Abstract

To investigate the usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging lymphedema, we directly compared it to other histological methods in a mouse model of lymphedema. We performed detailed imaging of the lymphedema lesion on a mouse tail. We imaged the mouse tail in vivo with OCT and created histopathological samples. We constructed a spectrometer-based OCT system using a fiber-optic Michelson interferometer. The light was directed to 50:50 couplers that split the light into reference and sample arms. Backscattered light from a reference mirror and the sample produced an interference fringe. An OCT image of the lymphedema model revealed an inflammatory reaction of the skin that was accompanied by edema, leading to an increase in the light attenuation in the dermal and subcutaneous layers. Similar to OCT image findings, histological biopsy showed an inflammatory response that involved edema, increased neutrophils in epidermis and subdermis, and lymphatic microvascular dilatation. Furthermore, the lymphedema model showed an increase in thickness of the dermis in both diagnostic studies. In the mouse tail model of lymphedema, OCT imaging showed very similar results to other histological examinations. OCT provides a quick and useful diagnostic imaging technique for lymphedema and is a valuable addition or complement to other noninvasive imaging tools.

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  27. G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. BoumaQuantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomographyCirculation2003107113119
  28. M. Nakano, M. Vorpahl, F. Otsuka, M. Taniwaki, S. K. Yazdani, and A. V. FinnEx vivo assessment of vascular response to coronary stents by optical frequency domain imagingJACC Cardiovasc. Imaging201257182
  29. M. Kashiwagi, L. Liu, K. K. Chu, C. H. Sun, A. Tanaka, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. TearneyFeasibility of the assessment of cholesterol crystals in human macrophages using micro optical coherence tomographyPLoS One20149e102669102669
  30. L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. TearneyImaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomographyNat. Med.20111710101014

Other (30)

S. G. RocksonLymphedemaAm. J. Med.2001110288295

A. Szuba and S. G. RocksonLymphedema: anatomy, physiology and pathogenesisVasc. Med.19972321326

J. DaróczyPathology of lymphedemaClin. Dermatol.199513433444

A. G. Warren, H. Brorson, L. J. Borud, and S. A. SlavinLymphedema: a comprehensive reviewAnn. Plast. Surg.200759464472

T. J. RyanThe lymphatics of the skin. in: the physiology and pathophysiology of the skinAcademic pressLondon1978517551780

B. Battistini, P. D'Orléans-Juste, and P. SiroisEndothelins:circulating plasma levels and presence in other biologicfluidsLab. Invest.199368600628

R. Tabibiazar, L. Cheung, J. Han, J. Swanson, A. Beilhack, A. an, S. S. Dadras, N. Rockson, S. Joshi, R. Wagner, and S. G. RocksonInflammatory manifestations of experimental lymphatic insufficiencyPLoS Med.2006311141139

K. C. Johnson, A. G. Kennedy, and S. M. HenryClinical measurements of lymphedemaLymphat. Res. Biol.201412216221

A. Szuba and S. G. RocksonLymphedema: classification, diagnosis and therapyVasc Med19983145156

N. L. Stout, L. A. Pfalzer, E. Levy, C. McGarvey, B. Springer, L. H. Gerber, and P. SoballeSegmental limb volume change as a predictor of the onset of lymphedema in women with early breast cancerPM R2011310981105

S. A. Czerniec, L. C. Ward, K. M. Refshauge, J. Beith, M. J. Lee, S. York, and S. L. KilbreathAssessment of breast cancer-related arm lymphedema--comparison of physical measurement methods and self-reportCancer Invest2010285462

A. W. Stanton, C. Badger, and J. SitziaNon-invasive assessment of the lymphedematous limbLymphology200033122135

J. M. Armer and B. R. StewartA comparison of four diagnostic criteria for lymphedema in a post-breast cancer populationLymphat. Res. Biol.20053208217

S. Hayes, B. Cornish, and B. NewmanComparison of methods to diagnose lymphoedema among breast cancer survivors: 6-month follow-upBreast Cancer Res. Treat.200589221226

D. E. GaryLymphedema diagnosis and managementJ. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract.2007197278

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G FujimotoOptical coherence tomographyScience199125411781181

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G FujimotoOptical coherence tomography of the human retinaArchives of ophthalmology1995113325332

B. R. Klyen, J. J. Armstrong, S. G. Adie, H. G. Radley, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. SampsonThree-dimensional optical coherence tomography of whole-muscle autografts as a precursor to morphological assessment of muscular dystrophy in miceJ. Biomed. Opt.20081311003

B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, H. G. Radley-Crabb, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. SampsonIdentification of muscle necrosis in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using three-dimensional optical coherence tomographyJ. Biomed. Opt.201116076013

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, S. G. Adie, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. BoppartOptical coherence tomography: the intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes in breast cancerIEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.2010296370

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. SampsonImaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancerCancer Res.20107025792584

S. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Wright, K. T. Morris, G. L. Giron, M. R. Sampson, J. P. Brockway, K. E. Hurley, E. R. Riedel, and K. J. Van zeePrevalence of lymphedema in women with breast cancer 5 years after sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary dissection: objective measurementsJ. Clin. Oncol.20082652135219

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. FujimotoUltrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomographyNat. Med.20017502507

B. A. Standish, V. X. Yang, N. R. Munce, L. M. Wong, Kee Song, G. Gardiner, A. Lin, Y. I. Mao, A. Vitkin, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. WilsonDoppler optical coherence tomography monitoring of microvascular tissue response during photodynamic therapy in an animal model of Barrett’s esophagusGastrointest. Endosc.200766326333

T. Aoki, M. Rodriguez-Porcel, Y. Matsuo, A. Cassar, T. G. Kwon, F. Franchi, R. Gulati, S. S. Kushwaha, R. J. Lennon, L. O. Lerman, E. L. Ritman, and A. LermanEvaluation of coronary adventitial vasa vasorum using 3D optical coherence tomography--animal and human studiesAtherosclerosis2015239203208

S. Ghanta, D. A. Cuzzone, J. S. Torrisi, N. J. Albano, W. J. Joseph, I. L. Savetsky, J. C. Gardenier, D. Chang, J. Zampell, and B. J. MehraraRegulation of inflammation and fibrosis by macrophages in lymphedemaAm. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.201530810651077

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. BoumaQuantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomographyCirculation2003107113119

M. Nakano, M. Vorpahl, F. Otsuka, M. Taniwaki, S. K. Yazdani, and A. V. FinnEx vivo assessment of vascular response to coronary stents by optical frequency domain imagingJACC Cardiovasc. Imaging201257182

M. Kashiwagi, L. Liu, K. K. Chu, C. H. Sun, A. Tanaka, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. TearneyFeasibility of the assessment of cholesterol crystals in human macrophages using micro optical coherence tomographyPLoS One20149e102669102669

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. TearneyImaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomographyNat. Med.20111710101014

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