Abstract

Retroreflection of vehicle headlights, as induced by spherical glass beads, is a key optical phenomenon that provides road-surface markings with greatly enhanced visibility, thus better securing a driver’s safety in the nighttime as well as in unclear daytime. Retroreflectance of glass beads is a quite sensitive function of their refractive index, so that measurement of the refractive index of glass specifically in the shape of spherical beads needs to be performed within a reasonable uncertainty that is tolerable for road-marking applications. The Becke line method has been applied in assessing refractive index of such glass beads as e.g. an industrial standard in the Republic of Korea; however, the reference refractive-index liquids are not commercially available these days for refractive index greater than 1.80 due to the toxicity of the constituent materials. As such, high-refractive-index glass beads require an alternate method, and in this regard we propose a practically serviceable technique with uncertainty tantamount to that of the Becke line method: Based on comparison of calculated and measured retroreflectance values of commercial glass beads, we discover that their refractive index can be determined with reasonable precision via the retroreflectance measurement. Specifically, in this study the normalized retroreflectance originating from a single glass sphere is computed as a function of refractive index using the Fresnel equations, which is then validated as coinciding well with retroreflectance values measured from actual specimens, i.e. glass-bead aggregates. The uncertainties involved are delineated in connection with radius and imperfections of the glass beads.

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  8. J. L. Hand and S. M. KreidenweisA new method for retrieving particle refractive index and effective density from aerosol size distribution dataAerosol. Sci. Technol.20023610121026
  9. A. Leblance-Hotte, R. St-Gelais, and Y.-A. PeterOptofluidic device for high resolution volume refractive index measurement of single cellProc. 16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life SciencesJapan2012Oct.13301332
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  15. Standard test method for measurement of retroreflective signs using a portable retroreflectometer at a 0.5 degree observation angle, ASTM E2540-16ASTM InternationalPennsylvania2016
  16. M. D. Stoudt and K. VedamAppl. Opt.19781718551858
  17. E. HechtOptics4th edAddison-Wesley2002Chapter 4
  18. G. Zhang, J. E. Hummer, and W. RasdorfImpact of bead density on paint pavement marking retroreflectivityTransp. Eng. J. ASCE2010136773781
  19. K. Vedam and M. D. StoudtRetroreflection from spherical glass beads in highway pavement markings. 2: Diffuse reflection (a first approximation calculation)Appl. Opt.19781718591869
  20. D. Héricz, T. Sarkadi, G. Erdei, T. Lazuech, , S. Lenk, and P. KoppaSimulation of small- and wide-angle scattering properties of glass-bead retroreflectorsAppl. Opt.20175639693976
  21. N. M. Ravindra, P. Ganapathy, and J. ChoiEnergy gaprefractive index relations in semiconductors-An overviewInfrared Phys. Technol.2007502129
  22. S. Y. Shin, B.-K. Cheong, and Y. G. ChoiLocal structural environments of Ge doped in eutectic Sb-Te film before and after crystallizatioJ. Phys. Chem. Solids20181178185
  23. S. Y. Shin, J. I. Lee, W. J. Chung, and Y. G. ChoiCorrelations between refractive index and retroreflectance of glass beads for use in road-marking applications under wet conditionsCurr. Opt. Photon.20193423428

Other (23)

L. A. Ivanov, D. V. Kiesewetter, N. N. Kiselev, V. I. Malyugin, and V. A. SluginMeasurement of retroreflection by glass beads for road markingProc. SPIE2006625162510U

T. GrosgesRetro-reflection of glass beads for traffic road stripe paintsOpt. Mater.20083015491554

J. T. Lee, T. L. Maleck, and W. C. TaylorPavement marking material evaluation study in MichiganITE J. Inst. Transp. Eng.1999694451

T. Schnell, F. Aktan, and Y. C. LeeNighttime visibility and retroreflectance of pavement markings in dry, wet, and rainy conditionsTransp. Res. Rec.20031824144155

D. M. Burns, T. P. Hedblom, and T. W. MillerModern pavement marking systems: Relationship between optics and nighttime visibilityTransp. Res. Rec.200820564351

H. Fuquan, L. Shangying, and W. ShaominThe refractive index measurement of high refractive index glass beadsActa Photon. Sin.200130753756

F. Sarcinelli, R. Pizzoferrato, and F. ScudieriStudy of the refractive index of microscopic glass beads by light-refraction analysisAppl. Opt.19973689999004

J. L. Hand and S. M. KreidenweisA new method for retrieving particle refractive index and effective density from aerosol size distribution dataAerosol. Sci. Technol.20023610121026

A. Leblance-Hotte, R. St-Gelais, and Y.-A. PeterOptofluidic device for high resolution volume refractive index measurement of single cellProc. 16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life SciencesJapan2012Oct.13301332

T. YamaguchiRefractive index measurement of high refractive index glass beadsAppl. Opt.19751411111115

R. W. Spinrad and J. F. BrownRelative real refractive index of marine microorganisms: a technique for flow cytometric estimationAppl. Opt.19862519301934

S.-Y. Li, S. Qin, D.-H. Li, and Q.-H. WangUsing a laser source to measure the refractive index of glass beads and Debye theory analysisAppl. Opt.20155496889694

Glass beads for traffic paint, KS L 2521Korean Standard AssociationSeoul2017

Standard test method for measurement of retroreflective signs using a portable retroreflectometer at a 0.2 degree observation angle, ASTM E1709-16e1ASTM InternationalPennsylvania2016

Standard test method for measurement of retroreflective signs using a portable retroreflectometer at a 0.5 degree observation angle, ASTM E2540-16ASTM InternationalPennsylvania2016

M. D. Stoudt and K. VedamAppl. Opt.19781718551858

E. HechtOptics4th edAddison-Wesley2002Chapter 4

G. Zhang, J. E. Hummer, and W. RasdorfImpact of bead density on paint pavement marking retroreflectivityTransp. Eng. J. ASCE2010136773781

K. Vedam and M. D. StoudtRetroreflection from spherical glass beads in highway pavement markings. 2: Diffuse reflection (a first approximation calculation)Appl. Opt.19781718591869

D. Héricz, T. Sarkadi, G. Erdei, T. Lazuech, , S. Lenk, and P. KoppaSimulation of small- and wide-angle scattering properties of glass-bead retroreflectorsAppl. Opt.20175639693976

N. M. Ravindra, P. Ganapathy, and J. ChoiEnergy gaprefractive index relations in semiconductors-An overviewInfrared Phys. Technol.2007502129

S. Y. Shin, B.-K. Cheong, and Y. G. ChoiLocal structural environments of Ge doped in eutectic Sb-Te film before and after crystallizatioJ. Phys. Chem. Solids20181178185

S. Y. Shin, J. I. Lee, W. J. Chung, and Y. G. ChoiCorrelations between refractive index and retroreflectance of glass beads for use in road-marking applications under wet conditionsCurr. Opt. Photon.20193423428

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