Abstract

Tourmaline is an important functional and gem material. The current study examines pink, green, and brownish-green tourmalines from Altay deposit. Based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF) quantitative analyses and ultrariolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) spectral analyses in combination with annealing experiments, the color center of tourmaline is found to be related to the d-d transitions of ions or the d-d transitions of exchange coupled ions. Annealing treatment affects the color improvement of tourmaline crystals.

© 2011 Chinese Optics Letters

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2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

A. C. Zhang, R. C. Wang, S. Y. Jiang, H. Hu, and H. Zhang, Can. Mineral. 46, 41 (2008).

2007 (1)

B. J. Reddy, R. L. Frost, W. N. Martens, D. L. Wain, and J. T. Kloprogge, Vib. Spectrosc. 44, 42 (2007).

2006 (3)

J. Zhan, X. Hao, H. Liu, B. Huang, and X. Tao, J. Functional Mater. (in Chinese) 37, 524 (2006).

K. Jiang, T. Sun, L. Sun, and H. Li, J. Environmental Sci. 18, 1221 (2006).

C. Castaneda, S. G. Eeckhout, G. M. Costa, N. F. Botelho, and E. De Grave, Phys. Chem. Miner. 33, 207 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. Wang, X. Tao, and W. Wang, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) 24, 319 (2005).

2002 (2)

Y. Fuchs, M. Lagache, and J. Linares, Comptes. Rendus. Geosciences. 334, 245 (2002).

K. Krambrock, M. Pinheiro, S. Medeiros, K. Guedes, S. Schweizer, and J. M. Spaeth, Nuclear Instru. Meth. Phys. Res. Section B 191, 241 (2002).

2001 (1)

N. Garces, K. Stevens, L. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, J. Cryst. Growth 225, 435 (2001).

1999 (1)

F. C. Hawthorne and D. J. Henry, Eur. J. Mineral. 11, 201 (1999).

1998 (1)

R. Wu, S. Lin, F. Bai, and S. Zhang, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) 17, 371 (1998).

1996 (1)

Y. Wang, X. Kang, S. Wang, and Y. Liao, Mineral Res. Geo. (in Chinese). 10, 172 (1996).

1994 (1)

E. Ferrow, Hyperfine. Interact. 91, 689 (1994).

1993 (1)

M. Taran, A. Lebedev, and A. Platonov, Phys. Chem. Miner. 20, 209 (1993).

1988 (2)

M. B. De. Camargo and S. Isotani, Am. Mineral. 73, 172 (1988).

I. M. Reinitz and G. R. Rossman, Am. Mineral. 73, 822 (1988).

1986 (1)

G. Liu and H. Lu, China Geochemistry 5, 234 (1986).

1983 (1)

S. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. A 31, 183 (1983).

1973 (1)

P. G. Manning, Can. Mineral. 11, 971 (1973).

Bai, F.

R. Wu, S. Lin, F. Bai, and S. Zhang, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) 17, 371 (1998).

Botelho, N. F.

C. Castaneda, S. G. Eeckhout, G. M. Costa, N. F. Botelho, and E. De Grave, Phys. Chem. Miner. 33, 207 (2006).

Camargo, M. B. De.

M. B. De. Camargo and S. Isotani, Am. Mineral. 73, 172 (1988).

Cao, D.

Castaneda, C.

C. Castaneda, S. G. Eeckhout, G. M. Costa, N. F. Botelho, and E. De Grave, Phys. Chem. Miner. 33, 207 (2006).

Chen, J.

Cheng, Y.

Costa, G. M.

C. Castaneda, S. G. Eeckhout, G. M. Costa, N. F. Botelho, and E. De Grave, Phys. Chem. Miner. 33, 207 (2006).

DeYoreo, J.

N. Garces, K. Stevens, L. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, J. Cryst. Growth 225, 435 (2001).

Ding, Y.

Dong, Q.

Eeckhout, S. G.

C. Castaneda, S. G. Eeckhout, G. M. Costa, N. F. Botelho, and E. De Grave, Phys. Chem. Miner. 33, 207 (2006).

Ferrow, E.

E. Ferrow, Hyperfine. Interact. 91, 689 (1994).

Frost, R. L.

B. J. Reddy, R. L. Frost, W. N. Martens, D. L. Wain, and J. T. Kloprogge, Vib. Spectrosc. 44, 42 (2007).

Fuchs, Y.

Y. Fuchs, M. Lagache, and J. Linares, Comptes. Rendus. Geosciences. 334, 245 (2002).

Gao, L.

Garces, N.

N. Garces, K. Stevens, L. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, J. Cryst. Growth 225, 435 (2001).

Grave, E. De

C. Castaneda, S. G. Eeckhout, G. M. Costa, N. F. Botelho, and E. De Grave, Phys. Chem. Miner. 33, 207 (2006).

Guedes, K.

K. Krambrock, M. Pinheiro, S. Medeiros, K. Guedes, S. Schweizer, and J. M. Spaeth, Nuclear Instru. Meth. Phys. Res. Section B 191, 241 (2002).

Halliburton, L.

N. Garces, K. Stevens, L. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, J. Cryst. Growth 225, 435 (2001).

Hao, X.

J. Zhan, X. Hao, H. Liu, B. Huang, and X. Tao, J. Functional Mater. (in Chinese) 37, 524 (2006).

Hawthorne, F. C.

F. C. Hawthorne and D. J. Henry, Eur. J. Mineral. 11, 201 (1999).

Henry, D. J.

F. C. Hawthorne and D. J. Henry, Eur. J. Mineral. 11, 201 (1999).

Hu, H.

A. C. Zhang, R. C. Wang, S. Y. Jiang, H. Hu, and H. Zhang, Can. Mineral. 46, 41 (2008).

Huang, B.

J. Zhan, X. Hao, H. Liu, B. Huang, and X. Tao, J. Functional Mater. (in Chinese) 37, 524 (2006).

Isotani, S.

M. B. De. Camargo and S. Isotani, Am. Mineral. 73, 172 (1988).

Jiang, K.

K. Jiang, T. Sun, L. Sun, and H. Li, J. Environmental Sci. 18, 1221 (2006).

Jiang, S. Y.

A. C. Zhang, R. C. Wang, S. Y. Jiang, H. Hu, and H. Zhang, Can. Mineral. 46, 41 (2008).

Kang, X.

Y. Wang, X. Kang, S. Wang, and Y. Liao, Mineral Res. Geo. (in Chinese). 10, 172 (1996).

Kloprogge, J. T.

B. J. Reddy, R. L. Frost, W. N. Martens, D. L. Wain, and J. T. Kloprogge, Vib. Spectrosc. 44, 42 (2007).

Krambrock, K.

K. Krambrock, M. Pinheiro, S. Medeiros, K. Guedes, S. Schweizer, and J. M. Spaeth, Nuclear Instru. Meth. Phys. Res. Section B 191, 241 (2002).

Lagache, M.

Y. Fuchs, M. Lagache, and J. Linares, Comptes. Rendus. Geosciences. 334, 245 (2002).

Lebedev, A.

M. Taran, A. Lebedev, and A. Platonov, Phys. Chem. Miner. 20, 209 (1993).

Li, H.

K. Jiang, T. Sun, L. Sun, and H. Li, J. Environmental Sci. 18, 1221 (2006).

Liao, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Kang, S. Wang, and Y. Liao, Mineral Res. Geo. (in Chinese). 10, 172 (1996).

Lin, S.

R. Wu, S. Lin, F. Bai, and S. Zhang, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) 17, 371 (1998).

Linares, J.

Y. Fuchs, M. Lagache, and J. Linares, Comptes. Rendus. Geosciences. 334, 245 (2002).

Liu, G.

G. Liu and H. Lu, China Geochemistry 5, 234 (1986).

Liu, H.

Z. Lv, K. Zhao, H. Liu, N. Zhou, H. Zhao, and L. Gao, Chin. Opt. Lett. 7, 718 (2009).

J. Zhan, X. Hao, H. Liu, B. Huang, and X. Tao, J. Functional Mater. (in Chinese) 37, 524 (2006).

Lu, H.

G. Liu and H. Lu, China Geochemistry 5, 234 (1986).

Lv, Z.

Manning, P. G.

P. G. Manning, Can. Mineral. 11, 971 (1973).

Martens, W. N.

B. J. Reddy, R. L. Frost, W. N. Martens, D. L. Wain, and J. T. Kloprogge, Vib. Spectrosc. 44, 42 (2007).

Medeiros, S.

K. Krambrock, M. Pinheiro, S. Medeiros, K. Guedes, S. Schweizer, and J. M. Spaeth, Nuclear Instru. Meth. Phys. Res. Section B 191, 241 (2002).

Pinheiro, M.

K. Krambrock, M. Pinheiro, S. Medeiros, K. Guedes, S. Schweizer, and J. M. Spaeth, Nuclear Instru. Meth. Phys. Res. Section B 191, 241 (2002).

Platonov, A.

M. Taran, A. Lebedev, and A. Platonov, Phys. Chem. Miner. 20, 209 (1993).

Reddy, B. J.

B. J. Reddy, R. L. Frost, W. N. Martens, D. L. Wain, and J. T. Kloprogge, Vib. Spectrosc. 44, 42 (2007).

Reinitz, I. M.

I. M. Reinitz and G. R. Rossman, Am. Mineral. 73, 822 (1988).

Rossman, G. R.

I. M. Reinitz and G. R. Rossman, Am. Mineral. 73, 822 (1988).

Schweizer, S.

K. Krambrock, M. Pinheiro, S. Medeiros, K. Guedes, S. Schweizer, and J. M. Spaeth, Nuclear Instru. Meth. Phys. Res. Section B 191, 241 (2002).

Spaeth, J. M.

K. Krambrock, M. Pinheiro, S. Medeiros, K. Guedes, S. Schweizer, and J. M. Spaeth, Nuclear Instru. Meth. Phys. Res. Section B 191, 241 (2002).

Stevens, K.

N. Garces, K. Stevens, L. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, J. Cryst. Growth 225, 435 (2001).

Sun, L.

K. Jiang, T. Sun, L. Sun, and H. Li, J. Environmental Sci. 18, 1221 (2006).

Sun, T.

K. Jiang, T. Sun, L. Sun, and H. Li, J. Environmental Sci. 18, 1221 (2006).

Tao, X.

J. Zhan, X. Hao, H. Liu, B. Huang, and X. Tao, J. Functional Mater. (in Chinese) 37, 524 (2006).

J. Wang, X. Tao, and W. Wang, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) 24, 319 (2005).

Taran, M.

M. Taran, A. Lebedev, and A. Platonov, Phys. Chem. Miner. 20, 209 (1993).

Wain, D. L.

B. J. Reddy, R. L. Frost, W. N. Martens, D. L. Wain, and J. T. Kloprogge, Vib. Spectrosc. 44, 42 (2007).

Wang, J.

J. Wang, X. Tao, and W. Wang, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) 24, 319 (2005).

Wang, R. C.

A. C. Zhang, R. C. Wang, S. Y. Jiang, H. Hu, and H. Zhang, Can. Mineral. 46, 41 (2008).

Wang, S.

Y. Wang, X. Kang, S. Wang, and Y. Liao, Mineral Res. Geo. (in Chinese). 10, 172 (1996).

Wang, W.

J. Wang, X. Tao, and W. Wang, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) 24, 319 (2005).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Kang, S. Wang, and Y. Liao, Mineral Res. Geo. (in Chinese). 10, 172 (1996).

Wu, R.

R. Wu, S. Lin, F. Bai, and S. Zhang, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) 17, 371 (1998).

Yamaguchi, S.

S. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. A 31, 183 (1983).

Yan, M.

N. Garces, K. Stevens, L. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, J. Cryst. Growth 225, 435 (2001).

Zaitseva, N.

N. Garces, K. Stevens, L. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, J. Cryst. Growth 225, 435 (2001).

Zhan, J.

J. Zhan, X. Hao, H. Liu, B. Huang, and X. Tao, J. Functional Mater. (in Chinese) 37, 524 (2006).

Zhang, A. C.

A. C. Zhang, R. C. Wang, S. Y. Jiang, H. Hu, and H. Zhang, Can. Mineral. 46, 41 (2008).

Zhang, H.

A. C. Zhang, R. C. Wang, S. Y. Jiang, H. Hu, and H. Zhang, Can. Mineral. 46, 41 (2008).

Zhang, S.

R. Wu, S. Lin, F. Bai, and S. Zhang, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) 17, 371 (1998).

Zhao, G.

Zhao, H.

Zhao, K.

Zhou, N.

Zou, J.

Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) (2)

J. Wang, X. Tao, and W. Wang, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) 24, 319 (2005).

R. Wu, S. Lin, F. Bai, and S. Zhang, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica (in Chinese) 17, 371 (1998).

Am. Mineral. (2)

M. B. De. Camargo and S. Isotani, Am. Mineral. 73, 172 (1988).

I. M. Reinitz and G. R. Rossman, Am. Mineral. 73, 822 (1988).

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. A 31, 183 (1983).

Can. Mineral. (2)

P. G. Manning, Can. Mineral. 11, 971 (1973).

A. C. Zhang, R. C. Wang, S. Y. Jiang, H. Hu, and H. Zhang, Can. Mineral. 46, 41 (2008).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (3)

China Geochemistry (1)

G. Liu and H. Lu, China Geochemistry 5, 234 (1986).

Comptes. Rendus. Geosciences. (1)

Y. Fuchs, M. Lagache, and J. Linares, Comptes. Rendus. Geosciences. 334, 245 (2002).

Eur. J. Mineral. (1)

F. C. Hawthorne and D. J. Henry, Eur. J. Mineral. 11, 201 (1999).

Hyperfine. Interact. (1)

E. Ferrow, Hyperfine. Interact. 91, 689 (1994).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

N. Garces, K. Stevens, L. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, J. Cryst. Growth 225, 435 (2001).

J. Environmental Sci. (1)

K. Jiang, T. Sun, L. Sun, and H. Li, J. Environmental Sci. 18, 1221 (2006).

J. Functional Mater. (in Chinese) (1)

J. Zhan, X. Hao, H. Liu, B. Huang, and X. Tao, J. Functional Mater. (in Chinese) 37, 524 (2006).

Mineral Res. Geo. (in Chinese). (1)

Y. Wang, X. Kang, S. Wang, and Y. Liao, Mineral Res. Geo. (in Chinese). 10, 172 (1996).

Nuclear Instru. Meth. Phys. Res. Section B (1)

K. Krambrock, M. Pinheiro, S. Medeiros, K. Guedes, S. Schweizer, and J. M. Spaeth, Nuclear Instru. Meth. Phys. Res. Section B 191, 241 (2002).

Phys. Chem. Miner. (2)

C. Castaneda, S. G. Eeckhout, G. M. Costa, N. F. Botelho, and E. De Grave, Phys. Chem. Miner. 33, 207 (2006).

M. Taran, A. Lebedev, and A. Platonov, Phys. Chem. Miner. 20, 209 (1993).

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

B. J. Reddy, R. L. Frost, W. N. Martens, D. L. Wain, and J. T. Kloprogge, Vib. Spectrosc. 44, 42 (2007).

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