Abstract

A photonic crystal coupled-cavity waveguide created on silicon-on-insulator is designed to act as a refractive-index-sensing device at midinfrared wavelengths around 4 μm. To realize high sensitivity, effort is made to engineer the structural parameters to obtain strong modal confinement, which can enhance the interaction between the resonance modes and the analyzed sample. By adjusting some parameters, including the shape of the cavity, the width of the coupling cavity, and the size of the surrounding dielectric columns, a high-sensitivity refractive-index sensor based on the optimized photonic crystal coupled-cavity waveguide is proposed, and a sensitivity of approximately 2620 nm/RIU obtained. When an analyte is measured in the range of 1.0–1.4, the sensor can always maintain a high sensitivity of greater than 2400 nm/RIU. This work demonstrates the viability of high-sensitivity photonic crystal waveguide devices in the midinfrared band.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:

  1. R. Ge, J. Xie, B. Yan, E. Liu, W. Tan, and J. Liu2018Refractive index sensor with high sensitivity based on circular photonic crystalJ. Opt. Soc. Am. A35992997
  2. Y. Liu and H. W. M. Salemink2012Photonic crystal-based all-optical on-chip sensorOpt. Express201991219920
  3. W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, X. Wang, C. Lin, and R.T. Chen2011Photonic crystal slot waveguide absorption spectrometer for on-chip near-infrared spectroscopy of xylene in waterAppl. Phys. Lett.98023304
  4. O. A. A. El-Aziz, H. A. Elsayed, and M. I. Sayed2019One-dimensional defective photonic crystals for the sensing and detection of proteinAppl. Opt.5883098315
  5. W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen2013Multiplexed detection of xylene and trichloroethylene in water by photonic crystal absorption spectroscopyOpt. Lett.3837993802
  6. C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Feng, X. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Wang2018High-sensitivity silicon-based photonic crystal refractive index biosensor based on defect-mode couplingOpt. Commun.427409417
  7. S. Arafa, M. Bouchemat, T. Bouchemat, and A. Benmerkhi2017High sensitive optofluidic sensor array based on ring-shaped holes photonic crystal H0-cavityOptik1314957
  8. A. K. Goyal and S. Pal2015Design and simulation of high-sensitive gas sensor using a ring-shaped photonic crystal waveguidePhys. Scr.90025503
  9. B. Wang, M. A. Dundar, R. Notzel, F. Karouta, S. He, and R. W. van der Heijden2010Photonic crystal slot nanobeam slow light waveguides for refractive index sensingAppl. Phys. Lett.97151105
  10. P. Xu, J. Zheng, J. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Zou, and A. Majumdar2019Multi-slot photonic crystal cavities for high-sensitivity refractive index sensingOpt. Express2736093616
  11. C. Caër, S. F. Serna-Otálvaro, W. Zhang, X. Le Roux, and E. Cassan2014Liquid sensor based on high-Q slot photonic crystal cavity in silicon-on-insulator configurationOpt. Lett.3957925794
  12. Z. Fu, F. Sun, C. Wang, J. Wang, and H. Tian2019High-sensitivity broad free-spectral-range two-dimensional three-slot photonic crystal sensor integrated with a 1D photonic crystal bandgap filterAppl. Op.5859976002
  13. A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss2009Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavitiesAppl. Phys. Lett.94063503
  14. M. Ammari, F. Hobar, and M. Bouchemat2018Photonic crystal microcavity as a highly sensitive platform for RI detectionChin. J. Phys.5614151419
  15. N. A. Mohammed, M. M. Hamed, A. A. M. Khalaf, A. Alsayyari, and S. El-Rabaie2019High-sensitivity ultra-quality factor and remarkable compact blood components biomedical sensor based on nanocavity coupled photonic crystalResults Phys.14102478
  16. M. Turduev, I. H. Giden, C. Babayigit, Z. Hayran, E. Bor, Ç. Boztuğ, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas2017Mid-infrared T-shaped photonic crystal waveguide for optical refractive index sensingSensor Actuat. B: Chem.245765773
  17. Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, P. Wray, and R. T. Chen2015Mid-infrared holey and slotted photonic crystal waveguides in silicon-on-sapphire for chemical warfare simulant detectionSensor Actuat. B: Chem.22110941103
  18. L. Kassa-Baghdouche and E. Cassan2018High efficiency slotted photonic crystal waveguides for the determination of gases using mid-infrared spectroscopyInstrum. Sci. Technol.46534544
  19. L. Kassa-Baghdouche and E. Cassan2018Mid-infrared refractive index sensing using optimized slotted photonic crystal waveguidesPhotonics Nanostructures:Fundam. Appl.283236
  20. C. Kraeh, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, A. Popescu, H. Hedler, and J. J. Finley2018Slow light enhanced gas sensing in photonic crystalsOpt. Mater.76106110
  21. L. Kassa-Baghdouche2021Gas sensing performance of high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities based on a silicon-on-insulator platformOpt. Quantum Electron.5333
  22. E. Kuramochi, N. Matsuda, K. Nozaki, A. H. K. Park, H. Takesue, and M. Notomi2018Wideband slow short-pulse propagation in one-thousand slantingly coupled L3 photonic crystal nanocavitiesOpt. Express2695529564
  23. M. Minkov and V. Savona2015Wide-band slow light in compact photonic crystal coupled-cavity waveguidesOptica2631634
  24. A. Ebrahimi and M. Noori2018Ultra-slow light with high NDBP achieved in a modified W1 photonic crystal waveguide with coupled cavitiesOpt. Commun.4243743
  25. I. Abood, S. Elshahat, K. Khan, L. Bibbò, A. Yadav, and Z. Ouyang2019Slow light with high normalized delay-bandwidth product in low-dispersion photonic-crystal coupled-cavity waveguideOpt. Commun.439181186
  26. M. Danaie, A. Geravand, and S. Mohammadi2018Photonic crystal double-coupled cavity waveguides and their application in design of slow-light delay linesPhotonics Nanostructures-Fundam. Appl.286169
  27. M. S. Moreolo, V. Morra, and G. Cincotti2008Design of photonic crystal delay lines based on enhanced coupled-cavity waveguidesJ. Opt. A:Pure Appl. Opt.10064002
  28. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos2001Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basisOpt. Express8173190
  29. Q. Liu, Z. Ouyang, C. J. Wu, C. P. Liu, and J. C. Wang2008All-optical half adder based on cross structures in two-dimensional photonic crystalsOpt. Express161899219000
  30. H. S. Dutta, A. K. Goyal, and S. Pal2017Analysis of dispersion diagram for high performance refractive index sensor based on photonic crystal waveguidesPhotonics Nanostructures-Fundam. Appl.232127
  31. P. Xu, Z. Yu, X. Shen, and S. Dai2017High quality factor and high sensitivity chalcogenide 1D photonic crystal microbridge cavity for mid-infrared sensingOpt. Commun.382361365
  32. L. Kassa-Baghdouche and E. Cassan2019Sensitivity analysis of ring-shaped slotted photonic crystal waveguides for mid-infrared refractive index sensingOpt. Quantum Electron.51328

Other (32)

R. Ge, J. Xie, B. Yan, E. Liu, W. Tan, and J. Liu2018Refractive index sensor with high sensitivity based on circular photonic crystalJ. Opt. Soc. Am. A35992997

Y. Liu and H. W. M. Salemink2012Photonic crystal-based all-optical on-chip sensorOpt. Express201991219920

W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, X. Wang, C. Lin, and R.T. Chen2011Photonic crystal slot waveguide absorption spectrometer for on-chip near-infrared spectroscopy of xylene in waterAppl. Phys. Lett.98023304

O. A. A. El-Aziz, H. A. Elsayed, and M. I. Sayed2019One-dimensional defective photonic crystals for the sensing and detection of proteinAppl. Opt.5883098315

W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen2013Multiplexed detection of xylene and trichloroethylene in water by photonic crystal absorption spectroscopyOpt. Lett.3837993802

C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Feng, X. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Wang2018High-sensitivity silicon-based photonic crystal refractive index biosensor based on defect-mode couplingOpt. Commun.427409417

S. Arafa, M. Bouchemat, T. Bouchemat, and A. Benmerkhi2017High sensitive optofluidic sensor array based on ring-shaped holes photonic crystal H0-cavityOptik1314957

A. K. Goyal and S. Pal2015Design and simulation of high-sensitive gas sensor using a ring-shaped photonic crystal waveguidePhys. Scr.90025503

B. Wang, M. A. Dundar, R. Notzel, F. Karouta, S. He, and R. W. van der Heijden2010Photonic crystal slot nanobeam slow light waveguides for refractive index sensingAppl. Phys. Lett.97151105

P. Xu, J. Zheng, J. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Zou, and A. Majumdar2019Multi-slot photonic crystal cavities for high-sensitivity refractive index sensingOpt. Express2736093616

C. Caër, S. F. Serna-Otálvaro, W. Zhang, X. Le Roux, and E. Cassan2014Liquid sensor based on high-Q slot photonic crystal cavity in silicon-on-insulator configurationOpt. Lett.3957925794

Z. Fu, F. Sun, C. Wang, J. Wang, and H. Tian2019High-sensitivity broad free-spectral-range two-dimensional three-slot photonic crystal sensor integrated with a 1D photonic crystal bandgap filterAppl. Op.5859976002

A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss2009Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavitiesAppl. Phys. Lett.94063503

M. Ammari, F. Hobar, and M. Bouchemat2018Photonic crystal microcavity as a highly sensitive platform for RI detectionChin. J. Phys.5614151419

N. A. Mohammed, M. M. Hamed, A. A. M. Khalaf, A. Alsayyari, and S. El-Rabaie2019High-sensitivity ultra-quality factor and remarkable compact blood components biomedical sensor based on nanocavity coupled photonic crystalResults Phys.14102478

M. Turduev, I. H. Giden, C. Babayigit, Z. Hayran, E. Bor, Ç. Boztuğ, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas2017Mid-infrared T-shaped photonic crystal waveguide for optical refractive index sensingSensor Actuat. B: Chem.245765773

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, P. Wray, and R. T. Chen2015Mid-infrared holey and slotted photonic crystal waveguides in silicon-on-sapphire for chemical warfare simulant detectionSensor Actuat. B: Chem.22110941103

L. Kassa-Baghdouche and E. Cassan2018High efficiency slotted photonic crystal waveguides for the determination of gases using mid-infrared spectroscopyInstrum. Sci. Technol.46534544

L. Kassa-Baghdouche and E. Cassan2018Mid-infrared refractive index sensing using optimized slotted photonic crystal waveguidesPhotonics Nanostructures:Fundam. Appl.283236

C. Kraeh, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, A. Popescu, H. Hedler, and J. J. Finley2018Slow light enhanced gas sensing in photonic crystalsOpt. Mater.76106110

L. Kassa-Baghdouche2021Gas sensing performance of high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities based on a silicon-on-insulator platformOpt. Quantum Electron.5333

E. Kuramochi, N. Matsuda, K. Nozaki, A. H. K. Park, H. Takesue, and M. Notomi2018Wideband slow short-pulse propagation in one-thousand slantingly coupled L3 photonic crystal nanocavitiesOpt. Express2695529564

M. Minkov and V. Savona2015Wide-band slow light in compact photonic crystal coupled-cavity waveguidesOptica2631634

A. Ebrahimi and M. Noori2018Ultra-slow light with high NDBP achieved in a modified W1 photonic crystal waveguide with coupled cavitiesOpt. Commun.4243743

I. Abood, S. Elshahat, K. Khan, L. Bibbò, A. Yadav, and Z. Ouyang2019Slow light with high normalized delay-bandwidth product in low-dispersion photonic-crystal coupled-cavity waveguideOpt. Commun.439181186

M. Danaie, A. Geravand, and S. Mohammadi2018Photonic crystal double-coupled cavity waveguides and their application in design of slow-light delay linesPhotonics Nanostructures-Fundam. Appl.286169

M. S. Moreolo, V. Morra, and G. Cincotti2008Design of photonic crystal delay lines based on enhanced coupled-cavity waveguidesJ. Opt. A:Pure Appl. Opt.10064002

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos2001Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basisOpt. Express8173190

Q. Liu, Z. Ouyang, C. J. Wu, C. P. Liu, and J. C. Wang2008All-optical half adder based on cross structures in two-dimensional photonic crystalsOpt. Express161899219000

H. S. Dutta, A. K. Goyal, and S. Pal2017Analysis of dispersion diagram for high performance refractive index sensor based on photonic crystal waveguidesPhotonics Nanostructures-Fundam. Appl.232127

P. Xu, Z. Yu, X. Shen, and S. Dai2017High quality factor and high sensitivity chalcogenide 1D photonic crystal microbridge cavity for mid-infrared sensingOpt. Commun.382361365

L. Kassa-Baghdouche and E. Cassan2019Sensitivity analysis of ring-shaped slotted photonic crystal waveguides for mid-infrared refractive index sensingOpt. Quantum Electron.51328

Cited By

Optica participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from Optica Publishing Group journals and other participating publishers are listed here.