Abstract

We report a passive Q-switching of an all-fiber erbium-doped fiber laser delivering high pulse energy by using a high quality single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). A side-polished fiber coated with the SWCNT is employed as an in-line SA for evanescent wave interaction between the incident light and the SWCNT. This lateral interaction scheme enables a stable Q-switched fiber laser that generates high pulse energy. The central wavelength of the Q-switched pulse laser was measured as 1560 nm. A repetition rate frequency of the Q-switched laser is controlled from 78 kHz to 190 kHz by adjusting the applied pump power from 124 mW to 790 mW. The variation of pulse energy from 51 nJ to 270 nJ is also observed as increasing the pump power. The pulse energy of 270 nJ achieved at maximum pump power is 3 times larger than those reported in Q-switched all-fiber lasers using a SWCNT-SA. The tunable behaviors in pulse duration, pulse repetition rate, and pulse energy as a function of pump power are reported, and are well matched with theoretical expectation.

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  1. F. J. McClung and R. W. HellwarthGiant optical pulsations from rubyJ. Appl. Phys.1962333828
  2. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der AuSemiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasersIEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19962435453
  3. G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, R. Fluck, B. Braun, M. Moser, G. Zhang, E. Gini, and U. KellerExperimentally confirmed design guidelines for passively Q-switched microchip lasers using semiconductor saturable absorbersJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B1999163376388
  4. R. Paschotta, R. Häring, E. Gini, H. Melchior, U. Keller, H. L. Offerhaus, and D. J. RichardsonPassively Q-switched 0.1-mJ fiber laser system at 1.53 μmOpt. Lett.199924388390
  5. John E. Nettleton, Bradley W. Schilling, Dallas N. Barr, and Jonathan S. LeiMonoblock laser for a low-cost, eyesafe, microlaser range finderAppl. Opt.20003924282432
  6. D. J. Goldberg and J. A. SamadyIntense pulsed light and Nd:YAG laser non-ablative treatment of facial rhytidsLaser Surg. Med.200128141144
  7. P. E. Britton, D. Taverner, K. Puech, D. J. Richardson, P. G. R. Smith, G. W. Ross, and D. C. HannaOptical parametric oscillation in periodically poled lithium niobate driven by a diode-pumped Q-switched erbium fiber laserOpt. Lett.199823582584
  8. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. JablonskiLaser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubesJ. Lightwave Technol.2004225156
  9. W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. RotermundMode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorberOpt. Lett.20083324492451
  10. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. FerrariGraphene mode-locked ultrafast laserACS Nano201042803810
  11. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. LohMonolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laserNano Res.201143297307
  12. Y.-W. SongQ-switched fiber laser with carbon nanotubes hosted in ceramicsAppl. Opt.201251290294
  13. H. H. Liu, K. K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. SetCarbon-nanotube-based passively Q-switched fiber laser for high energy pulse generationOpt. Laser Technol.201345713716
  14. D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. LiuTunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorberIEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.201022911
  15. S. Y. Ryu, K.-S. Kim, J. Kim, and S. KimDegradation of optical properties of a film-type single-wall carbon nanotubes saturable absorber (SWNT-SA) with an Er-doped all-fiber laserOpt. Express2012201296612974
  16. K. Kieu and M. MansuripurFemtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer compositeOpt. Lett.20073222422244
  17. S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, H. Jung, K. Oh, and D.-I. YeomFemtosecond mode-locked fiber laser employing a hollow optical fiber filled with carbon nanotube dispersion as saturable absorberOpt. Express2009172178821793
  18. J. H. Im, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. YeomAll-fiber Er-doped dissipative soliton laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotube saturable absorberOpt. Express2010182214122146
  19. S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. YeomGraphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-lockingOpt. Express20122056525657
  20. J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, S. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. RotermundYb:KYW planar waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubesOpt. Lett.20133850905093
  21. H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, Y.-H. Cha, D.-Y. Jeong, and D.-I. YeomAll-fiber mode-locked laser oscillator with pulse energy of 34 nJ using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorberOpt. Express2014222266722672
  22. N. H. Park, H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, M. H. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. YeomMonolayer graphene saturable absorbers with strongly enhanced evanescent-field interaction for ultrafast fiber laser mode-lockingOpt. Express2015231980619812
  23. R. Herda, S. Kivistö, and O. G. OkhotnikovDynamic gain induced pulse shortening in Q-switched lasersOpt. Lett.20083310111013

Other (23)

F. J. McClung and R. W. HellwarthGiant optical pulsations from rubyJ. Appl. Phys.1962333828

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der AuSemiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasersIEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19962435453

G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, R. Fluck, B. Braun, M. Moser, G. Zhang, E. Gini, and U. KellerExperimentally confirmed design guidelines for passively Q-switched microchip lasers using semiconductor saturable absorbersJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B1999163376388

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, E. Gini, H. Melchior, U. Keller, H. L. Offerhaus, and D. J. RichardsonPassively Q-switched 0.1-mJ fiber laser system at 1.53 μmOpt. Lett.199924388390

John E. Nettleton, Bradley W. Schilling, Dallas N. Barr, and Jonathan S. LeiMonoblock laser for a low-cost, eyesafe, microlaser range finderAppl. Opt.20003924282432

D. J. Goldberg and J. A. SamadyIntense pulsed light and Nd:YAG laser non-ablative treatment of facial rhytidsLaser Surg. Med.200128141144

P. E. Britton, D. Taverner, K. Puech, D. J. Richardson, P. G. R. Smith, G. W. Ross, and D. C. HannaOptical parametric oscillation in periodically poled lithium niobate driven by a diode-pumped Q-switched erbium fiber laserOpt. Lett.199823582584

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. JablonskiLaser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubesJ. Lightwave Technol.2004225156

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. RotermundMode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorberOpt. Lett.20083324492451

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. FerrariGraphene mode-locked ultrafast laserACS Nano201042803810

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. LohMonolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laserNano Res.201143297307

Y.-W. SongQ-switched fiber laser with carbon nanotubes hosted in ceramicsAppl. Opt.201251290294

H. H. Liu, K. K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. SetCarbon-nanotube-based passively Q-switched fiber laser for high energy pulse generationOpt. Laser Technol.201345713716

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. LiuTunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorberIEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.201022911

S. Y. Ryu, K.-S. Kim, J. Kim, and S. KimDegradation of optical properties of a film-type single-wall carbon nanotubes saturable absorber (SWNT-SA) with an Er-doped all-fiber laserOpt. Express2012201296612974

K. Kieu and M. MansuripurFemtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer compositeOpt. Lett.20073222422244

S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, H. Jung, K. Oh, and D.-I. YeomFemtosecond mode-locked fiber laser employing a hollow optical fiber filled with carbon nanotube dispersion as saturable absorberOpt. Express2009172178821793

J. H. Im, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. YeomAll-fiber Er-doped dissipative soliton laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotube saturable absorberOpt. Express2010182214122146

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. YeomGraphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-lockingOpt. Express20122056525657

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, S. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. RotermundYb:KYW planar waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubesOpt. Lett.20133850905093

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, Y.-H. Cha, D.-Y. Jeong, and D.-I. YeomAll-fiber mode-locked laser oscillator with pulse energy of 34 nJ using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorberOpt. Express2014222266722672

N. H. Park, H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, M. H. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. YeomMonolayer graphene saturable absorbers with strongly enhanced evanescent-field interaction for ultrafast fiber laser mode-lockingOpt. Express2015231980619812

R. Herda, S. Kivistö, and O. G. OkhotnikovDynamic gain induced pulse shortening in Q-switched lasersOpt. Lett.20083310111013

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