Abstract

Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green, yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed. Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions. Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed. Based on the chromatic (protan, deutan, tritan) thresholds and using scaled cone signals, we predict the unique hue changes with ageing. A dependency on age for unique red and unique yellow for predicted hue angle is found. We conclude that the chromatic sensitivity deteriorates significantly with age, whereas the appearance of unique hues is much less affected, remaining almost constant despite the known changes in the ocular media.

© 2011 Chinese Optics Letters

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2010

S. Wuerger, K. Xiao, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, Ophthal Physl. Opt. 30, 653 (2010).

2008

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, Visual Neuro-science 25, 445 (2008).

2007

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, and S. J. Dain, Vision Research 47, 2124 (2007).

2005

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, Vision Research 45, 3210 (2005).

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2143 (2005).

2002

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwaj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, G. Madan, and E. Vaithilingham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1951 ( 2002).

K. Okajima N. Tsuchiya, and K. Yamashita, Proc. SPIE 4421, 259 (2002).

2001

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L Barbur, Vision Research 41, 23 (2001).

2000

1998

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, and E. Baron, Vision Research 38, 601 (1998).

1996

J. S. Werner, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 15, 621 (1996).

1994

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, Vision Research 34, 1279 (1994).

1993

B. E. Shefrin and J. S. Werner, Color Research and Application 18, 380 (1993).

1990

1988

1955

D. Jameson and L. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 45, 546 (1955).

Abramov, I.

Atkinson, P.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, Vision Research 45, 3210 (2005).

Bandeira, M. L.

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, Visual Neuro-science 25, 445 (2008).

Barbur, J. L

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L Barbur, Vision Research 41, 23 (2001).

Baron, E.

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, and E. Baron, Vision Research 38, 601 (1998).

Baron, R.

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, and E. Baron, Vision Research 38, 601 (1998).

Bharadwaj, S.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwaj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, G. Madan, and E. Vaithilingham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1951 ( 2002).

Boon, M. Y.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, and S. J. Dain, Vision Research 47, 2124 (2007).

Costa, M. F.

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, Visual Neuro-science 25, 445 (2008).

Cropper, S.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, Vision Research 45, 3210 (2005).

Dain, S. J.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, and S. J. Dain, Vision Research 47, 2124 (2007).

Fu, C.

S. Wuerger, K. Xiao, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, Ophthal Physl. Opt. 30, 653 (2010).

Gordon, J.

Goulart, P. R. K.

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, Visual Neuro-science 25, 445 (2008).

Hurvich, L.

D. Jameson and L. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 45, 546 (1955).

Jaikumar, J.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwaj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, G. Madan, and E. Vaithilingham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1951 ( 2002).

Jameson, D.

D. Jameson and L. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 45, 546 (1955).

Karatzas, D.

S. Wuerger, K. Xiao, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, Ophthal Physl. Opt. 30, 653 (2010).

Knoblauch, K.

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L Barbur, Vision Research 41, 23 (2001).

Madan, G.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwaj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, G. Madan, and E. Vaithilingham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1951 ( 2002).

Malkoc, G.

Miyahara, E.

Mollon, J. D.

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, Vision Research 34, 1279 (1994).

Oiwa, N. N.

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, Visual Neuro-science 25, 445 (2008).

Pokorny, J.

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, and E. Baron, Vision Research 38, 601 (1998).

Raker, V. E.

Reffin, J. P.

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, Vision Research 34, 1279 (1994).

Regan, B. C.

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, Vision Research 34, 1279 (1994).

Shefrin, B. E.

B. E. Shefrin and J. S. Werner, Color Research and Application 18, 380 (1993).

B. E. Shefrin and J. S. Werner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305 (1990).

Smith, V. C.

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, and E. Baron, Vision Research 38, 601 (1998).

Steele, V. G.

Suttle, C. M.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, and S. J. Dain, Vision Research 47, 2124 (2007).

Tsubota, D.

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, Visual Neuro-science 25, 445 (2008).

Tsuchiya, K. Okajima N.

K. Okajima N. Tsuchiya, and K. Yamashita, Proc. SPIE 4421, 259 (2002).

Vaithilingham, E.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwaj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, G. Madan, and E. Vaithilingham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1951 ( 2002).

Ventura, D. F.

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, Visual Neuro-science 25, 445 (2008).

Verma, R.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwaj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, G. Madan, and E. Vaithilingham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1951 ( 2002).

Vital-Durand, F.

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L Barbur, Vision Research 41, 23 (2001).

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol 395, 577 (1988).

Webster, M. A.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwaj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, G. Madan, and E. Vaithilingham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1951 ( 2002).

M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V. E. Raker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1545 (2000).

M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V. E. Raker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1535 (2000).

Webster, S. M.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwaj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, G. Madan, and E. Vaithilingham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1951 ( 2002).

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 15, 621 (1996).

B. E. Shefrin and J. S. Werner, Color Research and Application 18, 380 (1993).

B. E. Shefrin and J. S. Werner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305 (1990).

J. S. Werner and V. G. Steele, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122 (1988).

Wuerger, S.

S. Wuerger, K. Xiao, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, Ophthal Physl. Opt. 30, 653 (2010).

Wuerger, S. M.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, Vision Research 45, 3210 (2005).

Xiao, K.

S. Wuerger, K. Xiao, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, Ophthal Physl. Opt. 30, 653 (2010).

Yamashita, K.

K. Okajima N. Tsuchiya, and K. Yamashita, Proc. SPIE 4421, 259 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwaj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, G. Madan, and E. Vaithilingham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1951 ( 2002).

Color Research and Application

B. E. Shefrin and J. S. Werner, Color Research and Application 18, 380 (1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Physiol

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol 395, 577 (1988).

Ophthal Physl. Opt.

S. Wuerger, K. Xiao, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, Ophthal Physl. Opt. 30, 653 (2010).

Proc. SPIE

K. Okajima N. Tsuchiya, and K. Yamashita, Proc. SPIE 4421, 259 (2002).

Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

J. S. Werner, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 15, 621 (1996).

Vision Research

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, Vision Research 34, 1279 (1994).

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, Vision Research 45, 3210 (2005).

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L Barbur, Vision Research 41, 23 (2001).

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, and S. J. Dain, Vision Research 47, 2124 (2007).

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, and E. Baron, Vision Research 38, 601 (1998).

Visual Neuro-science

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, Visual Neuro-science 25, 445 (2008).

Other

J. D. Mollon, J. Pororny and K. Knoblauch, Normal and Defective Colour Vision, (Oxford University Press, New York, 2003).

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: Loci of unique hues and hue uniformity. Color Research & Application, DOI: 10.1002/col.20637 (2010)

R. W. G. Hunt, Measuring Colour (Fountain Press, Kingston, 1998).

E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense (Harvard University Press, Massachusetts, 1964).

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