Abstract

Since the recent slowdown in the smartphone market, studies for wearable devices are briskly being carried out to find new markets, such as virtual reality devices. In this paper, a head-mounted display (HMD) which provides expanded virtual images before human eyes by enlarging images of a small display was designed, and the tolerance analysis method for a focus-adjustable HMD based on afocal optical systems was studied. There are two types of HMDs: a see-through type that allows the user to view the surroundings, and a see-close type where the user can only view the display screen; the former is used in this study. While designing the system, we allowed a lens within the system to be shifted to adjust its focus from +1 to −4 D (diopters).The yield of the designed systems was calculated by taking the worst-case scenario of a uniform distribution into account. Additionally, a longitudinal aberration was used rather than MTF for the tolerance analysis with respect to system performance. The sensitivity of the designed system was calculated by assigning a certain tolerance, and the focus lens shift was calculated to adjust the image surface variations resulting from the tolerance. The smaller the tolerance, the more expensive the unit price of the products. Very small tolerances may even be impossible to fabricate. Considering this, the appropriate tolerance was assigned; the maximum shift of the focus lens in which the image surface can be adjusted was obtained to find the changes in aberration and a good yield.

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Other (29)

H. KellyCNN Technology2014http://money.cnn.com/2014/03/19/technology/mobile/wearable-devices/index.htmlAccessed 2017-06-17 (2017)

Consumer virtual reality hardware and content revenue to reach $21.8 billion by 2020Tractica2015https://www.tractica.com/newsroom/press-releases/consumer-virtual-reality-hardware-and-content-revenue-to-reach-21-8-billion-by-2020Accessed 2017-06-17 (2017)

G. D. MillerSee-through display with an optical assemblyincluding a wedge-shaped illumination systemU.S. Patents201313/441,224

J. Rolland and H. HuaHead-mounted display systemsEncycl. Opt. Eng.2005113

2016 statistics of senior citizenStatistics Korea2016http://kostat.Go.Kr/portal/korea/kor_nw/2/1/index.Board?Bmode=read&bseq=&aseq=356426&pageno=1&rownum=10&navcount=10&currpg=&starget=title&stxt=%ea%b3%a0%eb%a0%b9

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. Agard, and J. W. SedatPhase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopyJ. Microsc.20042163248

J.-M. Ryu, G.-M. Kang, H.-J. Lee, H.-K. Lee, and J.-H. JoCorrection method for the variation of the image plane generated by various symmetric error factors of zoom lenses of digital still cameras and estimation of defect rate due to the correctionKorean J. Opt. Photonics200617420429

W. J. SmithModern Optical engineering3rd ed.Book’s HillKorea2007607

K. Worhoff, P. V. Lambeck, and A. DriessenDesign, tolerance analysis, and fabrication of silicon oxynitride based planar optical waveguides for communication devicesJ. Lightwave Technol.19991714011407

Hyundai Motor manual the 53rd story, Head up display (HUD)Hyndai Motors2015http://blog.hyundai.com/1718Accessed 2017-06-17 (2017)

Digital Retinal Camera CR-2 Plus AFCannon2014http://www.canonbs.co.kr/business/feature.aspx?no=3448&category1=9Accessed 2017-06-19 (2017)

C. Wedekind and M. MilinskiCooperation through image scoring in humansSci.2000288850852

H. ErfleOcularU.S. Patents1923US1478704 A

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. BilleObjective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensorJ. Opt. Soc. Am.19941119491957

J. H. Jo and J. M. RyuThe base and application of optical design with lens design program1st ed.ChungmungakKorea2013178-204, 12-39

J. M. Ryu, Y. S. Kim, J. H. Jo, G. M. Kang, H. J. Lee, and H. K. LeeStatistical analysis of focus adjustment method for a floating imaging system with symmetric error factorsKorean J. Opt. Photonics201223189196

R. J. Little and D. B. RubinStatistical analysis with missing dataJohn Wiley & Sons2014Chapter 4

R. V. Hogg and A. T. CraigIntroduction to mathematical statistics5th ed.Upper Saddle RiverNew Jersey: Prentice Hall199523

K. A. Brownlee and K. A. BrownleeStatistical theory and methodology in science and engineeringWileyNew York196528

K. A. Brownlee and K. A. BrownleeStatistical theory and methodology in science and engineeringWileyNew York1965Chapter 5

J. Ryu, J. Jo, G. Kang, H. Lee, and S. YoneyamaFocus adjustment method with statistical analysis for an inter-changeable zoom lens with symmetric error factorsKorean J. Opt. Photonics201122230238

M. RosenblattA central limit theorem and a strong mixing conditionProc. Natl. Acad. Sci.1956424347

D. Samson and M. TerziovskiThe relationship between total quality management practices and operational performanceJ. Oper. Manag.199917393409

A. M. JoglekarStatistical methods for six sigmaJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc.New Jersey, USA2003Chapter 5

Y. S. Kim, S. C Park, Y. T Park, Y. H Seo, H. J Yoo, and D. G LeeQuality management3rd Ed.BagyeongsaSeoul2006Chapter 10

Gyeongbuk industry-university convergence centerThe presentation of Gyeonbuk industry-university convergence district in Year 41st ed.Gyeonbuk industry-university convergence centerKorea201564

J. L. FergasonOptical system for a head mounted display using a retro-reflector and method of displaying an imageU.S. Patent19975621572 A

J. H. Jo and J. M. RyuThe base and application of optical design with lens design program1st ed.chungmungakKorea20135665

P. Mouroulis and J. MacdonaldGeometrical optics and optical design1st ed.Oxford University PressUSA200681

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