Abstract

We present simulation methods to accurately determine the transmission efficiency and far-field patterns (FFPs) of a shallow-etched waveguide grating antenna (WGA) formed on a silicon-on-insulator wafer based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach. The directionality and the FFP of a WGA with >1-mm in length can be obtained reliably by simulating a truncated WGA structure using a three-dimensional FDTD method and a full-scale WGA using a two-dimensional FDTD with the effective index method. The developed FDTD methods are applied to the simulation of an optical phased array (OPA) composed of a uniformly spaced WGA array, and the steering-angle dependent transmission efficiency and FFPs are obtained in OPA structures having up to 128-channel WGAs.

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  2. J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. WattsLarge-scale nanophotonic phased arrayNature2013493195199
  3. K. V. Acoleyen, W. Bogaerts, J. Jágerská, N. L. Thomas, R. Houdré, and R. BaetsOff-chip beam steering with a one-dimensional optical phased array on silicon-on-insulatorOpt. Lett.20093414771479
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  14. D. Zhang, F. Zhang, and S. PanGrating-lobe-suppressed optical phased array with optimized element distributionOpt. Commun.20184194752
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  23. B. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. He, X. Jiang, J. Peng, C. Qiu, and Y. SuSilicon photonic bandpass filter based on apodized subwavelength grating with high suppression ratio and short coupling lengthOpt. Express2017251135911364
  24. M. Raval, C. V. Poulton, and M. R. WattsUnidirectional waveguide grating antennas with uniform emission for optical phased arraysOpt. Lett.20174225632566
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  26. E. D. PalikHandbook of Optical Constants of Solids ⅢAcademic PressCambridge, MA, USA1998
  27. M. Zadka, Y. C. Chang, A. Mohanty, C. T. Phare, S. P. Roberts, and M. LipsonOn-chip platform for a phased array with minimal beam divergence and wide field-of-viewOpt. Express20182625282534
  28. K. Han, V. Yurlov, and N. E. YuHighly directional waveguide grating antenna for optical phased arrayCurr. Appl. Phys.201818824828

Other (28)

M. J. R. HeckHighly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steeringNanophotonics2017693107

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. WattsLarge-scale nanophotonic phased arrayNature2013493195199

K. V. Acoleyen, W. Bogaerts, J. Jágerská, N. L. Thomas, R. Houdré, and R. BaetsOff-chip beam steering with a one-dimensional optical phased array on silicon-on-insulatorOpt. Lett.20093414771479

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. BowersTwo-dimensional free-space beam steering with an optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator20112011192159521604

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, J. Covey, Y. Zhang, X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. ChenOn-chip silicon optical phased array for two-dimensional beam steeringOpt. Lett.201439941944

A. Yaacobi, J. Sun, M. Moresco, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. WattsIntegrated phased array for wide-angle beam steeringOpt. Lett.20143945754578

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. BowersFully integrated hybrid silicon two dimensional beam scannerOpt. Express20152358615874

C. V. Poulton, A. Yaacobi, D. B. Cole, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. WattsCoherent solid-state LIDAR with silicon photonic optical phased arraysOpt. Lett.20174240914094

H. Abe, M. Takeuchi, G. Takeuchi, H. Ito, T. Yokokawa, K. Kondo, Y. Furukado, and T. BabaTwo-dimensional beam-steering device using a doubly periodic Si photoniccrystal waveguideOpt. Express20182693899397

W. Xie, T. Komljenovic, J. Huang, M. Tran, M. Davenport, A. Torres, P. Pintus, and J. BowersHeterogeneous silicon photonics sensing for autonomous carsOpt. Express20192736423663

S. H. Kim, J. B. You, Y. G. Ha, G. Kang, D. S. Lee, H. Yoon, D. E. Yoo, D. W. Lee, K. Yu, C. H. Youn, and H. H. ParkThermo-optic control of the longitudinal radiation angle in a silicon-based optical phased arrayOpt. Lett.201944411414

D. N. Hutchison, J. Sun, J. K. Doylend, R. Kumar, J. Heck, W. Kim, C. T. Phare, A. Freshali, and H. RongHigh-resolution aliasing-free optical beam steeringOptica20163887890

T. Komljenovic, R. Helkey, L. Coldren, and J. E. BowersSparse aperiodic arrays for optical beam forming and LIDAROpt. Express20172525112528

D. Zhang, F. Zhang, and S. PanGrating-lobe-suppressed optical phased array with optimized element distributionOpt. Commun.20184194752

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. BaetsCompact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator wave-guidesOpt. Lett.20042927492751

Y. Wang, W. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Caverley, R. Bojko, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. JaegerDesign of broadband subwavelength grating couplers with low back reflectionOpt. Lett.20154046474650

M. H. Lee, J. Y. Jo, D. W. Kim, Y. Kim, and K. H. KimComparative study of uniform and nonuniform grating couplers for optimized fiber coupling to silicon waveguidesJ. Opt. Soc. Korea201620291299

T. Sharma, H. Kwon, J. Park, S. Han, G. Son, Y. Jung, and K. YuCoupling performance enhancement using SOI grating coupler designOpt. Commun.2018427452456

Y. S. Hong, C. H. Cho, and H. K. SungTheoretical analysis of simultaneously improving the light coupling efficiency and bandwidth between two separated grating couplers using integrated distributed Bragg reflectorsJ. Korean Phys. Soc.201771647651

M. Zhang, H. Liu, B. Wang, G. Li, and L. ZhangEfficient grating couplers for space division multiplexing applicationsIEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2018248200605

H. Qiu, G. Jiang, T. Hu, H. Shao, P. Yu, J. Yang, and X. JiangFSR-free add-drop filter based on silicon grating-assisted contradirectional couplersOpt. Lett.20133813

B. Naghdi and L. R. ChenSilicon photonic contradirectional couplers using subwavelength grating waveguidesOpt. Express2016242342923438

B. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. He, X. Jiang, J. Peng, C. Qiu, and Y. SuSilicon photonic bandpass filter based on apodized subwavelength grating with high suppression ratio and short coupling lengthOpt. Express2017251135911364

M. Raval, C. V. Poulton, and M. R. WattsUnidirectional waveguide grating antennas with uniform emission for optical phased arraysOpt. Lett.20174225632566

FDTD SolutionsLumerical Inc.2019Available: http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/

E. D. PalikHandbook of Optical Constants of Solids ⅢAcademic PressCambridge, MA, USA1998

M. Zadka, Y. C. Chang, A. Mohanty, C. T. Phare, S. P. Roberts, and M. LipsonOn-chip platform for a phased array with minimal beam divergence and wide field-of-viewOpt. Express20182625282534

K. Han, V. Yurlov, and N. E. YuHighly directional waveguide grating antenna for optical phased arrayCurr. Appl. Phys.201818824828

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