Abstract

We explored how changes in blood vessel compliance affected the systolic rise time (SRT) of the maximum blood pressure (BP) peak wave and the diastolic fall time (DFT) of the minimal BP peak wave, compared to photoplethysmograpic (PPG) parameters, using a two-compartment, second-order, arterial Windkessel model. We employed earlier two-compartment Windkessel models and the components thereof to construct equivalent blood vessel circuits, and reproduced BP waveforms using PSpice technology. The SRT and DFT values were obtained via circuit simulation, considering variations in compliance (the dominant influence on blood vessel parameters attributable to BP changes). And then performed regression analysis to identify how compliance affected the SRT and DFT. We compared the SRTs and DFTs of BP waves to the PPG values by reference to BP changes in each subject. We confirmed that the time-shift propensities of BP waves and the PPG data were highly consistent. However, the time shifts differed significantly among subjects. These simulation and experimental results allowed us to construct an initial trend curve of individual BP peak time (measured via wrist PPG evaluations at three arm positions) that facilitated accurate individual BP estimations.

© 2017 Optical Society of Korea

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References

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  1. P. W. F. Wilson, R. B. D’Agostino, D. Levy, A. M. Belanger, H. Silbershatz, W. B. Kannel, "Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories," Circulatio 97, 1837‒1847 (1998)
    [Crossref]
  2. B. P. M. Imholz, G. A. Van Montfrans, J. J. Settels, G. M. A. Van Der Hoeven, J. M. Karemaker, W. Wieling, "Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring: reliability of Finapres device during the Valsalva manoeuvre," Cardiovasc. Res. 22, 390‒397 (1988)
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Groppelli, S. Omboni, G. Parati, G. Mancia, "Evaluation of noninvasive BP monitoring devices Spacelabs 90202 and 90207 versus resting and ambulatory 24-hour intra-arterial BP," Hypertension 20, 227‒232 (1992)
    [Crossref]
  4. C. C. Poon, Y. T. Zhang, Cuff-less and noninvasive measurements of arterial BP by pulse transit time .
  5. S. Ye, G.-R. Kim, D.-K. Jung, S. Baik, G. Jeon, "Estimation of systolic and diastolic pressure using the pulse transit tim," World Acad. Sci., Eng. Technol. 4, 303‒308 (2010)
  6. L. A. Geddes, M. H. Voelz, C. F. Babbs, J. D. Bourland, W. A. Tacker, "Pulse transit time as an indicator of arterial blood pressure," Psychophysiology 18, 71‒74 (1981)
    [Crossref]
  7. R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, S. R. J. Maxwell, "Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure," J. Appl. Physiol. 100, 136‒141 (2006)
    [Crossref]
  8. V. Mouradian, A. Poghosyan, L. Hovhannisyan, Noninvasive continuous mobile blood pressure monitoring using novel PPG optical sensor .
  9. K. Czuszynski, "Noninvasive evaluation of cardiac output based on various biosignals," Ph.D. Interdiscip. J. 115‒124
  10. Y. Kurylyak, F. Lamonaca, D. Grimaldi, A neural network-based method for continuous blood pressure estimation from a PPG signal .
  11. G. Fortino, V. Giampà, PPG-based methods for non invasive and continuous blood pressure measurement: an overview and development issues in body sensor networks .
  12. X. F. Teng, Y. T. Zhang, Continuous and noninvasive estimation of arterial BP using a photoplethysmographic approach .
  13. S.-H. Woo, Y. Y. Choi, D. J. Kim, F. Bien, J. J. Kim, "Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continous BP monitoring," Sci. Rep 4, 1‒6 (2014)
  14. Y. Yoon, G. Yoon, "Nonconstrained BP measurement by photoplethysmography," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 10, 91‒95 (2006)
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Samria, R. Jain, A. Jha, S. Saini, S. R. Chowdhury, Noninvasive cuffless estimation of BP using photoplethysmography without electrocardiograph measurement .
  16. M. Elgendi, "On the analysis of fingertip photoplethysmogram signals," Curr. Cardiol. Rev. 14‒25 (2012)
  17. N. Westerhof, J. W. Lankhaar, B. E. Westerhof, "The arterial Windkessel," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 47, 131‒141 (2009)
    [Crossref]
  18. K. H. Wesseling, J. R. Jansen, J. J. Settels, J. J. Schreuder, "Computation of aortic flow from pressure in humans using a nonlinear three-element model," J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 2566‒2573 (1993)
  19. N. Stergiopulos, B. E. Westerhof, N. Westerhof, "Total arterial inertance as the fourth element of the Windkessel model," Am. J. Physiol. H81‒H88 (1999)
  20. P. Segers, A. Qasem, T. De Backer, S. Carlier, P. Verdonck, A. Avolio, "Peripheral oscillatory compliance is associated with aortic augmentation index," Hypertens 37, 1434‒1439 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  21. O. Frank, "Die grundform des arteriellen pulses," Z. Biol. 37, 483‒526 (1899)
  22. R. M. Goldwyn, T. B. Watt, "Arterial pressure pulse contour analysis via a mathematical model for the clinical quantifcation of human vascular properties," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 14, 11‒17 (1967)
  23. Y. H. Ha, Analysis of arterial blood pressure and its electrical analog model .

2014 (1)

S.-H. Woo, Y. Y. Choi, D. J. Kim, F. Bien, J. J. Kim, "Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continous BP monitoring," Sci. Rep 4, 1‒6 (2014)

2012 (1)

M. Elgendi, "On the analysis of fingertip photoplethysmogram signals," Curr. Cardiol. Rev. 14‒25 (2012)

2010 (1)

S. Ye, G.-R. Kim, D.-K. Jung, S. Baik, G. Jeon, "Estimation of systolic and diastolic pressure using the pulse transit tim," World Acad. Sci., Eng. Technol. 4, 303‒308 (2010)

2009 (1)

N. Westerhof, J. W. Lankhaar, B. E. Westerhof, "The arterial Windkessel," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 47, 131‒141 (2009)
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

Y. Yoon, G. Yoon, "Nonconstrained BP measurement by photoplethysmography," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 10, 91‒95 (2006)
[Crossref]

R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, S. R. J. Maxwell, "Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure," J. Appl. Physiol. 100, 136‒141 (2006)
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. Segers, A. Qasem, T. De Backer, S. Carlier, P. Verdonck, A. Avolio, "Peripheral oscillatory compliance is associated with aortic augmentation index," Hypertens 37, 1434‒1439 (2001)
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

N. Stergiopulos, B. E. Westerhof, N. Westerhof, "Total arterial inertance as the fourth element of the Windkessel model," Am. J. Physiol. H81‒H88 (1999)

1998 (1)

P. W. F. Wilson, R. B. D’Agostino, D. Levy, A. M. Belanger, H. Silbershatz, W. B. Kannel, "Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories," Circulatio 97, 1837‒1847 (1998)
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. H. Wesseling, J. R. Jansen, J. J. Settels, J. J. Schreuder, "Computation of aortic flow from pressure in humans using a nonlinear three-element model," J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 2566‒2573 (1993)

1992 (1)

A. Groppelli, S. Omboni, G. Parati, G. Mancia, "Evaluation of noninvasive BP monitoring devices Spacelabs 90202 and 90207 versus resting and ambulatory 24-hour intra-arterial BP," Hypertension 20, 227‒232 (1992)
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

B. P. M. Imholz, G. A. Van Montfrans, J. J. Settels, G. M. A. Van Der Hoeven, J. M. Karemaker, W. Wieling, "Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring: reliability of Finapres device during the Valsalva manoeuvre," Cardiovasc. Res. 22, 390‒397 (1988)
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

L. A. Geddes, M. H. Voelz, C. F. Babbs, J. D. Bourland, W. A. Tacker, "Pulse transit time as an indicator of arterial blood pressure," Psychophysiology 18, 71‒74 (1981)
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

R. M. Goldwyn, T. B. Watt, "Arterial pressure pulse contour analysis via a mathematical model for the clinical quantifcation of human vascular properties," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 14, 11‒17 (1967)

1899 (1)

O. Frank, "Die grundform des arteriellen pulses," Z. Biol. 37, 483‒526 (1899)

Avolio, A.

P. Segers, A. Qasem, T. De Backer, S. Carlier, P. Verdonck, A. Avolio, "Peripheral oscillatory compliance is associated with aortic augmentation index," Hypertens 37, 1434‒1439 (2001)
[Crossref]

Babbs, C. F.

L. A. Geddes, M. H. Voelz, C. F. Babbs, J. D. Bourland, W. A. Tacker, "Pulse transit time as an indicator of arterial blood pressure," Psychophysiology 18, 71‒74 (1981)
[Crossref]

Baik, S.

S. Ye, G.-R. Kim, D.-K. Jung, S. Baik, G. Jeon, "Estimation of systolic and diastolic pressure using the pulse transit tim," World Acad. Sci., Eng. Technol. 4, 303‒308 (2010)

Belanger, A. M.

P. W. F. Wilson, R. B. D’Agostino, D. Levy, A. M. Belanger, H. Silbershatz, W. B. Kannel, "Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories," Circulatio 97, 1837‒1847 (1998)
[Crossref]

Bien, F.

S.-H. Woo, Y. Y. Choi, D. J. Kim, F. Bien, J. J. Kim, "Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continous BP monitoring," Sci. Rep 4, 1‒6 (2014)

Bourland, J. D.

L. A. Geddes, M. H. Voelz, C. F. Babbs, J. D. Bourland, W. A. Tacker, "Pulse transit time as an indicator of arterial blood pressure," Psychophysiology 18, 71‒74 (1981)
[Crossref]

Carlier, S.

P. Segers, A. Qasem, T. De Backer, S. Carlier, P. Verdonck, A. Avolio, "Peripheral oscillatory compliance is associated with aortic augmentation index," Hypertens 37, 1434‒1439 (2001)
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. Y.

S.-H. Woo, Y. Y. Choi, D. J. Kim, F. Bien, J. J. Kim, "Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continous BP monitoring," Sci. Rep 4, 1‒6 (2014)

Chowdhury, S. R.

R. Samria, R. Jain, A. Jha, S. Saini, S. R. Chowdhury, Noninvasive cuffless estimation of BP using photoplethysmography without electrocardiograph measurement .

Czuszynski, K.

K. Czuszynski, "Noninvasive evaluation of cardiac output based on various biosignals," Ph.D. Interdiscip. J. 115‒124

D’Agostino, R. B.

P. W. F. Wilson, R. B. D’Agostino, D. Levy, A. M. Belanger, H. Silbershatz, W. B. Kannel, "Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories," Circulatio 97, 1837‒1847 (1998)
[Crossref]

De Backer, T.

P. Segers, A. Qasem, T. De Backer, S. Carlier, P. Verdonck, A. Avolio, "Peripheral oscillatory compliance is associated with aortic augmentation index," Hypertens 37, 1434‒1439 (2001)
[Crossref]

Elgendi, M.

M. Elgendi, "On the analysis of fingertip photoplethysmogram signals," Curr. Cardiol. Rev. 14‒25 (2012)

Fortino, G.

G. Fortino, V. Giampà, PPG-based methods for non invasive and continuous blood pressure measurement: an overview and development issues in body sensor networks .

Frank, O.

O. Frank, "Die grundform des arteriellen pulses," Z. Biol. 37, 483‒526 (1899)

Geddes, L. A.

L. A. Geddes, M. H. Voelz, C. F. Babbs, J. D. Bourland, W. A. Tacker, "Pulse transit time as an indicator of arterial blood pressure," Psychophysiology 18, 71‒74 (1981)
[Crossref]

Giampà, V.

G. Fortino, V. Giampà, PPG-based methods for non invasive and continuous blood pressure measurement: an overview and development issues in body sensor networks .

Goldwyn, R. M.

R. M. Goldwyn, T. B. Watt, "Arterial pressure pulse contour analysis via a mathematical model for the clinical quantifcation of human vascular properties," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 14, 11‒17 (1967)

Grimaldi, D.

Y. Kurylyak, F. Lamonaca, D. Grimaldi, A neural network-based method for continuous blood pressure estimation from a PPG signal .

Groppelli, A.

A. Groppelli, S. Omboni, G. Parati, G. Mancia, "Evaluation of noninvasive BP monitoring devices Spacelabs 90202 and 90207 versus resting and ambulatory 24-hour intra-arterial BP," Hypertension 20, 227‒232 (1992)
[Crossref]

Ha, Y. H.

Y. H. Ha, Analysis of arterial blood pressure and its electrical analog model .

Hovhannisyan, L.

V. Mouradian, A. Poghosyan, L. Hovhannisyan, Noninvasive continuous mobile blood pressure monitoring using novel PPG optical sensor .

Imholz, B. P. M.

B. P. M. Imholz, G. A. Van Montfrans, J. J. Settels, G. M. A. Van Der Hoeven, J. M. Karemaker, W. Wieling, "Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring: reliability of Finapres device during the Valsalva manoeuvre," Cardiovasc. Res. 22, 390‒397 (1988)
[Crossref]

Jain, R.

R. Samria, R. Jain, A. Jha, S. Saini, S. R. Chowdhury, Noninvasive cuffless estimation of BP using photoplethysmography without electrocardiograph measurement .

Jansen, J. R.

K. H. Wesseling, J. R. Jansen, J. J. Settels, J. J. Schreuder, "Computation of aortic flow from pressure in humans using a nonlinear three-element model," J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 2566‒2573 (1993)

Jeon, G.

S. Ye, G.-R. Kim, D.-K. Jung, S. Baik, G. Jeon, "Estimation of systolic and diastolic pressure using the pulse transit tim," World Acad. Sci., Eng. Technol. 4, 303‒308 (2010)

Jha, A.

R. Samria, R. Jain, A. Jha, S. Saini, S. R. Chowdhury, Noninvasive cuffless estimation of BP using photoplethysmography without electrocardiograph measurement .

Jung, D.-K.

S. Ye, G.-R. Kim, D.-K. Jung, S. Baik, G. Jeon, "Estimation of systolic and diastolic pressure using the pulse transit tim," World Acad. Sci., Eng. Technol. 4, 303‒308 (2010)

Kannel, W. B.

P. W. F. Wilson, R. B. D’Agostino, D. Levy, A. M. Belanger, H. Silbershatz, W. B. Kannel, "Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories," Circulatio 97, 1837‒1847 (1998)
[Crossref]

Karemaker, J. M.

B. P. M. Imholz, G. A. Van Montfrans, J. J. Settels, G. M. A. Van Der Hoeven, J. M. Karemaker, W. Wieling, "Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring: reliability of Finapres device during the Valsalva manoeuvre," Cardiovasc. Res. 22, 390‒397 (1988)
[Crossref]

Kim, D. J.

S.-H. Woo, Y. Y. Choi, D. J. Kim, F. Bien, J. J. Kim, "Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continous BP monitoring," Sci. Rep 4, 1‒6 (2014)

Kim, G.-R.

S. Ye, G.-R. Kim, D.-K. Jung, S. Baik, G. Jeon, "Estimation of systolic and diastolic pressure using the pulse transit tim," World Acad. Sci., Eng. Technol. 4, 303‒308 (2010)

Kim, J. J.

S.-H. Woo, Y. Y. Choi, D. J. Kim, F. Bien, J. J. Kim, "Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continous BP monitoring," Sci. Rep 4, 1‒6 (2014)

Kurylyak, Y.

Y. Kurylyak, F. Lamonaca, D. Grimaldi, A neural network-based method for continuous blood pressure estimation from a PPG signal .

Lamonaca, F.

Y. Kurylyak, F. Lamonaca, D. Grimaldi, A neural network-based method for continuous blood pressure estimation from a PPG signal .

Lankhaar, J. W.

N. Westerhof, J. W. Lankhaar, B. E. Westerhof, "The arterial Windkessel," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 47, 131‒141 (2009)
[Crossref]

Levy, D.

P. W. F. Wilson, R. B. D’Agostino, D. Levy, A. M. Belanger, H. Silbershatz, W. B. Kannel, "Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories," Circulatio 97, 1837‒1847 (1998)
[Crossref]

Mancia, G.

A. Groppelli, S. Omboni, G. Parati, G. Mancia, "Evaluation of noninvasive BP monitoring devices Spacelabs 90202 and 90207 versus resting and ambulatory 24-hour intra-arterial BP," Hypertension 20, 227‒232 (1992)
[Crossref]

Maxwell, S. R. J.

R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, S. R. J. Maxwell, "Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure," J. Appl. Physiol. 100, 136‒141 (2006)
[Crossref]

Mouradian, V.

V. Mouradian, A. Poghosyan, L. Hovhannisyan, Noninvasive continuous mobile blood pressure monitoring using novel PPG optical sensor .

Omboni, S.

A. Groppelli, S. Omboni, G. Parati, G. Mancia, "Evaluation of noninvasive BP monitoring devices Spacelabs 90202 and 90207 versus resting and ambulatory 24-hour intra-arterial BP," Hypertension 20, 227‒232 (1992)
[Crossref]

Parati, G.

A. Groppelli, S. Omboni, G. Parati, G. Mancia, "Evaluation of noninvasive BP monitoring devices Spacelabs 90202 and 90207 versus resting and ambulatory 24-hour intra-arterial BP," Hypertension 20, 227‒232 (1992)
[Crossref]

Payne, R. A.

R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, S. R. J. Maxwell, "Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure," J. Appl. Physiol. 100, 136‒141 (2006)
[Crossref]

Poghosyan, A.

V. Mouradian, A. Poghosyan, L. Hovhannisyan, Noninvasive continuous mobile blood pressure monitoring using novel PPG optical sensor .

Poon, C. C.

C. C. Poon, Y. T. Zhang, Cuff-less and noninvasive measurements of arterial BP by pulse transit time .

Qasem, A.

P. Segers, A. Qasem, T. De Backer, S. Carlier, P. Verdonck, A. Avolio, "Peripheral oscillatory compliance is associated with aortic augmentation index," Hypertens 37, 1434‒1439 (2001)
[Crossref]

Saini, S.

R. Samria, R. Jain, A. Jha, S. Saini, S. R. Chowdhury, Noninvasive cuffless estimation of BP using photoplethysmography without electrocardiograph measurement .

Samria, R.

R. Samria, R. Jain, A. Jha, S. Saini, S. R. Chowdhury, Noninvasive cuffless estimation of BP using photoplethysmography without electrocardiograph measurement .

Schreuder, J. J.

K. H. Wesseling, J. R. Jansen, J. J. Settels, J. J. Schreuder, "Computation of aortic flow from pressure in humans using a nonlinear three-element model," J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 2566‒2573 (1993)

Segers, P.

P. Segers, A. Qasem, T. De Backer, S. Carlier, P. Verdonck, A. Avolio, "Peripheral oscillatory compliance is associated with aortic augmentation index," Hypertens 37, 1434‒1439 (2001)
[Crossref]

Settels, J. J.

K. H. Wesseling, J. R. Jansen, J. J. Settels, J. J. Schreuder, "Computation of aortic flow from pressure in humans using a nonlinear three-element model," J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 2566‒2573 (1993)

B. P. M. Imholz, G. A. Van Montfrans, J. J. Settels, G. M. A. Van Der Hoeven, J. M. Karemaker, W. Wieling, "Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring: reliability of Finapres device during the Valsalva manoeuvre," Cardiovasc. Res. 22, 390‒397 (1988)
[Crossref]

Silbershatz, H.

P. W. F. Wilson, R. B. D’Agostino, D. Levy, A. M. Belanger, H. Silbershatz, W. B. Kannel, "Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories," Circulatio 97, 1837‒1847 (1998)
[Crossref]

Stergiopulos, N.

N. Stergiopulos, B. E. Westerhof, N. Westerhof, "Total arterial inertance as the fourth element of the Windkessel model," Am. J. Physiol. H81‒H88 (1999)

Symeonides, C. N.

R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, S. R. J. Maxwell, "Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure," J. Appl. Physiol. 100, 136‒141 (2006)
[Crossref]

Tacker, W. A.

L. A. Geddes, M. H. Voelz, C. F. Babbs, J. D. Bourland, W. A. Tacker, "Pulse transit time as an indicator of arterial blood pressure," Psychophysiology 18, 71‒74 (1981)
[Crossref]

Teng, X. F.

X. F. Teng, Y. T. Zhang, Continuous and noninvasive estimation of arterial BP using a photoplethysmographic approach .

Van Der Hoeven, G. M. A.

B. P. M. Imholz, G. A. Van Montfrans, J. J. Settels, G. M. A. Van Der Hoeven, J. M. Karemaker, W. Wieling, "Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring: reliability of Finapres device during the Valsalva manoeuvre," Cardiovasc. Res. 22, 390‒397 (1988)
[Crossref]

Van Montfrans, G. A.

B. P. M. Imholz, G. A. Van Montfrans, J. J. Settels, G. M. A. Van Der Hoeven, J. M. Karemaker, W. Wieling, "Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring: reliability of Finapres device during the Valsalva manoeuvre," Cardiovasc. Res. 22, 390‒397 (1988)
[Crossref]

Verdonck, P.

P. Segers, A. Qasem, T. De Backer, S. Carlier, P. Verdonck, A. Avolio, "Peripheral oscillatory compliance is associated with aortic augmentation index," Hypertens 37, 1434‒1439 (2001)
[Crossref]

Voelz, M. H.

L. A. Geddes, M. H. Voelz, C. F. Babbs, J. D. Bourland, W. A. Tacker, "Pulse transit time as an indicator of arterial blood pressure," Psychophysiology 18, 71‒74 (1981)
[Crossref]

Watt, T. B.

R. M. Goldwyn, T. B. Watt, "Arterial pressure pulse contour analysis via a mathematical model for the clinical quantifcation of human vascular properties," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 14, 11‒17 (1967)

Webb, D. J.

R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, S. R. J. Maxwell, "Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure," J. Appl. Physiol. 100, 136‒141 (2006)
[Crossref]

Wesseling, K. H.

K. H. Wesseling, J. R. Jansen, J. J. Settels, J. J. Schreuder, "Computation of aortic flow from pressure in humans using a nonlinear three-element model," J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 2566‒2573 (1993)

Westerhof, B. E.

N. Westerhof, J. W. Lankhaar, B. E. Westerhof, "The arterial Windkessel," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 47, 131‒141 (2009)
[Crossref]

N. Stergiopulos, B. E. Westerhof, N. Westerhof, "Total arterial inertance as the fourth element of the Windkessel model," Am. J. Physiol. H81‒H88 (1999)

Westerhof, N.

N. Westerhof, J. W. Lankhaar, B. E. Westerhof, "The arterial Windkessel," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 47, 131‒141 (2009)
[Crossref]

N. Stergiopulos, B. E. Westerhof, N. Westerhof, "Total arterial inertance as the fourth element of the Windkessel model," Am. J. Physiol. H81‒H88 (1999)

Wieling, W.

B. P. M. Imholz, G. A. Van Montfrans, J. J. Settels, G. M. A. Van Der Hoeven, J. M. Karemaker, W. Wieling, "Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring: reliability of Finapres device during the Valsalva manoeuvre," Cardiovasc. Res. 22, 390‒397 (1988)
[Crossref]

Wilson, P. W. F.

P. W. F. Wilson, R. B. D’Agostino, D. Levy, A. M. Belanger, H. Silbershatz, W. B. Kannel, "Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories," Circulatio 97, 1837‒1847 (1998)
[Crossref]

Woo, S.-H.

S.-H. Woo, Y. Y. Choi, D. J. Kim, F. Bien, J. J. Kim, "Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continous BP monitoring," Sci. Rep 4, 1‒6 (2014)

Ye, S.

S. Ye, G.-R. Kim, D.-K. Jung, S. Baik, G. Jeon, "Estimation of systolic and diastolic pressure using the pulse transit tim," World Acad. Sci., Eng. Technol. 4, 303‒308 (2010)

Yoon, G.

Yoon, Y.

Zhang, Y. T.

X. F. Teng, Y. T. Zhang, Continuous and noninvasive estimation of arterial BP using a photoplethysmographic approach .

C. C. Poon, Y. T. Zhang, Cuff-less and noninvasive measurements of arterial BP by pulse transit time .

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

N. Stergiopulos, B. E. Westerhof, N. Westerhof, "Total arterial inertance as the fourth element of the Windkessel model," Am. J. Physiol. H81‒H88 (1999)

Cardiovasc. Res. (1)

B. P. M. Imholz, G. A. Van Montfrans, J. J. Settels, G. M. A. Van Der Hoeven, J. M. Karemaker, W. Wieling, "Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring: reliability of Finapres device during the Valsalva manoeuvre," Cardiovasc. Res. 22, 390‒397 (1988)
[Crossref]

Circulatio (1)

P. W. F. Wilson, R. B. D’Agostino, D. Levy, A. M. Belanger, H. Silbershatz, W. B. Kannel, "Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories," Circulatio 97, 1837‒1847 (1998)
[Crossref]

Curr. Cardiol. Rev. (1)

M. Elgendi, "On the analysis of fingertip photoplethysmogram signals," Curr. Cardiol. Rev. 14‒25 (2012)

Hypertens (1)

P. Segers, A. Qasem, T. De Backer, S. Carlier, P. Verdonck, A. Avolio, "Peripheral oscillatory compliance is associated with aortic augmentation index," Hypertens 37, 1434‒1439 (2001)
[Crossref]

Hypertension (1)

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Y. H. Ha, Analysis of arterial blood pressure and its electrical analog model .

C. C. Poon, Y. T. Zhang, Cuff-less and noninvasive measurements of arterial BP by pulse transit time .

Y. Kurylyak, F. Lamonaca, D. Grimaldi, A neural network-based method for continuous blood pressure estimation from a PPG signal .

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X. F. Teng, Y. T. Zhang, Continuous and noninvasive estimation of arterial BP using a photoplethysmographic approach .

V. Mouradian, A. Poghosyan, L. Hovhannisyan, Noninvasive continuous mobile blood pressure monitoring using novel PPG optical sensor .

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