Abstract

A robust charge-coupled device (CCD) photoelectric autocollimator for outdoor use is designed and demonstrated. The influence of outdoor conditions on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and imaging quality of the measuring system is experimentally analyzed. The pulse width modulation technology is applied to the automatic feedback control of the actively regulated illuminating light source of the measuring system to maximize SNR while avoiding image saturation. A Fourier phase shift method for subpixel estimation is adopted to achieve high-accuracy measurement in the presence of noises. Experimental results indicate that the technologies proposed here largely improve the measuring stability, dynamic range, and accuracy of the CCD photoelectric autocollimator used outdoors.

© 2011 Chinese Optics Letters

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2010 (1)

M. Gao, Z. Bian, Z. Dong, Z. Fang, and R. Qu, Infra. Laser Eng. (in Chinese) 39, 892 (2010).

2008 (1)

X. Ding, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and W. Feng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 99 (2008).

2007 (2)

B. Yuan, H. Yan, X. Cao, and B. Lin, Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, 278 (2007).

J. Zhang, T. Fan, and X. Cao, Proc. SPIE 6723, 672315 (2007).

2006 (3)

B. Li, M. Wei, B. Ye, and Q. Song, Opt. Technol. (in Chinese) 32, 3 (2006).

M. Balci and H. Foroosh, IEEE Trans. Image Proc. 15, 1965 (2006).

Y. Wu and Q. Yu, Proc. SPIE 6027, 60271Q (2006).

2005 (2)

H. So, IEEE Trans. Instr. Measure. 54, 2501 (2005).

J.Yuan, X. Long, and K. Yang, Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 125106 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Yuan and X. Long, Rev. Sci. Instr. 74, 1362 (2003).

2002 (1)

T. Chen and H. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 22, 1396 (2002).

2001 (2)

Y. Lin, P. Zhang, and M. Zhao, Aviation Precision Manufacturing Technol. (in Chinese) 37, 35 (2001).

H. Canabal, J. Alonso, and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Eng. 40, 2517 (2001).

1999 (2)

W. Chen, H. Yang, X. Su, and S. Tan, Opt. Eng. 38, 1029 (1999).

Q. Li, L. Gao, and L. Chen, Opto-Electron. Eng. (in Chinese) 26, 22 (1999).

1997 (1)

C. Chou, L. Y. Chou, C. K. Peng, Y. C. Huang, and K. C. Fan, Inter. J. Mach. Tools Manu. 37, 579 (1997).

1995 (1)

1994 (4)

P. Martinelli, S. Musazzi, and U. Perini, Rev. Sci. Instr. 65, 1012 (1994).

Y. Morimoto and M. Fujisawa, Opt. Eng. 33, 3709 (1994).

J. Fillard, J. Lussert, M. Castagne, and H. M'timet, Signal Proc.: Image Communication 6, 281 (1994).

M. R. Shortis, T. A. Clarke, and T. Short, Proc. SPIE 2350, 239 (1994).

1993 (1)

J. P. Fillard, H. M'timet, J. M. Lussert, and M. Castagne, Opt. Eng. 32, 2936 (1993).

1992 (1)

J. P. Fillard, Opt. Eng. 31, 2465 (1992).

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H. Canabal, J. Alonso, and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Eng. 40, 2517 (2001).

Balci, M.

M. Balci and H. Foroosh, IEEE Trans. Image Proc. 15, 1965 (2006).

Bernabeu, E.

H. Canabal, J. Alonso, and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Eng. 40, 2517 (2001).

Bian, Z.

M. Gao, Z. Bian, Z. Dong, Z. Fang, and R. Qu, Infra. Laser Eng. (in Chinese) 39, 892 (2010).

Brentano, P. Von

Budelsky, D.

Canabal, H.

H. Canabal, J. Alonso, and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Eng. 40, 2517 (2001).

Cao, X.

J. Zhang, T. Fan, and X. Cao, Proc. SPIE 6723, 672315 (2007).

B. Yuan, H. Yan, X. Cao, and B. Lin, Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, 278 (2007).

Castagne, M.

J. Fillard, J. Lussert, M. Castagne, and H. M'timet, Signal Proc.: Image Communication 6, 281 (1994).

J. P. Fillard, H. M'timet, J. M. Lussert, and M. Castagne, Opt. Eng. 32, 2936 (1993).

Chen, L.

Q. Li, L. Gao, and L. Chen, Opto-Electron. Eng. (in Chinese) 26, 22 (1999).

Chen, T.

T. Chen and H. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 22, 1396 (2002).

Chen, W.

W. Chen, H. Yang, X. Su, and S. Tan, Opt. Eng. 38, 1029 (1999).

Chou, C.

C. Chou, L. Y. Chou, C. K. Peng, Y. C. Huang, and K. C. Fan, Inter. J. Mach. Tools Manu. 37, 579 (1997).

Chou, L. Y.

C. Chou, L. Y. Chou, C. K. Peng, Y. C. Huang, and K. C. Fan, Inter. J. Mach. Tools Manu. 37, 579 (1997).

Clarke, T. A.

M. R. Shortis, T. A. Clarke, and T. Short, Proc. SPIE 2350, 239 (1994).

Ding, X.

X. Ding, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and W. Feng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 99 (2008).

Dong, Z.

M. Gao, Z. Bian, Z. Dong, Z. Fang, and R. Qu, Infra. Laser Eng. (in Chinese) 39, 892 (2010).

Fan, K. C.

C. Chou, L. Y. Chou, C. K. Peng, Y. C. Huang, and K. C. Fan, Inter. J. Mach. Tools Manu. 37, 579 (1997).

Fan, T.

J. Zhang, T. Fan, and X. Cao, Proc. SPIE 6723, 672315 (2007).

Fang, Z.

M. Gao, Z. Bian, Z. Dong, Z. Fang, and R. Qu, Infra. Laser Eng. (in Chinese) 39, 892 (2010).

Feng, W.

X. Ding, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and W. Feng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 99 (2008).

Fillard, J.

J. Fillard, J. Lussert, M. Castagne, and H. M'timet, Signal Proc.: Image Communication 6, 281 (1994).

Fillard, J. P.

J. P. Fillard, H. M'timet, J. M. Lussert, and M. Castagne, Opt. Eng. 32, 2936 (1993).

J. P. Fillard, Opt. Eng. 31, 2465 (1992).

Foroosh, H.

M. Balci and H. Foroosh, IEEE Trans. Image Proc. 15, 1965 (2006).

Fujisawa, M.

Y. Morimoto and M. Fujisawa, Opt. Eng. 33, 3709 (1994).

Gao, L.

Q. Li, L. Gao, and L. Chen, Opto-Electron. Eng. (in Chinese) 26, 22 (1999).

Gao, M.

M. Gao, Z. Bian, Z. Dong, Z. Fang, and R. Qu, Infra. Laser Eng. (in Chinese) 39, 892 (2010).

Huang, Y. C.

C. Chou, L. Y. Chou, C. K. Peng, Y. C. Huang, and K. C. Fan, Inter. J. Mach. Tools Manu. 37, 579 (1997).

Kemao, Q.

Kremer, L.

Li, B.

B. Li, M. Wei, B. Ye, and Q. Song, Opt. Technol. (in Chinese) 32, 3 (2006).

Li, Q.

Q. Li, L. Gao, and L. Chen, Opto-Electron. Eng. (in Chinese) 26, 22 (1999).

Li, Y.

X. Ding, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and W. Feng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 99 (2008).

Lin, B.

Lin, Y.

Y. Lin, P. Zhang, and M. Zhao, Aviation Precision Manufacturing Technol. (in Chinese) 37, 35 (2001).

Long, X.

J.Yuan, X. Long, and K. Yang, Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 125106 (2005).

J. Yuan and X. Long, Rev. Sci. Instr. 74, 1362 (2003).

Lu, H.

T. Chen and H. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 22, 1396 (2002).

Lussert, J.

J. Fillard, J. Lussert, M. Castagne, and H. M'timet, Signal Proc.: Image Communication 6, 281 (1994).

Lussert, J. M.

J. P. Fillard, H. M'timet, J. M. Lussert, and M. Castagne, Opt. Eng. 32, 2936 (1993).

Martinelli, P.

P. Martinelli, S. Musazzi, and U. Perini, Rev. Sci. Instr. 65, 1012 (1994).

Morimoto, Y.

Y. Morimoto and M. Fujisawa, Opt. Eng. 33, 3709 (1994).

M'timet, H.

J. Fillard, J. Lussert, M. Castagne, and H. M'timet, Signal Proc.: Image Communication 6, 281 (1994).

J. P. Fillard, H. M'timet, J. M. Lussert, and M. Castagne, Opt. Eng. 32, 2936 (1993).

Musazzi, S.

P. Martinelli, S. Musazzi, and U. Perini, Rev. Sci. Instr. 65, 1012 (1994).

Peng, C. K.

C. Chou, L. Y. Chou, C. K. Peng, Y. C. Huang, and K. C. Fan, Inter. J. Mach. Tools Manu. 37, 579 (1997).

Perini, U.

P. Martinelli, S. Musazzi, and U. Perini, Rev. Sci. Instr. 65, 1012 (1994).

Platte, D.

Qu, R.

M. Gao, Z. Bian, Z. Dong, Z. Fang, and R. Qu, Infra. Laser Eng. (in Chinese) 39, 892 (2010).

Short, T.

M. R. Shortis, T. A. Clarke, and T. Short, Proc. SPIE 2350, 239 (1994).

Shortis, M. R.

M. R. Shortis, T. A. Clarke, and T. Short, Proc. SPIE 2350, 239 (1994).

So, H.

H. So, IEEE Trans. Instr. Measure. 54, 2501 (2005).

Song, Q.

B. Li, M. Wei, B. Ye, and Q. Song, Opt. Technol. (in Chinese) 32, 3 (2006).

Su, X.

W. Chen, H. Yang, X. Su, and S. Tan, Opt. Eng. 38, 1029 (1999).

Tan, S.

W. Chen, H. Yang, X. Su, and S. Tan, Opt. Eng. 38, 1029 (1999).

Wei, M.

B. Li, M. Wei, B. Ye, and Q. Song, Opt. Technol. (in Chinese) 32, 3 (2006).

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu and Q. Yu, Proc. SPIE 6027, 60271Q (2006).

Yan, H.

Yang, H.

W. Chen, H. Yang, X. Su, and S. Tan, Opt. Eng. 38, 1029 (1999).

Yang, K.

J.Yuan, X. Long, and K. Yang, Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 125106 (2005).

Ye, B.

B. Li, M. Wei, B. Ye, and Q. Song, Opt. Technol. (in Chinese) 32, 3 (2006).

Yu, Q.

X. Ding, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and W. Feng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 99 (2008).

Y. Wu and Q. Yu, Proc. SPIE 6027, 60271Q (2006).

Yuan, B.

Yuan, J.

J. Yuan and X. Long, Rev. Sci. Instr. 74, 1362 (2003).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, T. Fan, and X. Cao, Proc. SPIE 6723, 672315 (2007).

Zhang, P.

Y. Lin, P. Zhang, and M. Zhao, Aviation Precision Manufacturing Technol. (in Chinese) 37, 35 (2001).

Zhao, M.

Y. Lin, P. Zhang, and M. Zhao, Aviation Precision Manufacturing Technol. (in Chinese) 37, 35 (2001).

Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) (2)

X. Ding, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and W. Feng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 99 (2008).

T. Chen and H. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 22, 1396 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Aviation Precision Manufacturing Technol. (in Chinese) (1)

Y. Lin, P. Zhang, and M. Zhao, Aviation Precision Manufacturing Technol. (in Chinese) 37, 35 (2001).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Trans. Image Proc. (1)

M. Balci and H. Foroosh, IEEE Trans. Image Proc. 15, 1965 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Instr. Measure. (1)

H. So, IEEE Trans. Instr. Measure. 54, 2501 (2005).

Infra. Laser Eng. (in Chinese) (1)

M. Gao, Z. Bian, Z. Dong, Z. Fang, and R. Qu, Infra. Laser Eng. (in Chinese) 39, 892 (2010).

Inter. J. Mach. Tools Manu. (1)

C. Chou, L. Y. Chou, C. K. Peng, Y. C. Huang, and K. C. Fan, Inter. J. Mach. Tools Manu. 37, 579 (1997).

Opt. Eng. (5)

J. P. Fillard, Opt. Eng. 31, 2465 (1992).

J. P. Fillard, H. M'timet, J. M. Lussert, and M. Castagne, Opt. Eng. 32, 2936 (1993).

H. Canabal, J. Alonso, and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Eng. 40, 2517 (2001).

Y. Morimoto and M. Fujisawa, Opt. Eng. 33, 3709 (1994).

W. Chen, H. Yang, X. Su, and S. Tan, Opt. Eng. 38, 1029 (1999).

Opt. Technol. (in Chinese) (1)

B. Li, M. Wei, B. Ye, and Q. Song, Opt. Technol. (in Chinese) 32, 3 (2006).

Opto-Electron. Eng. (in Chinese) (1)

Q. Li, L. Gao, and L. Chen, Opto-Electron. Eng. (in Chinese) 26, 22 (1999).

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. R. Shortis, T. A. Clarke, and T. Short, Proc. SPIE 2350, 239 (1994).

J. Zhang, T. Fan, and X. Cao, Proc. SPIE 6723, 672315 (2007).

Y. Wu and Q. Yu, Proc. SPIE 6027, 60271Q (2006).

Rev. Sci. Instr. (3)

P. Martinelli, S. Musazzi, and U. Perini, Rev. Sci. Instr. 65, 1012 (1994).

J. Yuan and X. Long, Rev. Sci. Instr. 74, 1362 (2003).

J.Yuan, X. Long, and K. Yang, Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 125106 (2005).

Signal Proc.: Image Communication (1)

J. Fillard, J. Lussert, M. Castagne, and H. M'timet, Signal Proc.: Image Communication 6, 281 (1994).

Other (2)

Texas Instruments, "TMS320F2812 Data Manual", http://focus.ti.com/docs/prod/ folders/print/tms320f2812.html.

Newport, "LDS-Vector Electronic Autocollimator User's Manual", http://search.newport.com/?q=*&x2=sku&q2=LDS-VECTOR.

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