Abstract

We report an in-depth analysis of the design and fabrication of multilayer dielectric (MLD) diffraction gratings for spectral beam combining at a wavelength of 1055 nm. The design involves a near-Littrow grating and a modal analysis for high diffraction efficiency. A range of wavelengths, grating periods, and angles of incidence were examined for the near-Littrow grating, for the 0th and –1st diffraction orders only. A modal method was then used to investigate the effect of the duty cycle on the effective indices of the grating modes, and the depth of the grating was determined for only the –1st-order diffraction. The design parameters of the grating and the matching layer thickness between grating and MLD reflector were refined for high diffraction efficiency, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. A high reflector was deposited by electron-beam evaporation, and a grating structure was fabricated by photolithography and reactive-ion etching. The diffraction efficiency and laser-induced damage threshold of the fabricated MLD diffraction gratings were measured, and the diffraction efficiency was compared with the design’s value.

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  16. A. Sanchez-Rubio, T. Y. Fan, S. J. Augst, A. K. Goyal, K. J. Creedon, J. T. Gopinath, V. Daneu, B. Chann, and R. HuangWavelength beam combining for power and brightness scaling of laser systemsLincoln Lab J.20142052
  17. T. Clausnitzer, T. Kampfe, E. Kely, and A. TunnermannAn intelligible explanation of highly-efficient diffraction in deep dielectric rectangular transmission gratingsOpt. Express20051310448
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Other (20)

T. Y. FanLaser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sourceIEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.200511567

C. Wirth, O. Schmidt, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, T. Peschel, F. Bruckner, T. Clausnitzer, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, A. Tunnermann, M. Gowin, E. Have, K Ludewigh, and M. Jung2 kW incoherent beam combining of four narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifiersOpt. Express2009171178

T. H. Loftus, A. M. Thomas, P. R. Hofman, M. Norsen, R. Royse, A. Liu, and E. C. HoneaSpectrally beam-combined fiber lasers for high-average-power applicationsIEEE J. Quantum Electron.200713487

S. A. Kemme, D. A. Scrymgeour, and D. W. PetersHigh efficiency diffractive optical elements for spectral beam combiningSPIE2014838183810Q

M. Heon, Y. Jung, J. Park, H. Jeong, J. Kim, and H. SeoHigh-power Quasi-continuous wave operation of incoherently combined Yb-doped fiber lasersCurr. Opt. Photon.20171525

M. D. Perry, R. D. Boyd, J. A. Britten, D. Decker, and B. W. ShoreHigh-efficiency multilayer dielectric diffraction gratingsOpt. Lett.199521940

M. Frank and M. ColloschonDielectric multilayer grating designs with maximum diffraction efficienciesOpt. Eng.1998371696

J. Neauport, E. Lavastre, G. Raze, G. Dupuy, N. Bonod, M. Balas, G. Villele, J. Flamand, S. Kaladgew, and F. FesserouerEffect of electric field on laser induced damage threshold of multilayer dielectric gratingsOpt. Express20071512508

D. H. Martz, H. Y. Nguyen, D. Patel, J. A. Britten, D. Alessi, E. Krous, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, J. George, B. Knollenberg, B. M. Luther, J. J. Rocca, and C. S. MenoniLarge area high efficiency broad bandwidth 800 nm dielectric gratings for high energy laser pulse compressionOpt. Express20091723809

L. Li, Q. Liu, J. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Yang, and J. ShaoPolarization-independent broadband dielectric bilayer gratings for spectral beam combining systemOpt. Commun.201738597

OptiFDTD simulation softwarehttps://optiwave.com/optifdtd-overview/

D. M. SullivanElectromagnetic simulation using the FDTD methodIEEE Press2000

E. HechtOptics4th ed.Addison Wesley Longman2002478481

E. G. Loewen and E. PopovDiffraction gratings and applicationsMarcel DeckerNew York199744-46, 375-376

K. Hehl, J. Brischoff, U. Mohaupt, M. Palme, B. Schnabel, L. Wenke, R. Bodefeld, W. Theobald, E. Welsch, R. Sauerbrey, and H. HeyerHigh-efficiency dielectric reflection gratings: design, fabrication, and analysisAppl. Opt.1999386257

A. Sanchez-Rubio, T. Y. Fan, S. J. Augst, A. K. Goyal, K. J. Creedon, J. T. Gopinath, V. Daneu, B. Chann, and R. HuangWavelength beam combining for power and brightness scaling of laser systemsLincoln Lab J.20142052

T. Clausnitzer, T. Kampfe, E. Kely, and A. TunnermannAn intelligible explanation of highly-efficient diffraction in deep dielectric rectangular transmission gratingsOpt. Express20051310448

C.J. Stolz1064-nm Fabry-Perot transmission filter laser damage competitionSPIE2014923792370N

L. Gallais, B. Mangote, M. Zerrad, M. Commandre, A. Melninkaitis, J. Mirauskas, M. Jeskevic, and V. SirutkaitisLaser induced damage of hafnia coatings as a function of pulse duration in the femtosecond to nanosecond rangeAppl. Opt.201150C178

Essential Macleod thin film softwareThin Film Center IncTucson, AZ, USA

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