Abstract

Stereoscopic (S3D) displays present different images to the two eyes. Temporal multiplexing and spatial multiplexing are two common techniques for accomplishing this. We compared the effective resolution provided by these two techniques. In a psychophysical experiment, we measured resolution at various viewing distances on a display employing temporal multiplexing, and on another display employing spatial multiplexing. In another experiment, we simulated the two multiplexing techniques on one display and again measured resolution. The results show that temporal multiplexing provides greater effective resolution than spatial multiplexing at short and medium viewing distances, and that the two techniques provide similar resolution at long viewing distance. Importantly, we observed a significant difference in resolution at the viewing distance that is generally recommended for high-definition television.

© 2017 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. ITU-R Recommendation BT.709-5: “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002.
  2. E. F. Kelley, “Resolving resolution,” Information Display 27, 18-21 (2011).
  3. R. M. Soneira, “3D TV display technology shoot-out,” http://www.displaymate.com/3D_TV_ShootOut_1.htm
  4. D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” Journal of the Society for Information Display 19, 271-297 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Dawson, “Passive 3D from the beginning,” http://hifiwriter.com/wpblog/?p=3797
  6. S. Dawson, “Active versus passive,” Connected Home Australia, 46-48 (Sep 2012).
  7. J. S. Kim and M. S. Banks, “Effective Spatial Resolution of Temporally and Spatially Interlaced Stereo 3D Televisions,” sid symposium digest of technical papers 43, 879-882 (2012).
  8. J. D. Yun, Y. Kwak, and S. Yang, “Evaluation of perceptual resolution and crosstalk in stereoscopic displays,” Journal of Display Technology 9, 106-111 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Park, J. Kim, and H. J. Choi, “Effect of interlacing methods of stereoscopic displays on perceived image quality,” Applied Optics 53, 520-527 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. ITU-R Recommendation BT.2022: “General viewing conditions for subjective assessment of quality of SDTV and HDTV television pictures on flat panel displays,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.
  11. I. L. Bailey and J. E. Lovie, “New design principles for visual acuity letter charts,” American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 53, 740-745 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. S. Baron and G. Westheimer, “Visual acuity as a function of exposure duration,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 63, 212-219 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  13. I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” Journal of Vision 11, 11 (2011).
  14. ITU-R Recommendation BT.1845-1: “Guidelines on metrics to be used when tailoring television programmes to broadcasting applications at various image quality levels, display sizes and aspect ratios,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.
  15. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” The Journal of Physiology 197, 551-566 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. W. Campbell, E. R. Howell, and J. R. Johnstone, “A comparison of threshold and suprathreshold appearance of gratings with components in the low and high spatial frequency range,” The Journal of Physiology 274, 193-201 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. Keys, “Cubic convolution interpolation for digital image processing,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 29, 1153-1160 (1981).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. Park, J. Kim, and H. J. Choi, “Effect of interlacing methods of stereoscopic displays on perceived image quality,” Applied Optics 53, 520-527 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. D. Yun, Y. Kwak, and S. Yang, “Evaluation of perceptual resolution and crosstalk in stereoscopic displays,” Journal of Display Technology 9, 106-111 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” Journal of Vision 11, 11 (2011).

E. F. Kelley, “Resolving resolution,” Information Display 27, 18-21 (2011).

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” Journal of the Society for Information Display 19, 271-297 (2011).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

R. Keys, “Cubic convolution interpolation for digital image processing,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 29, 1153-1160 (1981).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

F. W. Campbell, E. R. Howell, and J. R. Johnstone, “A comparison of threshold and suprathreshold appearance of gratings with components in the low and high spatial frequency range,” The Journal of Physiology 274, 193-201 (1978).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

I. L. Bailey and J. E. Lovie, “New design principles for visual acuity letter charts,” American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 53, 740-745 (1976).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

W. S. Baron and G. Westheimer, “Visual acuity as a function of exposure duration,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 63, 212-219 (1973).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” The Journal of Physiology 197, 551-566 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bailey, I. L.

I. L. Bailey and J. E. Lovie, “New design principles for visual acuity letter charts,” American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 53, 740-745 (1976).
[Crossref]

Banks, M. S.

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” Journal of the Society for Information Display 19, 271-297 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. S. Kim and M. S. Banks, “Effective Spatial Resolution of Temporally and Spatially Interlaced Stereo 3D Televisions,” sid symposium digest of technical papers 43, 879-882 (2012).

Baron, W. S.

W. S. Baron and G. Westheimer, “Visual acuity as a function of exposure duration,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 63, 212-219 (1973).
[Crossref]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, E. R. Howell, and J. R. Johnstone, “A comparison of threshold and suprathreshold appearance of gratings with components in the low and high spatial frequency range,” The Journal of Physiology 274, 193-201 (1978).
[Crossref]

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” The Journal of Physiology 197, 551-566 (1968).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. J.

M. Park, J. Kim, and H. J. Choi, “Effect of interlacing methods of stereoscopic displays on perceived image quality,” Applied Optics 53, 520-527 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dawson, S.

S. Dawson, “Active versus passive,” Connected Home Australia, 46-48 (Sep 2012).

Fründ, I.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” Journal of Vision 11, 11 (2011).

Haenel, N. V.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” Journal of Vision 11, 11 (2011).

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” Journal of the Society for Information Display 19, 271-297 (2011).
[Crossref]

Howell, E. R.

F. W. Campbell, E. R. Howell, and J. R. Johnstone, “A comparison of threshold and suprathreshold appearance of gratings with components in the low and high spatial frequency range,” The Journal of Physiology 274, 193-201 (1978).
[Crossref]

Johnstone, J. R.

F. W. Campbell, E. R. Howell, and J. R. Johnstone, “A comparison of threshold and suprathreshold appearance of gratings with components in the low and high spatial frequency range,” The Journal of Physiology 274, 193-201 (1978).
[Crossref]

Karasev, V. I.

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” Journal of the Society for Information Display 19, 271-297 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kelley, E. F.

E. F. Kelley, “Resolving resolution,” Information Display 27, 18-21 (2011).

Keys, R.

R. Keys, “Cubic convolution interpolation for digital image processing,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 29, 1153-1160 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

M. Park, J. Kim, and H. J. Choi, “Effect of interlacing methods of stereoscopic displays on perceived image quality,” Applied Optics 53, 520-527 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim and M. S. Banks, “Effective Spatial Resolution of Temporally and Spatially Interlaced Stereo 3D Televisions,” sid symposium digest of technical papers 43, 879-882 (2012).

Kwak, Y.

J. D. Yun, Y. Kwak, and S. Yang, “Evaluation of perceptual resolution and crosstalk in stereoscopic displays,” Journal of Display Technology 9, 106-111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lovie, J. E.

I. L. Bailey and J. E. Lovie, “New design principles for visual acuity letter charts,” American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 53, 740-745 (1976).
[Crossref]

Park, M.

M. Park, J. Kim, and H. J. Choi, “Effect of interlacing methods of stereoscopic displays on perceived image quality,” Applied Optics 53, 520-527 (2014).
[Crossref]

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” The Journal of Physiology 197, 551-566 (1968).
[Crossref]

Westheimer, G.

W. S. Baron and G. Westheimer, “Visual acuity as a function of exposure duration,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 63, 212-219 (1973).
[Crossref]

Wichmann, F. A.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” Journal of Vision 11, 11 (2011).

Yang, S.

J. D. Yun, Y. Kwak, and S. Yang, “Evaluation of perceptual resolution and crosstalk in stereoscopic displays,” Journal of Display Technology 9, 106-111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yun, J. D.

J. D. Yun, Y. Kwak, and S. Yang, “Evaluation of perceptual resolution and crosstalk in stereoscopic displays,” Journal of Display Technology 9, 106-111 (2013).
[Crossref]

American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics (1)

I. L. Bailey and J. E. Lovie, “New design principles for visual acuity letter charts,” American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 53, 740-745 (1976).
[Crossref]

Applied Optics (1)

M. Park, J. Kim, and H. J. Choi, “Effect of interlacing methods of stereoscopic displays on perceived image quality,” Applied Optics 53, 520-527 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (1)

R. Keys, “Cubic convolution interpolation for digital image processing,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 29, 1153-1160 (1981).
[Crossref]

Information Display (1)

E. F. Kelley, “Resolving resolution,” Information Display 27, 18-21 (2011).

Journal of Display Technology (1)

J. D. Yun, Y. Kwak, and S. Yang, “Evaluation of perceptual resolution and crosstalk in stereoscopic displays,” Journal of Display Technology 9, 106-111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Journal of the Optical Society of America (1)

W. S. Baron and G. Westheimer, “Visual acuity as a function of exposure duration,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 63, 212-219 (1973).
[Crossref]

Journal of the Society for Information Display (1)

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” Journal of the Society for Information Display 19, 271-297 (2011).
[Crossref]

Journal of Vision (1)

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” Journal of Vision 11, 11 (2011).

The Journal of Physiology (2)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” The Journal of Physiology 197, 551-566 (1968).
[Crossref]

F. W. Campbell, E. R. Howell, and J. R. Johnstone, “A comparison of threshold and suprathreshold appearance of gratings with components in the low and high spatial frequency range,” The Journal of Physiology 274, 193-201 (1978).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

ITU-R Recommendation BT.2022: “General viewing conditions for subjective assessment of quality of SDTV and HDTV television pictures on flat panel displays,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.

ITU-R Recommendation BT.1845-1: “Guidelines on metrics to be used when tailoring television programmes to broadcasting applications at various image quality levels, display sizes and aspect ratios,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.

S. Dawson, “Passive 3D from the beginning,” http://hifiwriter.com/wpblog/?p=3797

S. Dawson, “Active versus passive,” Connected Home Australia, 46-48 (Sep 2012).

J. S. Kim and M. S. Banks, “Effective Spatial Resolution of Temporally and Spatially Interlaced Stereo 3D Televisions,” sid symposium digest of technical papers 43, 879-882 (2012).

ITU-R Recommendation BT.709-5: “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002.

R. M. Soneira, “3D TV display technology shoot-out,” http://www.displaymate.com/3D_TV_ShootOut_1.htm

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