Abstract

This paper presents a precise edge detection algorithm for the critical dimension (CD) measurement of a Thin-Film Transistor Liquid-Crystal Display (TFT-LCD) pattern. The sigmoid surface function is proposed to model the blurred step edge. This model can simultaneously find the position and geometry of the edge precisely. The nonlinear least squares fitting method (Levenberg-Marquardt method) is used to model the image intensity distribution into the proposed sigmoid blurred edge model. The suggested algorithm is verified by comparing the CD measurement repeatability from high-magnified blurry and noisy TFT-LCD images with those from the previous Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) based sub-pixel edge detection algorithm [1] and error function fitting method [7]. The proposed fitting-based edge detection algorithm produces more precise results than the previous method. The suggested algorithm can be applied to in-line precision CD measurement for high-resolution display devices.

© 2018 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. S.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and H. J. Pahk, “In-line critical dimension measurement system development of LCD pattern proposed by newly developed edge detection algorithm,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17(5), 392-398 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. N.-T. Doan, J. H. Moon, T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, “A fast image enhancement technique using a new scanning path for critical dimension measurement of glass panels,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 13, 2109-2114 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. Xu and Y.-T. Kim, “An image sharpening algorithm for high magnification image zooming,” In Consumer Electronics(ICCE) (2010 Digest of Technical Papers International Conference on. IEEE), pp. 27-28.
  4. A. J. Tabatabai and O. R. Mitchell, “Edge location to subpixel values in digital imagery,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 2, 188-201 (1984).
  5. Q. Sun, Y. Hou, Q. Tan, C. Li, and M. Liu, “A robust edge detection method with sub-pixel accuracy,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 125(14), 3449-3453 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Ye, G. Fu, and U. P. Poudel, “High-accuracy edge detection with blurred edge model,” Image Vis. Comput. 23(5), 453-467 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Hagara and P. Kulla, “Edge detection with sub-pixel accuracy based on approximation of edge with Erf function,” Radioengineering 20(2), 516-524 (2011).
  8. G.-S. Xu, “Sub-pixel edge detection based on curve fitting,” In Information and Computing Science (2009. ICIC'09. Second International Conference on. IEEE), pp. 373-375.
  9. I. Sobel, “Neighborhood coding of binary images for fast contour following and general binary array processing,” Comput. graphics image process. 8(1), 127-135 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Huertas and G. Medioni, “Detection of intensity changes with subpixel accuracy using Laplacian-Gaussian masks,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 5, 651-664 (1986).
  11. J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 6, 679-698 (1986).
  12. T. T. E. Yeo, S. H. Ong, and R. Sinniah, “Autofocusing for tissue microscopy,” Image Vis. Comput 11(10), 629-639 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, and S. A. Boppart, “Autofocus algorithm for dispersion correction in optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 42(16), 3038-3046 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. H. Fox, R. M. Silver, E. Kornegay, and M. Dagenais, “Focus and edge detection algorithms and their relevance to the development of an optical overlay calibration standard,” In Microlithography'99 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1999), pp. 95-106.
  15. J.-H. Ahn, J. Ko, I. Y. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “A fast continuous auto focus algorithm using the state transition model,” Pac. Sci. Rev. 13, 125-130 (2011).
  16. R. L. Plackett, “Karl Pearson and the Chi-squared test,” Int. Stat. Rev. 51, 59-72 (1983).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

Q. Sun, Y. Hou, Q. Tan, C. Li, and M. Liu, “A robust edge detection method with sub-pixel accuracy,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 125(14), 3449-3453 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

N.-T. Doan, J. H. Moon, T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, “A fast image enhancement technique using a new scanning path for critical dimension measurement of glass panels,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 13, 2109-2114 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Hagara and P. Kulla, “Edge detection with sub-pixel accuracy based on approximation of edge with Erf function,” Radioengineering 20(2), 516-524 (2011).

J.-H. Ahn, J. Ko, I. Y. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “A fast continuous auto focus algorithm using the state transition model,” Pac. Sci. Rev. 13, 125-130 (2011).

2005 (1)

J. Ye, G. Fu, and U. P. Poudel, “High-accuracy edge detection with blurred edge model,” Image Vis. Comput. 23(5), 453-467 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1993 (1)

T. T. E. Yeo, S. H. Ong, and R. Sinniah, “Autofocusing for tissue microscopy,” Image Vis. Comput 11(10), 629-639 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

A. Huertas and G. Medioni, “Detection of intensity changes with subpixel accuracy using Laplacian-Gaussian masks,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 5, 651-664 (1986).

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 6, 679-698 (1986).

1984 (1)

A. J. Tabatabai and O. R. Mitchell, “Edge location to subpixel values in digital imagery,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 2, 188-201 (1984).

1983 (1)

R. L. Plackett, “Karl Pearson and the Chi-squared test,” Int. Stat. Rev. 51, 59-72 (1983).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

I. Sobel, “Neighborhood coding of binary images for fast contour following and general binary array processing,” Comput. graphics image process. 8(1), 127-135 (1978).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-H.

J.-H. Ahn, J. Ko, I. Y. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “A fast continuous auto focus algorithm using the state transition model,” Pac. Sci. Rev. 13, 125-130 (2011).

Boppart, S. A.

Canny, J.

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 6, 679-698 (1986).

Dagenais, M.

S. H. Fox, R. M. Silver, E. Kornegay, and M. Dagenais, “Focus and edge detection algorithms and their relevance to the development of an optical overlay calibration standard,” In Microlithography'99 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1999), pp. 95-106.

Doan, N.-T.

N.-T. Doan, J. H. Moon, T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, “A fast image enhancement technique using a new scanning path for critical dimension measurement of glass panels,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 13, 2109-2114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fox, S. H.

S. H. Fox, R. M. Silver, E. Kornegay, and M. Dagenais, “Focus and edge detection algorithms and their relevance to the development of an optical overlay calibration standard,” In Microlithography'99 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1999), pp. 95-106.

Fu, G.

J. Ye, G. Fu, and U. P. Poudel, “High-accuracy edge detection with blurred edge model,” Image Vis. Comput. 23(5), 453-467 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hagara, M.

M. Hagara and P. Kulla, “Edge detection with sub-pixel accuracy based on approximation of edge with Erf function,” Radioengineering 20(2), 516-524 (2011).

Hou, Y.

Q. Sun, Y. Hou, Q. Tan, C. Li, and M. Liu, “A robust edge detection method with sub-pixel accuracy,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 125(14), 3449-3453 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huertas, A.

A. Huertas and G. Medioni, “Detection of intensity changes with subpixel accuracy using Laplacian-Gaussian masks,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 5, 651-664 (1986).

Kim, S. H.

J.-H. Ahn, J. Ko, I. Y. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “A fast continuous auto focus algorithm using the state transition model,” Pac. Sci. Rev. 13, 125-130 (2011).

Kim, T. W.

N.-T. Doan, J. H. Moon, T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, “A fast image enhancement technique using a new scanning path for critical dimension measurement of glass panels,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 13, 2109-2114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-T.

N. Xu and Y.-T. Kim, “An image sharpening algorithm for high magnification image zooming,” In Consumer Electronics(ICCE) (2010 Digest of Technical Papers International Conference on. IEEE), pp. 27-28.

Ko, J.

J.-H. Ahn, J. Ko, I. Y. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “A fast continuous auto focus algorithm using the state transition model,” Pac. Sci. Rev. 13, 125-130 (2011).

Kornegay, E.

S. H. Fox, R. M. Silver, E. Kornegay, and M. Dagenais, “Focus and edge detection algorithms and their relevance to the development of an optical overlay calibration standard,” In Microlithography'99 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1999), pp. 95-106.

Kulla, P.

M. Hagara and P. Kulla, “Edge detection with sub-pixel accuracy based on approximation of edge with Erf function,” Radioengineering 20(2), 516-524 (2011).

Lee, I. Y.

J.-H. Ahn, J. Ko, I. Y. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “A fast continuous auto focus algorithm using the state transition model,” Pac. Sci. Rev. 13, 125-130 (2011).

Lee, J.-H.

Li, C.

Q. Sun, Y. Hou, Q. Tan, C. Li, and M. Liu, “A robust edge detection method with sub-pixel accuracy,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 125(14), 3449-3453 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

Q. Sun, Y. Hou, Q. Tan, C. Li, and M. Liu, “A robust edge detection method with sub-pixel accuracy,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 125(14), 3449-3453 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marks, D. L.

Medioni, G.

A. Huertas and G. Medioni, “Detection of intensity changes with subpixel accuracy using Laplacian-Gaussian masks,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 5, 651-664 (1986).

Mitchell, O. R.

A. J. Tabatabai and O. R. Mitchell, “Edge location to subpixel values in digital imagery,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 2, 188-201 (1984).

Moon, J. H.

N.-T. Doan, J. H. Moon, T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, “A fast image enhancement technique using a new scanning path for critical dimension measurement of glass panels,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 13, 2109-2114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Oldenburg, A. L.

Ong, S. H.

T. T. E. Yeo, S. H. Ong, and R. Sinniah, “Autofocusing for tissue microscopy,” Image Vis. Comput 11(10), 629-639 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pahk, H. J.

S.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and H. J. Pahk, “In-line critical dimension measurement system development of LCD pattern proposed by newly developed edge detection algorithm,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17(5), 392-398 (2013).
[Crossref]

N.-T. Doan, J. H. Moon, T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, “A fast image enhancement technique using a new scanning path for critical dimension measurement of glass panels,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 13, 2109-2114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-H.

Plackett, R. L.

R. L. Plackett, “Karl Pearson and the Chi-squared test,” Int. Stat. Rev. 51, 59-72 (1983).
[Crossref]

Poudel, U. P.

J. Ye, G. Fu, and U. P. Poudel, “High-accuracy edge detection with blurred edge model,” Image Vis. Comput. 23(5), 453-467 (2005).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, J. J.

Silver, R. M.

S. H. Fox, R. M. Silver, E. Kornegay, and M. Dagenais, “Focus and edge detection algorithms and their relevance to the development of an optical overlay calibration standard,” In Microlithography'99 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1999), pp. 95-106.

Sinniah, R.

T. T. E. Yeo, S. H. Ong, and R. Sinniah, “Autofocusing for tissue microscopy,” Image Vis. Comput 11(10), 629-639 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sobel, I.

I. Sobel, “Neighborhood coding of binary images for fast contour following and general binary array processing,” Comput. graphics image process. 8(1), 127-135 (1978).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, Y. Hou, Q. Tan, C. Li, and M. Liu, “A robust edge detection method with sub-pixel accuracy,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 125(14), 3449-3453 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tabatabai, A. J.

A. J. Tabatabai and O. R. Mitchell, “Edge location to subpixel values in digital imagery,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 2, 188-201 (1984).

Tan, Q.

Q. Sun, Y. Hou, Q. Tan, C. Li, and M. Liu, “A robust edge detection method with sub-pixel accuracy,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 125(14), 3449-3453 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.-S.

G.-S. Xu, “Sub-pixel edge detection based on curve fitting,” In Information and Computing Science (2009. ICIC'09. Second International Conference on. IEEE), pp. 373-375.

Xu, N.

N. Xu and Y.-T. Kim, “An image sharpening algorithm for high magnification image zooming,” In Consumer Electronics(ICCE) (2010 Digest of Technical Papers International Conference on. IEEE), pp. 27-28.

Ye, J.

J. Ye, G. Fu, and U. P. Poudel, “High-accuracy edge detection with blurred edge model,” Image Vis. Comput. 23(5), 453-467 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yeo, T. T. E.

T. T. E. Yeo, S. H. Ong, and R. Sinniah, “Autofocusing for tissue microscopy,” Image Vis. Comput 11(10), 629-639 (1993).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. graphics image process. (1)

I. Sobel, “Neighborhood coding of binary images for fast contour following and general binary array processing,” Comput. graphics image process. 8(1), 127-135 (1978).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (3)

A. Huertas and G. Medioni, “Detection of intensity changes with subpixel accuracy using Laplacian-Gaussian masks,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 5, 651-664 (1986).

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 6, 679-698 (1986).

A. J. Tabatabai and O. R. Mitchell, “Edge location to subpixel values in digital imagery,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 2, 188-201 (1984).

Image Vis. Comput (1)

T. T. E. Yeo, S. H. Ong, and R. Sinniah, “Autofocusing for tissue microscopy,” Image Vis. Comput 11(10), 629-639 (1993).
[Crossref]

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

J. Ye, G. Fu, and U. P. Poudel, “High-accuracy edge detection with blurred edge model,” Image Vis. Comput. 23(5), 453-467 (2005).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. (1)

N.-T. Doan, J. H. Moon, T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, “A fast image enhancement technique using a new scanning path for critical dimension measurement of glass panels,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 13, 2109-2114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Int. Stat. Rev. (1)

R. L. Plackett, “Karl Pearson and the Chi-squared test,” Int. Stat. Rev. 51, 59-72 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics (1)

Q. Sun, Y. Hou, Q. Tan, C. Li, and M. Liu, “A robust edge detection method with sub-pixel accuracy,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 125(14), 3449-3453 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pac. Sci. Rev. (1)

J.-H. Ahn, J. Ko, I. Y. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “A fast continuous auto focus algorithm using the state transition model,” Pac. Sci. Rev. 13, 125-130 (2011).

Radioengineering (1)

M. Hagara and P. Kulla, “Edge detection with sub-pixel accuracy based on approximation of edge with Erf function,” Radioengineering 20(2), 516-524 (2011).

Other (3)

G.-S. Xu, “Sub-pixel edge detection based on curve fitting,” In Information and Computing Science (2009. ICIC'09. Second International Conference on. IEEE), pp. 373-375.

S. H. Fox, R. M. Silver, E. Kornegay, and M. Dagenais, “Focus and edge detection algorithms and their relevance to the development of an optical overlay calibration standard,” In Microlithography'99 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1999), pp. 95-106.

N. Xu and Y.-T. Kim, “An image sharpening algorithm for high magnification image zooming,” In Consumer Electronics(ICCE) (2010 Digest of Technical Papers International Conference on. IEEE), pp. 27-28.

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