Expand this Topic clickable element to expand a topic
OSA Publishing
164 papers in 22 sessions Change year:
Actions

Few-photon Coherent Nonlinear Optics with a Single Molecule

NF1A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Parametric Frequency Upconverter with 100 Background Photons per Hour

NF1A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Generation of ultra-short wavelength two-photon NOON state for high precision quantum metrology

NF1A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nearly-complete rephasing of macroscopic coherence of quantum dot excitons with large inhomogeneous broadening using a pair of chirped pulses

NF1A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Dynamics of Non-linear Photo-Excited Multi-Exciton State Coupled to Coherent Vibration in J Aggregate

NF1A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Quantum frequency up-conversion of orbital angular momentum entanglement states

NF1A.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Stepwise Quantum Phonon Pumping in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

NF1A.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Topological Photonics and Topological Insulator Lasers

NF2A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Topologically protected frequency combs in PT-symmetric structures

NF2A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Low-Loss Surface-Wave Nonlinear Optics with Strongly Absorbing Materials

NF2A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Super-resolution photo-thermal microscopy with a nonlinear detection scheme

NF2A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Realizing curved nonlinear photonic caustic lattices by tailored optical catastrophes

NF2A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Orthogonal control for stable parallel waveform synthesis

NF2A.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Mid-Infrared Microresonator-Based Frequency Combs

NM1A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Integrable Soliton Microcomb at Microwave Repetition Rates

NM1A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Observation of Transient Nonlinear Dynamics of Optical Frequency Comb in a Microcavity

NM1A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Kerr frequency comb dynamics circumventing cavity thermal behavior

NM1A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Entanglement generation with integrated optical frequency comb sources

NM1A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Ultra High Quality Factor on Chip Microresonators

NM2A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Acousto-optic Finite-difference Frequency-domain Algorithm for First-principles Simulations of On-chip Acousto-optic Devices

NM2A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Breathing Dissipative Solitons in Microresonators

NM2A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Physics of Frequency Modulated Comb Generation in Semiconductor Diode Lasers

NM2A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

On-Chip Demonstration of Interaction-free Quantum Switching

NM2A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

On-chip waveguides for self-referencing low-power and high-repetition-rate laser frequency combs

NM2A.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Aluminum nitride microring resonators for efficient frequency doubling and strong coupling between visible and infrared optical modes

NM2A.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Optical supercavitation in graphene-oxide hydrogel for antimicrobial cloaks

NM2B.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Combinatorial optimization using networks of optical parametric oscillators

NM2B.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Direct writing of order in naturally disordered nonlinear photonic crystals

NM2B.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Remote Sensing in Atmospheric Air using Nonlinear Optics

NM2B.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nonlinear Propagation of 100 ps, UV Laser Pulses in Water with Strong Stimulated Raman Stokes Coupling

NM2B.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Phonon-assisted plasmon induced transparency in graphene nanostructures

NM2B.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nonlinear Optics: The Future of Vision Correction

NM2B.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Single sideband microwave to optical photon conversion - an electro-optic realization

NM3A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Broadband second harmonic generation in whispering gallery mode resonators enhanced by polarization selective out-coupling

NM3A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Harnessing Optical Loss for Unique Microlaser Functionality

NM3A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nonlinear Optics at Low Powers: New Mechanism of On-Chip Optical Frequency Comb Generation

NM3A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

RF Photonic Downconversion of a QPSK Signal with a Millimeter-Wave Coupled Polymer Phase Modulator

NM3A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Second harmonic quasi-whispering gallery modes in a GaN micro-cavity

NM3A.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nonlinear Si-waveguides for mid-infrared comb generation and dual comb spectroscopy at 5 μm

NM3A.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Tailored nonlinear optical process by manipulating the relative phases among the relevant electromagnetic fields

NM3B.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Orbital angular momentum mixing in type II second harmonic generation

NM3B.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Arbitrary dual-frequency generation in Raman-resonant four-wave-mixing process

NM3B.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Simultaneous Tunable Enhancement of SHG and THG in Graphene Optical Gratings

NM3B.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nonreciprocal on the Nanoscale: Nonlinear Generation via Multipole Interference

NM3B.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Collinear Chiral Sum Frequency Generation Microscopy by Using Vectorial Beam

NM3B.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Measurement of Second Order Nonlinear Optical Coefficient of CdSiP2, GaP and GaAs

NM3B.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Improvement of the Beam Quality of a High-Pulse-Energy Mid-infrared ZnGeP2 FIRE OPO

NM3B.8 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Next Generation High-Order Hamonic Sources

NTh1A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Experiment-theory comparison and verification of metastable electronic state description of nonlinear optical response in atoms and molecules

NTh1A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

A strong-field-ionization-enabled temporal gate for resolving ultrafast dynamics

NTh1A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Frequency domain Nonlinear Optics

NTh1A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

High energy, sub-cycle pulse generation at PHz frequency

NTh1A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Quantum State Reconstruction and Photon Statistics for Coherent States Interacting with Quantum Dots

NTh2A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Quantum Soliton Evaporation

NTh2A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Generalized uncertainty principle and squeezing in nonlinear nonlocal photon fluids

NTh2A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Simulations of Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics by Nonlocal Nonlinear Optics

NTh2A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

On-chip coherent conversion of quantum entanglement

NTh2A.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Photonic crystal fiber designs for third-harmonic and photon triplet generation

NTh2A.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Ultrafast Pulse Train at a 125-THz Repetition Rate in the CW Regime

NTh2B.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Multi-sideband Coherent Raman Generation with Spatial and Temporal Field Shaping

NTh2B.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Ultrafast wavelength tuning of a high energy optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier

NTh2B.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Generation of sub-50 fs pulses from a parabolic amplifier operated beyond gain bandwidth limit

NTh2B.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Mode-locked Holmium fiber lasers

NTh2B.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Short Cavity Multi Stokes Brillouin- Erbium Fiber Laser

NTh2B.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

A Simple Mode-locked Method Using a Polarization Beam Splitter

NTh2B.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Study on All-Solid-State High-Power Multi-Wavelength Picosecond Raman Laser

NTh2B.8 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Compact Megahertz Coherent XUV Generation by HHG inside an Ultrafast Thin Disk Laser

NTh3A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Towards Visible Soliton Microcomb Generation

NTh3A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Octave-spanning long-wave infrared generation via intra-pulse difference frequency generation in orientation-patterned gallium phosphide

NTh3A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Electronic Control of Nonlinear Polarization Evolution Modelocking in a Fiber Laser

NTh3A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nonlinear Optics with Ghost Waves

NTh3A.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Stimulated Raman and Multiphoton Imaging Microscopy: An Alternative to Histology?

NTh3A.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Coherent photon-phonon conversion in integrated circuits

NTu1A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Integrated Lithium Niobate Platform for Nonlinear Optics and Electro-Optic Applications

NTu1A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Mid-infrared frequency comb generation in integrated photonic waveguides

NTu1A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Widely-tunable Mid-infrared Optical Parametric Oscillation in High-Q Periodically Poled Lithium Tantalate Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators

NTu1A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Dual-mode Wavelength Conversion of Optical OFDM Signals in a Multimode Silicon Waveguide

NTu1A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Microcavity Solitons

NTu1A.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nematicons: Fundamentals and Advances

NTu1B.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Spatial instabilities in nematicon propagation generated by correlated noise in liquid crystals

NTu1B.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Femtosecond Temporal Simulton Formation in Optical Parametric Oscillators

NTu1B.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators

NTu1B.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Solitonisation of Anderson Localisation in Rogue-soliton Generation

NTu1B.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Scaling Properties of Pure-Quartic Solitons

NTu1B.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Near-IR White Light Continuum for Broadband Z-Scan Nonlinear Spectroscopy

NTu1B.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

New Nonlinear Crystals for the Mid-Infrared

NTu2A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

OPG and OPO Nonlinear Conversion in OP-GaAs using 2 μm Single Oscillator Pump Sources

NTu2A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Analysis of DKDP Frequency Conversion Crystals Damage Lifetime at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

NTu2A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Efficient Generation of Ultra-short Pulses in the Infrared from a Simple PPLN Optical Parametric Amplifier

NTu2A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Simultaneous Nonlinear Up-Conversion of Dual-Frequency Terahertz-Wave Radiation

NTu2A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Optical parametric amplification of a more than one-octave bandwidth pulse in a BBO crystal pumped by a 712-nm tuned Ti:sapphire laser pulse

NTu2A.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Second Harmonic Generation In Un-poled Multi-layer Silica Structures

NTu2A.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Spatiotemporal Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Multimode Fibers

NTu2B.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Wave-Front Shaping for Nonlinear Light Propagation in Multimode Fibers

NTu2B.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Self-Organized Instability in Complex Propagation in Multimode Fibers

NTu2B.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nonlinear dynamics of spatio-temporal waves in multimode fibres

NTu2B.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Control of Femtosecond Multi-flamentation In Glass By Designable Patterned Optical Fields

NTu2B.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Harnessing non-reciprocity and polarization spatio-temporal couplings in ultrafast laser material processing

NTu2B.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Towards High Average Power 12 μm Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Sources

NTu3A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

270 fs, 30-W-level Kerr-lens mode-locked Ho:YAG thin-disk oscillator at 2 μm

NTu3A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Octave-spanning supercontinuum in the mid-IR with a 3 µm ultrafast fiber laser

NTu3A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Ultrafast fiber lasers in the 3 µm water window

NTu3A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Narrow-Linewidth Mid-Infrared Raman Fiber Lasers

NTu3A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Compact Laser System with Switchable Repetition Rate and Broadly Tunable from the Visible through Mid-IR

NTu3A.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Efficient Conversion From 1.06 to 2.1 μm Wavelength For Generation of Shear Waves in a Soft Medium

NTu3A.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Measurement of Refractive Indices of CdSiP2 at Temperatures from 85 to 450 K

NTu3A.8 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Intermodal nonlinear optics with Bessel and OAM beams in fibers

NTu3B.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Photonic Crystal Fibers as a Platform for Pure-Quartic Solitons

NTu3B.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nested Structure Field for Extending Optical Filaments

NTu3B.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Universality of Chaotic Interactions Between Laser Beams

NTu3B.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Control the Collapse of Optical Fields by Anisotropic Media

NTu3B.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Parabolic Pulse Propagation in a Mamyshev Oscillator

NTu3B.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Real-Time Measurements of Ultrafast Spontaneous Modulation Instability in Optical Fiber

NTu3B.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nonlinear and time-dependent Epsilon-Near-Zero materials

NW1A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nondegenerate, Transient Nonlinear Refraction of Indium Tin Oxide at Epsilon-Near-Zero

NW1A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

ULTIMATE PERFORMANCE OF KERR NONLINEAR PLASMONICS WAVEGUIDES

NW1A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Plasmonic and photonic resonances of nonlinear metasurfaces

NW1A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Efficient Four-Wave Mixing in Loaded Nanoscale Plasmonic Hotspots

NW1A.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Terahertz Accelerator Technology

NW2A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Phase Space Control of Free Electrons with Terahertz Radiation

NW2A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Coherent Manipulation of Electrons in a Tunnel Junction with Carrier-Envelope Phase Controlled THz Electric Fields

NW2A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Strong confinement of THz pulse by femtosecond laser filamentation

NW2A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Terahertz subcycle control: from high-harmonic generation to molecular snapshots

NW2A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Wavelength scaling of strong field effects in GaAs

NW2A.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Observation of Broadband Terahertz Wave Generation from Liquid Water

NW3A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Electrically Controlled Second-Order Nonlinear Generation of Terahertz Waves

NW3A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Ultrafast Nonlinear Response of Silicon Carbide to Intense THz Fields

NW3A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Multiwavelength THz Wave Generation From THz Parametric Generator

NW3A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Graphene Terahertz Waveguide Filled with LiNbO3

NW3A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Ultra-broadband Factorable Photon Pair Generation in a Graded Index Multimode Fiber

NW3B.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Quantum metrology in the joint measurement of multiple non-commuting observables with SU(1,1) interferometer

NW3B.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Generation of path-polarization hyperentanglement using quasi-phase-matching in quasi-periodic nonlinear photonic crystal

NW3B.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Enhanced spectral brightness of narrowband photon pair generation from a hot atomic vapor cell

NW3B.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Quantum Twisted Double-Slit Experiment—Revealing Wavefunctions' Physical Reality

NW3B.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Continuous Variable Entanglement of X Waves in Nonlinear $\chi^{(2)}$-Media

NW3B.6 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Solitonic Molecules in CMOS-compatible Lasers with a Nonlinear Microring

NW4A.1 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Steps towards Analytical Pulse Reconstruction from Double Spectrograms using a Tomographic Approach

NW4A.10 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Numerical Implementation of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for Bose-Einstein Condensates

NW4A.11 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Maximum Input Power of Large-Core and Low-Loss SMF for Non-Repeatered Coherent DWDM Systems

NW4A.12 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nonlinear Phase Noise Reduction by Gain Saturated Parametric Amplifiers in Coherent Optical Transmission

NW4A.14 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Super-harmonic oscillations in a resonant tunneling diode with optical feedback

NW4A.15 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Strong Frequency Dependence of the Third Order Kerr Nonlinear Susceptibility in a Silica Fiber

NW4A.16 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Fiber Imperfections and their Impact on the Performance of Fiber Grating DFB Raman Lasers

NW4A.17 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

A New Class of All-Inorganic Perovskite Microplate for Lasing

NW4A.18 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Synthesis and Properties of Azobenzene based Fluorinated NLO Chromophores

NW4A.19 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Efficient Conversion From Infrared to Red Light by Cascaded Nonlinear Optical Processes Using an Aperiodically Poled Lithium Niobate Crystal

NW4A.2 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Experimentally Obtaining Maximal Coherence Via Assisted Distillation Process

NW4A.20 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

A Combination of Eigenvalue and Spectral Function Modulation in Nonlinear Frequency Division Multiplexing

NW4A.21 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Spectral Function Modulation based on Nonlinear Fourier Transform

NW4A.22 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Rigorous intensity and phase-shift manipulation in optical frequency conversion

NW4A.23 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Nonlinear optical properties of As20S80 system chalcogenide glass

NW4A.24 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Toward large forward Brillouin net amplification in silicon

NW4A.25 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Cascaded third-harmonic generation of an optical orbital-angular-momentum state through quasi-phase matching

NW4A.3 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Solitonization of Airy Pulses in Highly Non-Instantaneous Liquid-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers

NW4A.4 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Rogue Waves in a Tm Fiber Laser mode-locked by monolayer MoS2 Saturable Absorber

NW4A.5 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Efficient Nanosecond Two Beam Coupling in Passive Organic Media

NW4A.7 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Ultraviolet Self-Diffraction Effects Exhibited by Ion-Implanted Au Nanoparticles in Silica

NW4A.8 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Coherent Addressing, Switching, and Signal Processing in a Raman-Active Array of Discrete Waveguides

NW4A.9 Nonlinear Optics (NLO) 2017 View: PDF

Select as filters


    Select Topics Cancel
    © Copyright 2017 | The Optical Society. All Rights Reserved