Abstract

In addition to its typical use for skin rejuvenation, fractional laser irradiation of early cancerous lesions may reduce the risk of tumor development as a byproduct of wound healing in the stroma after the controlled injury. While fractional ablative lasers are commonly used for cosmetic/aesthetic purposes (e.g., photorejuvenation, hair removal, and scar reduction), we propose a novel use of such laser treatments as a stromal treatment to delay tumorigenesis and suppress carcinogenesis. In this study, we found that non-ablative fractional laser (NAFL) irradiation may have a possible suppressive effect on early tumor growth in syngeneic mouse tumor models. We included two syngeneic mouse tumor models in irradiation groups and control groups. In the irradiation group, a thulium fiber based NAFL at 1927 nm was used to irradiate the skin area including the tumor injection region with 70 mJ/spot, while no laser irradiation was applied to the control group. Numerical simulation with the same experimental condition showed that thermal damage was confined only to the irradiation spots, sparing the adjacent tissue area. The irradiation groups of both tumor models showed smaller tumor volumes than the control group at an early tumor growth stage. We also detected elevated inflammatory cytokine levels a day after the NAFL irradiation. NAFL treatment of the stromal tissue could potentially be an alternative anticancer therapeutic modality for early tumorigenesis in a minimally invasive manner.

© 2017 Optical Society of Korea

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    [Crossref]
  3. R. G. Geronemus, “Fractional photothermolysis: current and future applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 169-176 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 199-206 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. F. Spandau, D. A. Lewis, A. K. Somani, and J. B. Travers, “Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin,” J. Invest Dermatol. 132, 1591-1596 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Gye, S. K. Ahn, J. E. Kwon, and S. P. Hong, “Use of fractional CO2 laser decreases the risk of skin cancer development during ultraviolet exposure in hairless mice,” Dermatol. Surg. 41, 378-386 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. R. Anderson, “Lasers for dermatology and skin biology,” J. Invest Dermatol. 133, E21-23 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. P. Barham, R. L. Jones, L. R. Biddlestone, R. H. Hardwick, N. A. Shepherd, and H. Barr, “Photothermal laser ablation of Barrett’s oesophagus: endoscopic and histological evidence of squamous re-epithelialisation,” Gut. 41, 281-284 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).
  10. L. M. Field, “The superiority of dermabrasion over laser abrasion in the prophylaxis of malignant and premalignant disease,” Dermatol. Surg. 33, 258-259 (2007).
  11. H. H. Pennes, “Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm,” J. Appl. Physiol. 1, 93-122 (1948).
  12. T. L. Bergman, A. S. Lavine, F. P. Incropera, and D. P. DeWitt, “The Bioheat Equation,” in Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 183-187 (Wiley, 2011).
  13. A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. N. Bashkatov, É. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Ratovoson, F. Jourdan, and V. Huon, “A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography,” EPJ Web Conf. 6, 21008 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. Z. Ostrowski, P. Bulinski, W. Adamczyk, and A. J. Nowak, “Modelling and Validation of transient heat transfer processes in human skin undergoing local cooling,” Prz. Elektrotechniczny. 91, 76-79 (2015).
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  18. S. M. Lin and C. Y. Li, “Analytical solutions of non-Fourier bio-heat conductions for skin subjected to pulsed laser heating,” Int. J. Therm Sci. 110, 146-158 (2016).
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  19. C. M. Collins, M. B. Smith, and R. Turner, “Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 97, 2051-2055 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Sapi, L. Kovacs, D. A. Drexler, P. Kocsis, D. Gajari, and Z. Sapi, “Tumor Volume Estimation and Quasi-Continuous Administration for Most Effective Bevacizumab Therapy,” PLoS. One. 10, e0142190 (2015).
  21. H. Z. Alagha and M. Gulsoy, “Photothermal ablation of liver tissue with 1940-nm thulium fiber laser: an ex vivo study on lamb liver,” J. Biomed Opt. 21, 15007 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. B. Niwa Massaki, S. Eimpunth, S. G. Fabi, I. Guiha, W. Groff, and R. Fitzpatrick, “Treatment of melasma with the 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a retrospective analysis of 20 cases with long-term follow-up,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45, 95-101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Rieken and A. Bachmann, “Laser treatment of benign prostate enlargement--which laser for which prostate?,” Nat Rev. Urol. 11, 142-152 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. P. Ghasri, S. Admani, A. Petelin, and C. B. Zachary, “Treatment of actinic cheilitis using a 1,927-nm thulium fractional laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 504-507 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).
  26. J. A. Brauer, D. H. McDaniel, B. S. Bloom, K. K. Reddy, L. J. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “Nonablative 1927 nm fractional resurfacing for the treatment of facial photo-pigmentation, ” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1317-1322 (2014).
  27. K. Calabro, A. Curtis, J. R. Galarneau, T. Krucker, and I. J. Bigio, “Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models,” J. Biomed Opt. 16, 011008 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. S. Orringer, L. Rittie, D. Baker, J. J. Voorhees, and G. Fisher, “Molecular mechanisms of nonablative fractionated laser resurfacing,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163, 757-768 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  29. K. D. Polder, A. Harrison, L. E. Eubanks, and S. Bruce, “1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser for the treatment of nonfacial photodamage: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 37, 342-348 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. D. B. Vasily, M. E. Cerino, E. M. Ziselman, and S. T. Zeina, “Non-ablative fractional resurfacing of surgical and post-traumatic scars,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 8, 998-1005 (2009).
  32. H. Ikeda, L. J. Old, and R. D. Schreiber, “The roles of IFN gamma in protection against tumor development and cancer immunoediting,” Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13, 95-109 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. B. Jakowlew, “Transforming growth factor-beta in cancer and metastasis,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 25, 435-457 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  35. I. P. Witz, “Yin-yang activities and vicious cycles in the tumor microenvironment,” Cancer Res. 68, 9-13 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  36. I. P. Witz, “Tumor-microenvironment interactions: dangerous liaisons,” Adv. Cancer Res. 100, 203-229 (2008).
  37. C. Wilmanns, D. Fan, C. A. O’Brian, C. D. Bucana, and I. J. Fidler, “Orthotopic and ectopic organ environments differentially influence the sensitivity of murine colon carcinoma cells to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil,” Int. J. Cancer. 52, 98-104 (1992).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

S. M. Lin and C. Y. Li, “Analytical solutions of non-Fourier bio-heat conductions for skin subjected to pulsed laser heating,” Int. J. Therm Sci. 110, 146-158 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Z. Alagha and M. Gulsoy, “Photothermal ablation of liver tissue with 1940-nm thulium fiber laser: an ex vivo study on lamb liver,” J. Biomed Opt. 21, 15007 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

J. Sapi, L. Kovacs, D. A. Drexler, P. Kocsis, D. Gajari, and Z. Sapi, “Tumor Volume Estimation and Quasi-Continuous Administration for Most Effective Bevacizumab Therapy,” PLoS. One. 10, e0142190 (2015).

Z. Ostrowski, P. Bulinski, W. Adamczyk, and A. J. Nowak, “Modelling and Validation of transient heat transfer processes in human skin undergoing local cooling,” Prz. Elektrotechniczny. 91, 76-79 (2015).

J. Gye, S. K. Ahn, J. E. Kwon, and S. P. Hong, “Use of fractional CO2 laser decreases the risk of skin cancer development during ultraviolet exposure in hairless mice,” Dermatol. Surg. 41, 378-386 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

M. Rieken and A. Bachmann, “Laser treatment of benign prostate enlargement--which laser for which prostate?,” Nat Rev. Urol. 11, 142-152 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).

J. A. Brauer, D. H. McDaniel, B. S. Bloom, K. K. Reddy, L. J. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “Nonablative 1927 nm fractional resurfacing for the treatment of facial photo-pigmentation, ” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1317-1322 (2014).

2013 (4)

A. B. Niwa Massaki, S. Eimpunth, S. G. Fabi, I. Guiha, W. Groff, and R. Fitzpatrick, “Treatment of melasma with the 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a retrospective analysis of 20 cases with long-term follow-up,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45, 95-101 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. R. Anderson, “Lasers for dermatology and skin biology,” J. Invest Dermatol. 133, E21-23 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

2012 (3)

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 199-206 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. F. Spandau, D. A. Lewis, A. K. Somani, and J. B. Travers, “Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin,” J. Invest Dermatol. 132, 1591-1596 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Ghasri, S. Admani, A. Petelin, and C. B. Zachary, “Treatment of actinic cheilitis using a 1,927-nm thulium fractional laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 504-507 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

K. Calabro, A. Curtis, J. R. Galarneau, T. Krucker, and I. J. Bigio, “Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models,” J. Biomed Opt. 16, 011008 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. D. Polder, A. Harrison, L. E. Eubanks, and S. Bruce, “1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser for the treatment of nonfacial photodamage: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 37, 342-348 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. S. Orringer, L. Rittie, D. Baker, J. J. Voorhees, and G. Fisher, “Molecular mechanisms of nonablative fractionated laser resurfacing,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163, 757-768 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lipozencic and Z. Bukvic Mokos, “Dermatologic lasers in the treatment of aging skin,” Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 18, 176-180 (2010).

D. Ratovoson, F. Jourdan, and V. Huon, “A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography,” EPJ Web Conf. 6, 21008 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. B. Vasily, M. E. Cerino, E. M. Ziselman, and S. T. Zeina, “Non-ablative fractional resurfacing of surgical and post-traumatic scars,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 8, 998-1005 (2009).

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

I. P. Witz, “Yin-yang activities and vicious cycles in the tumor microenvironment,” Cancer Res. 68, 9-13 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. P. Witz, “Tumor-microenvironment interactions: dangerous liaisons,” Adv. Cancer Res. 100, 203-229 (2008).

2007 (1)

L. M. Field, “The superiority of dermabrasion over laser abrasion in the prophylaxis of malignant and premalignant disease,” Dermatol. Surg. 33, 258-259 (2007).

2006 (3)

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, and D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 142-149 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. G. Geronemus, “Fractional photothermolysis: current and future applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 169-176 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. B. Jakowlew, “Transforming growth factor-beta in cancer and metastasis,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 25, 435-457 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

J. Z. Wensheng Shen and Fuqian Yang, “Modeling and numerical simulation of bioheat transfer and biomechanics in soft tissue,” Math Comput Modell. 41, 1251-1265 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. N. Bashkatov, É. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. M. Collins, M. B. Smith, and R. Turner, “Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 97, 2051-2055 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Ikeda, L. J. Old, and R. D. Schreiber, “The roles of IFN gamma in protection against tumor development and cancer immunoediting,” Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13, 95-109 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. P. Barham, R. L. Jones, L. R. Biddlestone, R. H. Hardwick, N. A. Shepherd, and H. Barr, “Photothermal laser ablation of Barrett’s oesophagus: endoscopic and histological evidence of squamous re-epithelialisation,” Gut. 41, 281-284 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. Wilmanns, D. Fan, C. A. O’Brian, C. D. Bucana, and I. J. Fidler, “Orthotopic and ectopic organ environments differentially influence the sensitivity of murine colon carcinoma cells to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil,” Int. J. Cancer. 52, 98-104 (1992).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

H. H. Pennes, “Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm,” J. Appl. Physiol. 1, 93-122 (1948).

Adamczyk, W.

Z. Ostrowski, P. Bulinski, W. Adamczyk, and A. J. Nowak, “Modelling and Validation of transient heat transfer processes in human skin undergoing local cooling,” Prz. Elektrotechniczny. 91, 76-79 (2015).

Admani, S.

P. Ghasri, S. Admani, A. Petelin, and C. B. Zachary, “Treatment of actinic cheilitis using a 1,927-nm thulium fractional laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 504-507 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S. K.

J. Gye, S. K. Ahn, J. E. Kwon, and S. P. Hong, “Use of fractional CO2 laser decreases the risk of skin cancer development during ultraviolet exposure in hairless mice,” Dermatol. Surg. 41, 378-386 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alagha, H. Z.

H. Z. Alagha and M. Gulsoy, “Photothermal ablation of liver tissue with 1940-nm thulium fiber laser: an ex vivo study on lamb liver,” J. Biomed Opt. 21, 15007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alsaad, S.

L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, “Lasers for dermatology and skin biology,” J. Invest Dermatol. 133, E21-23 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, and D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 142-149 (2006).
[Crossref]

Anolik, R.

E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, A.

M. Rieken and A. Bachmann, “Laser treatment of benign prostate enlargement--which laser for which prostate?,” Nat Rev. Urol. 11, 142-152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baker, D.

J. S. Orringer, L. Rittie, D. Baker, J. J. Voorhees, and G. Fisher, “Molecular mechanisms of nonablative fractionated laser resurfacing,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163, 757-768 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barham, C. P.

C. P. Barham, R. L. Jones, L. R. Biddlestone, R. H. Hardwick, N. A. Shepherd, and H. Barr, “Photothermal laser ablation of Barrett’s oesophagus: endoscopic and histological evidence of squamous re-epithelialisation,” Gut. 41, 281-284 (1997).
[Crossref]

Barr, H.

C. P. Barham, R. L. Jones, L. R. Biddlestone, R. H. Hardwick, N. A. Shepherd, and H. Barr, “Photothermal laser ablation of Barrett’s oesophagus: endoscopic and histological evidence of squamous re-epithelialisation,” Gut. 41, 281-284 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. N. Bashkatov, É. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bergman, T. L.

T. L. Bergman, A. S. Lavine, F. P. Incropera, and D. P. DeWitt, “The Bioheat Equation,” in Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 183-187 (Wiley, 2011).

Bernstein, L.

E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernstein, L. J.

J. A. Brauer, D. H. McDaniel, B. S. Bloom, K. K. Reddy, L. J. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “Nonablative 1927 nm fractional resurfacing for the treatment of facial photo-pigmentation, ” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1317-1322 (2014).

Biddlestone, L. R.

C. P. Barham, R. L. Jones, L. R. Biddlestone, R. H. Hardwick, N. A. Shepherd, and H. Barr, “Photothermal laser ablation of Barrett’s oesophagus: endoscopic and histological evidence of squamous re-epithelialisation,” Gut. 41, 281-284 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bigio, I. J.

K. Calabro, A. Curtis, J. R. Galarneau, T. Krucker, and I. J. Bigio, “Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models,” J. Biomed Opt. 16, 011008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blalock, T.

L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).

Bloom, B. S.

J. A. Brauer, D. H. McDaniel, B. S. Bloom, K. K. Reddy, L. J. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “Nonablative 1927 nm fractional resurfacing for the treatment of facial photo-pigmentation, ” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1317-1322 (2014).

Bradish, J. R.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

Brauer, J. A.

J. A. Brauer, D. H. McDaniel, B. S. Bloom, K. K. Reddy, L. J. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “Nonablative 1927 nm fractional resurfacing for the treatment of facial photo-pigmentation, ” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1317-1322 (2014).

E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brightman, L. A.

E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bruce, S.

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 199-206 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. D. Polder, A. Harrison, L. E. Eubanks, and S. Bruce, “1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser for the treatment of nonfacial photodamage: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 37, 342-348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bucana, C. D.

C. Wilmanns, D. Fan, C. A. O’Brian, C. D. Bucana, and I. J. Fidler, “Orthotopic and ectopic organ environments differentially influence the sensitivity of murine colon carcinoma cells to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil,” Int. J. Cancer. 52, 98-104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bukvic Mokos, Z.

J. Lipozencic and Z. Bukvic Mokos, “Dermatologic lasers in the treatment of aging skin,” Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 18, 176-180 (2010).

Bulinski, P.

Z. Ostrowski, P. Bulinski, W. Adamczyk, and A. J. Nowak, “Modelling and Validation of transient heat transfer processes in human skin undergoing local cooling,” Prz. Elektrotechniczny. 91, 76-79 (2015).

Calabro, K.

K. Calabro, A. Curtis, J. R. Galarneau, T. Krucker, and I. J. Bigio, “Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models,” J. Biomed Opt. 16, 011008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cerino, M. E.

D. B. Vasily, M. E. Cerino, E. M. Ziselman, and S. T. Zeina, “Non-ablative fractional resurfacing of surgical and post-traumatic scars,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 8, 998-1005 (2009).

Collins, C. M.

C. M. Collins, M. B. Smith, and R. Turner, “Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 97, 2051-2055 (2004).
[Crossref]

Curtis, A.

K. Calabro, A. Curtis, J. R. Galarneau, T. Krucker, and I. J. Bigio, “Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models,” J. Biomed Opt. 16, 011008 (2011).
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R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

DeWitt, D. P.

T. L. Bergman, A. S. Lavine, F. P. Incropera, and D. P. DeWitt, “The Bioheat Equation,” in Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 183-187 (Wiley, 2011).

Drexler, D. A.

J. Sapi, L. Kovacs, D. A. Drexler, P. Kocsis, D. Gajari, and Z. Sapi, “Tumor Volume Estimation and Quasi-Continuous Administration for Most Effective Bevacizumab Therapy,” PLoS. One. 10, e0142190 (2015).

Eimpunth, S.

A. B. Niwa Massaki, S. Eimpunth, S. G. Fabi, I. Guiha, W. Groff, and R. Fitzpatrick, “Treatment of melasma with the 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a retrospective analysis of 20 cases with long-term follow-up,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45, 95-101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eubanks, L. E.

K. D. Polder, A. Harrison, L. E. Eubanks, and S. Bruce, “1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser for the treatment of nonfacial photodamage: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 37, 342-348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fabi, S. G.

A. B. Niwa Massaki, S. Eimpunth, S. G. Fabi, I. Guiha, W. Groff, and R. Fitzpatrick, “Treatment of melasma with the 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a retrospective analysis of 20 cases with long-term follow-up,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45, 95-101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

C. Wilmanns, D. Fan, C. A. O’Brian, C. D. Bucana, and I. J. Fidler, “Orthotopic and ectopic organ environments differentially influence the sensitivity of murine colon carcinoma cells to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil,” Int. J. Cancer. 52, 98-104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fidler, I. J.

C. Wilmanns, D. Fan, C. A. O’Brian, C. D. Bucana, and I. J. Fidler, “Orthotopic and ectopic organ environments differentially influence the sensitivity of murine colon carcinoma cells to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil,” Int. J. Cancer. 52, 98-104 (1992).
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L. M. Field, “The superiority of dermabrasion over laser abrasion in the prophylaxis of malignant and premalignant disease,” Dermatol. Surg. 33, 258-259 (2007).

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J. S. Orringer, L. Rittie, D. Baker, J. J. Voorhees, and G. Fisher, “Molecular mechanisms of nonablative fractionated laser resurfacing,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163, 757-768 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fitzpatrick, R.

A. B. Niwa Massaki, S. Eimpunth, S. G. Fabi, I. Guiha, W. Groff, and R. Fitzpatrick, “Treatment of melasma with the 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a retrospective analysis of 20 cases with long-term follow-up,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45, 95-101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gajari, D.

J. Sapi, L. Kovacs, D. A. Drexler, P. Kocsis, D. Gajari, and Z. Sapi, “Tumor Volume Estimation and Quasi-Continuous Administration for Most Effective Bevacizumab Therapy,” PLoS. One. 10, e0142190 (2015).

Galarneau, J. R.

K. Calabro, A. Curtis, J. R. Galarneau, T. Krucker, and I. J. Bigio, “Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models,” J. Biomed Opt. 16, 011008 (2011).
[Crossref]

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A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
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A. N. Bashkatov, É. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
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J. A. Brauer, D. H. McDaniel, B. S. Bloom, K. K. Reddy, L. J. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “Nonablative 1927 nm fractional resurfacing for the treatment of facial photo-pigmentation, ” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1317-1322 (2014).

E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
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R. G. Geronemus, “Fractional photothermolysis: current and future applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 169-176 (2006).
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Ghasri, P.

P. Ghasri, S. Admani, A. Petelin, and C. B. Zachary, “Treatment of actinic cheilitis using a 1,927-nm thulium fractional laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 504-507 (2012).
[Crossref]

Groff, W.

A. B. Niwa Massaki, S. Eimpunth, S. G. Fabi, I. Guiha, W. Groff, and R. Fitzpatrick, “Treatment of melasma with the 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a retrospective analysis of 20 cases with long-term follow-up,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45, 95-101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, Q.

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guiha, I.

A. B. Niwa Massaki, S. Eimpunth, S. G. Fabi, I. Guiha, W. Groff, and R. Fitzpatrick, “Treatment of melasma with the 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a retrospective analysis of 20 cases with long-term follow-up,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45, 95-101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gulsoy, M.

H. Z. Alagha and M. Gulsoy, “Photothermal ablation of liver tissue with 1940-nm thulium fiber laser: an ex vivo study on lamb liver,” J. Biomed Opt. 21, 15007 (2016).
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Gye, J.

J. Gye, S. K. Ahn, J. E. Kwon, and S. P. Hong, “Use of fractional CO2 laser decreases the risk of skin cancer development during ultraviolet exposure in hairless mice,” Dermatol. Surg. 41, 378-386 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hale, E. K.

E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hardwick, R. H.

C. P. Barham, R. L. Jones, L. R. Biddlestone, R. H. Hardwick, N. A. Shepherd, and H. Barr, “Photothermal laser ablation of Barrett’s oesophagus: endoscopic and histological evidence of squamous re-epithelialisation,” Gut. 41, 281-284 (1997).
[Crossref]

Harrison, A.

K. D. Polder, A. Harrison, L. E. Eubanks, and S. Bruce, “1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser for the treatment of nonfacial photodamage: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 37, 342-348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, S. P.

J. Gye, S. K. Ahn, J. E. Kwon, and S. P. Hong, “Use of fractional CO2 laser decreases the risk of skin cancer development during ultraviolet exposure in hairless mice,” Dermatol. Surg. 41, 378-386 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huon, V.

D. Ratovoson, F. Jourdan, and V. Huon, “A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography,” EPJ Web Conf. 6, 21008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, H.

H. Ikeda, L. J. Old, and R. D. Schreiber, “The roles of IFN gamma in protection against tumor development and cancer immunoediting,” Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13, 95-109 (2002).
[Crossref]

Incropera, F. P.

T. L. Bergman, A. S. Lavine, F. P. Incropera, and D. P. DeWitt, “The Bioheat Equation,” in Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 183-187 (Wiley, 2011).

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S. B. Jakowlew, “Transforming growth factor-beta in cancer and metastasis,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 25, 435-457 (2006).
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Jones, R. L.

C. P. Barham, R. L. Jones, L. R. Biddlestone, R. H. Hardwick, N. A. Shepherd, and H. Barr, “Photothermal laser ablation of Barrett’s oesophagus: endoscopic and histological evidence of squamous re-epithelialisation,” Gut. 41, 281-284 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jourdan, F.

D. Ratovoson, F. Jourdan, and V. Huon, “A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography,” EPJ Web Conf. 6, 21008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Karen, J. K.

E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. L.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

Kochubey, V. I.

A. N. Bashkatov, É. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kocsis, P.

J. Sapi, L. Kovacs, D. A. Drexler, P. Kocsis, D. Gajari, and Z. Sapi, “Tumor Volume Estimation and Quasi-Continuous Administration for Most Effective Bevacizumab Therapy,” PLoS. One. 10, e0142190 (2015).

Konger, R. L.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

Kovacs, L.

J. Sapi, L. Kovacs, D. A. Drexler, P. Kocsis, D. Gajari, and Z. Sapi, “Tumor Volume Estimation and Quasi-Continuous Administration for Most Effective Bevacizumab Therapy,” PLoS. One. 10, e0142190 (2015).

Krucker, T.

K. Calabro, A. Curtis, J. R. Galarneau, T. Krucker, and I. J. Bigio, “Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models,” J. Biomed Opt. 16, 011008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kwon, J. E.

J. Gye, S. K. Ahn, J. E. Kwon, and S. P. Hong, “Use of fractional CO2 laser decreases the risk of skin cancer development during ultraviolet exposure in hairless mice,” Dermatol. Surg. 41, 378-386 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laubach, H. J.

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, and D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 142-149 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lavine, A. S.

T. L. Bergman, A. S. Lavine, F. P. Incropera, and D. P. DeWitt, “The Bioheat Equation,” in Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 183-187 (Wiley, 2011).

Lewis, D. A.

D. F. Spandau, D. A. Lewis, A. K. Somani, and J. B. Travers, “Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin,” J. Invest Dermatol. 132, 1591-1596 (2012).
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Li, C. Y.

S. M. Lin and C. Y. Li, “Analytical solutions of non-Fourier bio-heat conductions for skin subjected to pulsed laser heating,” Int. J. Therm Sci. 110, 146-158 (2016).
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Lin, S. M.

S. M. Lin and C. Y. Li, “Analytical solutions of non-Fourier bio-heat conductions for skin subjected to pulsed laser heating,” Int. J. Therm Sci. 110, 146-158 (2016).
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Lipozencic, J.

J. Lipozencic and Z. Bukvic Mokos, “Dermatologic lasers in the treatment of aging skin,” Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 18, 176-180 (2010).

Liu, Y.

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. X.

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
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Ma, Y. M.

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Manstein, D.

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, and D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 142-149 (2006).
[Crossref]

McDaniel, D. H.

J. A. Brauer, D. H. McDaniel, B. S. Bloom, K. K. Reddy, L. J. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “Nonablative 1927 nm fractional resurfacing for the treatment of facial photo-pigmentation, ” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1317-1322 (2014).

Mehta, S. R.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

Miller, L.

L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).

Mishra, V.

L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).

Mohamed, D. R.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

Ni, C. S.

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Niwa Massaki, A. B.

A. B. Niwa Massaki, S. Eimpunth, S. G. Fabi, I. Guiha, W. Groff, and R. Fitzpatrick, “Treatment of melasma with the 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a retrospective analysis of 20 cases with long-term follow-up,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45, 95-101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nowak, A. J.

Z. Ostrowski, P. Bulinski, W. Adamczyk, and A. J. Nowak, “Modelling and Validation of transient heat transfer processes in human skin undergoing local cooling,” Prz. Elektrotechniczny. 91, 76-79 (2015).

O’Brian, C. A.

C. Wilmanns, D. Fan, C. A. O’Brian, C. D. Bucana, and I. J. Fidler, “Orthotopic and ectopic organ environments differentially influence the sensitivity of murine colon carcinoma cells to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil,” Int. J. Cancer. 52, 98-104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Old, L. J.

H. Ikeda, L. J. Old, and R. D. Schreiber, “The roles of IFN gamma in protection against tumor development and cancer immunoediting,” Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13, 95-109 (2002).
[Crossref]

Orringer, J. S.

J. S. Orringer, L. Rittie, D. Baker, J. J. Voorhees, and G. Fisher, “Molecular mechanisms of nonablative fractionated laser resurfacing,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163, 757-768 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ostrowski, Z.

Z. Ostrowski, P. Bulinski, W. Adamczyk, and A. J. Nowak, “Modelling and Validation of transient heat transfer processes in human skin undergoing local cooling,” Prz. Elektrotechniczny. 91, 76-79 (2015).

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H. H. Pennes, “Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm,” J. Appl. Physiol. 1, 93-122 (1948).

Petelin, A.

P. Ghasri, S. Admani, A. Petelin, and C. B. Zachary, “Treatment of actinic cheilitis using a 1,927-nm thulium fractional laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 504-507 (2012).
[Crossref]

Polder, K. D.

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 199-206 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. D. Polder, A. Harrison, L. E. Eubanks, and S. Bruce, “1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser for the treatment of nonfacial photodamage: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 37, 342-348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qie, S.

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).

Rashid, B. M.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

Ratovoson, D.

D. Ratovoson, F. Jourdan, and V. Huon, “A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography,” EPJ Web Conf. 6, 21008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reddy, K. K.

J. A. Brauer, D. H. McDaniel, B. S. Bloom, K. K. Reddy, L. J. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “Nonablative 1927 nm fractional resurfacing for the treatment of facial photo-pigmentation, ” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1317-1322 (2014).

E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rieken, M.

M. Rieken and A. Bachmann, “Laser treatment of benign prostate enlargement--which laser for which prostate?,” Nat Rev. Urol. 11, 142-152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rittie, L.

J. S. Orringer, L. Rittie, D. Baker, J. J. Voorhees, and G. Fisher, “Molecular mechanisms of nonablative fractionated laser resurfacing,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163, 757-768 (2010).
[Crossref]

Romine, S.

L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).

Ross, E. V.

L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).

Sahu, R. P.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

Sapi, J.

J. Sapi, L. Kovacs, D. A. Drexler, P. Kocsis, D. Gajari, and Z. Sapi, “Tumor Volume Estimation and Quasi-Continuous Administration for Most Effective Bevacizumab Therapy,” PLoS. One. 10, e0142190 (2015).

Sapi, Z.

J. Sapi, L. Kovacs, D. A. Drexler, P. Kocsis, D. Gajari, and Z. Sapi, “Tumor Volume Estimation and Quasi-Continuous Administration for Most Effective Bevacizumab Therapy,” PLoS. One. 10, e0142190 (2015).

Schreiber, R. D.

H. Ikeda, L. J. Old, and R. D. Schreiber, “The roles of IFN gamma in protection against tumor development and cancer immunoediting,” Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13, 95-109 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, N. A.

C. P. Barham, R. L. Jones, L. R. Biddlestone, R. H. Hardwick, N. A. Shepherd, and H. Barr, “Photothermal laser ablation of Barrett’s oesophagus: endoscopic and histological evidence of squamous re-epithelialisation,” Gut. 41, 281-284 (1997).
[Crossref]

Smith, M. B.

C. M. Collins, M. B. Smith, and R. Turner, “Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 97, 2051-2055 (2004).
[Crossref]

Somani, A. K.

D. F. Spandau, D. A. Lewis, A. K. Somani, and J. B. Travers, “Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin,” J. Invest Dermatol. 132, 1591-1596 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spandau, D. F.

D. F. Spandau, D. A. Lewis, A. K. Somani, and J. B. Travers, “Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin,” J. Invest Dermatol. 132, 1591-1596 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, B. C.

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, T.

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tannous, Z.

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, and D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 142-149 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tingey, C.

L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).

Travers, J. B.

D. F. Spandau, D. A. Lewis, A. K. Somani, and J. B. Travers, “Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin,” J. Invest Dermatol. 132, 1591-1596 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tuchin, V. V.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. N. Bashkatov, É. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
[Crossref]

Turner, R.

C. M. Collins, M. B. Smith, and R. Turner, “Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 97, 2051-2055 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vasily, D. B.

D. B. Vasily, M. E. Cerino, E. M. Ziselman, and S. T. Zeina, “Non-ablative fractional resurfacing of surgical and post-traumatic scars,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 8, 998-1005 (2009).

Voorhees, J. J.

J. S. Orringer, L. Rittie, D. Baker, J. J. Voorhees, and G. Fisher, “Molecular mechanisms of nonablative fractionated laser resurfacing,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163, 757-768 (2010).
[Crossref]

Warren, S. J.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

Weiss, E. T.

E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
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Wensheng Shen, J. Z.

J. Z. Wensheng Shen and Fuqian Yang, “Modeling and numerical simulation of bioheat transfer and biomechanics in soft tissue,” Math Comput Modell. 41, 1251-1265 (2005).
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Wilmanns, C.

C. Wilmanns, D. Fan, C. A. O’Brian, C. D. Bucana, and I. J. Fidler, “Orthotopic and ectopic organ environments differentially influence the sensitivity of murine colon carcinoma cells to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil,” Int. J. Cancer. 52, 98-104 (1992).
[Crossref]

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L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).

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I. P. Witz, “Yin-yang activities and vicious cycles in the tumor microenvironment,” Cancer Res. 68, 9-13 (2008).
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I. P. Witz, “Tumor-microenvironment interactions: dangerous liaisons,” Adv. Cancer Res. 100, 203-229 (2008).

Xu, Z.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

Yang, Fuqian

J. Z. Wensheng Shen and Fuqian Yang, “Modeling and numerical simulation of bioheat transfer and biomechanics in soft tissue,” Math Comput Modell. 41, 1251-1265 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zachary, C. B.

P. Ghasri, S. Admani, A. Petelin, and C. B. Zachary, “Treatment of actinic cheilitis using a 1,927-nm thulium fractional laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 504-507 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeina, S. T.

D. B. Vasily, M. E. Cerino, E. M. Ziselman, and S. T. Zeina, “Non-ablative fractional resurfacing of surgical and post-traumatic scars,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 8, 998-1005 (2009).

Zhang, D. F.

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
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Zhao, N.

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ziselman, E. M.

D. B. Vasily, M. E. Cerino, E. M. Ziselman, and S. T. Zeina, “Non-ablative fractional resurfacing of surgical and post-traumatic scars,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 8, 998-1005 (2009).

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. (1)

J. Lipozencic and Z. Bukvic Mokos, “Dermatologic lasers in the treatment of aging skin,” Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 18, 176-180 (2010).

Adv. Cancer Res. (1)

I. P. Witz, “Tumor-microenvironment interactions: dangerous liaisons,” Adv. Cancer Res. 100, 203-229 (2008).

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

J. S. Orringer, L. Rittie, D. Baker, J. J. Voorhees, and G. Fisher, “Molecular mechanisms of nonablative fractionated laser resurfacing,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163, 757-768 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cancer Metastasis Rev. (1)

S. B. Jakowlew, “Transforming growth factor-beta in cancer and metastasis,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 25, 435-457 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cancer Res. (2)

I. P. Witz, “Yin-yang activities and vicious cycles in the tumor microenvironment,” Cancer Res. 68, 9-13 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73, 150-159 (2013).

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. (1)

H. Ikeda, L. J. Old, and R. D. Schreiber, “The roles of IFN gamma in protection against tumor development and cancer immunoediting,” Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13, 95-109 (2002).
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Dermatol. Surg. (5)

P. Ghasri, S. Admani, A. Petelin, and C. B. Zachary, “Treatment of actinic cheilitis using a 1,927-nm thulium fractional laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 504-507 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. D. Polder, A. Harrison, L. E. Eubanks, and S. Bruce, “1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser for the treatment of nonfacial photodamage: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 37, 342-348 (2011).
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L. M. Field, “The superiority of dermabrasion over laser abrasion in the prophylaxis of malignant and premalignant disease,” Dermatol. Surg. 33, 258-259 (2007).

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 199-206 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gye, S. K. Ahn, J. E. Kwon, and S. P. Hong, “Use of fractional CO2 laser decreases the risk of skin cancer development during ultraviolet exposure in hairless mice,” Dermatol. Surg. 41, 378-386 (2015).
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EPJ Web Conf. (1)

D. Ratovoson, F. Jourdan, and V. Huon, “A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography,” EPJ Web Conf. 6, 21008 (2010).
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Gut (1)

C. P. Barham, R. L. Jones, L. R. Biddlestone, R. H. Hardwick, N. A. Shepherd, and H. Barr, “Photothermal laser ablation of Barrett’s oesophagus: endoscopic and histological evidence of squamous re-epithelialisation,” Gut. 41, 281-284 (1997).
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Int. J. Cancer. (1)

C. Wilmanns, D. Fan, C. A. O’Brian, C. D. Bucana, and I. J. Fidler, “Orthotopic and ectopic organ environments differentially influence the sensitivity of murine colon carcinoma cells to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil,” Int. J. Cancer. 52, 98-104 (1992).
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Int. J. Therm Sci. (1)

S. M. Lin and C. Y. Li, “Analytical solutions of non-Fourier bio-heat conductions for skin subjected to pulsed laser heating,” Int. J. Therm Sci. 110, 146-158 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

E. T. Weiss, J. A. Brauer, R. Anolik, K. K. Reddy, J. K. Karen, E. K. Hale, L. A. Brightman, L. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68, 98-102 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Physiol. (2)

C. M. Collins, M. B. Smith, and R. Turner, “Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 97, 2051-2055 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. H. Pennes, “Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm,” J. Appl. Physiol. 1, 93-122 (1948).

J. Biomed Opt. (2)

H. Z. Alagha and M. Gulsoy, “Photothermal ablation of liver tissue with 1940-nm thulium fiber laser: an ex vivo study on lamb liver,” J. Biomed Opt. 21, 15007 (2016).
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K. Calabro, A. Curtis, J. R. Galarneau, T. Krucker, and I. J. Bigio, “Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models,” J. Biomed Opt. 16, 011008 (2011).
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J. Drugs Dermatol. (3)

D. B. Vasily, M. E. Cerino, E. M. Ziselman, and S. T. Zeina, “Non-ablative fractional resurfacing of surgical and post-traumatic scars,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 8, 998-1005 (2009).

L. Miller, V. Mishra, S. Alsaad, D. Winstanley, T. Blalock, C. Tingey, J. Qiu, S. Romine, and E. V. Ross, “Clinical evaluation of a non-ablative 1940 nm fractional laser,” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1324-1329 (2014).

J. A. Brauer, D. H. McDaniel, B. S. Bloom, K. K. Reddy, L. J. Bernstein, and R. G. Geronemus, “Nonablative 1927 nm fractional resurfacing for the treatment of facial photo-pigmentation, ” J. Drugs Dermatol. 13, 1317-1322 (2014).

J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

Y. M. Ma, T. Sun, Y. X. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Gu, D. F. Zhang, S. Qie, C. S. Ni, Y. Liu, and B. C. Sun, “A pilot study on acute inflammation and cancer: a new balance between IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in melanoma,” J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 28, 23 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Invest Dermatol. (2)

D. F. Spandau, D. A. Lewis, A. K. Somani, and J. B. Travers, “Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin,” J. Invest Dermatol. 132, 1591-1596 (2012).
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R. R. Anderson, “Lasers for dermatology and skin biology,” J. Invest Dermatol. 133, E21-23 (2013).
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J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (3)

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, and D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 142-149 (2006).
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R. G. Geronemus, “Fractional photothermolysis: current and future applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 169-176 (2006).
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A. B. Niwa Massaki, S. Eimpunth, S. G. Fabi, I. Guiha, W. Groff, and R. Fitzpatrick, “Treatment of melasma with the 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a retrospective analysis of 20 cases with long-term follow-up,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45, 95-101 (2013).
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Math Comput Modell. (1)

J. Z. Wensheng Shen and Fuqian Yang, “Modeling and numerical simulation of bioheat transfer and biomechanics in soft tissue,” Math Comput Modell. 41, 1251-1265 (2005).
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Nat Rev. Urol. (1)

M. Rieken and A. Bachmann, “Laser treatment of benign prostate enlargement--which laser for which prostate?,” Nat Rev. Urol. 11, 142-152 (2014).
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Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

A. N. Bashkatov, É. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
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PLoS. One (1)

J. Sapi, L. Kovacs, D. A. Drexler, P. Kocsis, D. Gajari, and Z. Sapi, “Tumor Volume Estimation and Quasi-Continuous Administration for Most Effective Bevacizumab Therapy,” PLoS. One. 10, e0142190 (2015).

Prz. Elektrotechniczny. (1)

Z. Ostrowski, P. Bulinski, W. Adamczyk, and A. J. Nowak, “Modelling and Validation of transient heat transfer processes in human skin undergoing local cooling,” Prz. Elektrotechniczny. 91, 76-79 (2015).

Other (1)

T. L. Bergman, A. S. Lavine, F. P. Incropera, and D. P. DeWitt, “The Bioheat Equation,” in Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 183-187 (Wiley, 2011).

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