 (2010)

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M. klinkowski, K. Walkowiak, "On the advantages of elastic optical networks for provisioning of cloud computing traffic," IEEE Netw. 27, 44‒51 (2013)
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M. klinkowski, K. Walkowiak, "On the advantages of elastic optical networks for provisioning of cloud computing traffic," IEEE Netw. 27, 44‒51 (2013)
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R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, R. Yeung, "Network information flow," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 46, 1204‒1216 (2000)
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T. Ho, M. Médard, R. Koetter, D. R. Karger, M. Effros, J. Shi, B. Leong, "A random linear network coding approach to multicast," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 4413‒4430 (2006)
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H. L. Xing, R. Qu, L. Bai, Y. F. Ji, "On minimizing coding operations in network coding based multicast: an evolutionary algorithm," Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 820‒836 (2014)

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Sci. China Inf. Sci. (4)

Y. F. Ji, X. X. Wang, S. Z. Zhang, R. T. Gu, Z. Z. Ge, "Dual-layer efficiency enhancement for future passive optical network," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 022313 (2016)

Y. F. Ji, D. P. Ren, H. Li, X. J. Liu, Z. Z. Wang, "Analysis and experimentation of key technologies in service-oriented optical internet," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 54, 215‒226 (2011)
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ji, J. W. Zhang, Y. L. Zhao, X. S. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Chen, "Prospects and research issues in multidimensional all optical networks," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 101301 (2016)
[Crossref]

H. X. Wang, J. X. Zhao, H. Li, Y. F. Ji, "Opaque virtual network mapping algorithms based on available spectrum adjacency for elastic optical networks," Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 042302 (2016)
[Crossref]

Other (10)

.

X. H. Liu, L. Gong, Z. Q. Zhu, Design integrated RSA for multicast in elastic optical networks with a layered approach .

X. Wang, R. T. Gu, Y. F. Ji, RSA for the hybrid unicast and network coding based multicast services over the flexible optical networks .

W. Shieh, I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications .

Cisco visual networking index: forecast and methodology 2012-2015 .

W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks .

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, E. A. Varvarigos, Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks .

X. Wan, L. Wang, N. Hua, H. Zhang, X. Zheng, Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in flexible optical path networks .

M. Klinkowski, K. Walkowiak, Offline RSA algorithms for elastic optical networks with dedicated path protection consideration .

D. Bertsekas, R. Gallager, Data Networks .

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