Abstract

Using numerical simulations, the nonlinear transmission performance of polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) coherent systems is studied. It is found that inter-channel cross-polarization modulation (XPolM) induced nonlinear polarization scattering can significantly degrade the transmission performance of PDM-QPSK coherent systems and change the perspective of dispersion management in optical coherent transmission systems. Some techniques to mitigate nonlinear polarization scattering in dispersion-managed PDM coherent transmission systems are discussed, including the use of time-interleaved return-to-zero (RZ) PDM formats, the use of periodic-group-delay PGD dispersion compensators, and the judicious addition of some polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) in the transmission link. It is shown that if nonlinear polarization scattering can be well mitigated, a polarization multiplexed optical coherent transmission system with dispersion management could perform better than that without it.

© 2010 Chinese Optics Letters

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  1. A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).
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  10. B. C. Collings and L. Boivin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1582 (2000).
  11. C. Xie, Z. Wang, S. Chandrasekhar, and X. Liu, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2009 OTuD6 (2009).
  12. C. Xie, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 274 (2009).
  13. C. Xie, Opt. Express 17, 4815 (2009).
  14. C. Xie, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications 2009 P4.08 (2009).
  15. C. Xie, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2009 OWE1 (2009).
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  17. D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk, and P. K. A. Wai, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1753 (1997).
  18. J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, PNAS 97, 4541 (2000).
  19. D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 12 (2006).
  20. S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, Opt. Express 15, 2120 (2007).
  21. D. N. Godard, IEEE Trans. Commun. 28, 1867 (1980).
  22. L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591 (2004).
  23. X. Wei, X. Liu, C. Xie, and L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 28, 983 (2003).
  24. H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, C. Xie, and P. A. Andrekson, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2204 (2002).
  25. P. Serena, H. Rossi, and A. Bononi, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications 2009 10.4.3 (2009).

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591 (2004).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, C. Xie, and P. A. Andrekson, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2204 (2002).

2000 (2)

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, PNAS 97, 4541 (2000).

B. C. Collings and L. Boivin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1582 (2000).

1997 (1)

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk, and P. K. A. Wai, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1753 (1997).

1996 (2)

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 148 (1996).

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

1995 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and F. Heismann, Opt. Lett. 20, 2060 (1995).

1980 (1)

D. N. Godard, IEEE Trans. Commun. 28, 1867 (1980).

Andrekson, P. A.

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, C. Xie, and P. A. Andrekson, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2204 (2002).

Bayvel, P.

Boivin, L.

B. C. Collings and L. Boivin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1582 (2000).

Burrows, E. C.

Centanni, J. C.

Charlet, G.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591 (2004).

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

Collings, B. C.

B. C. Collings and L. Boivin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1582 (2000).

Derosier, R. M.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

Doerr, C. R.

Essiambre, R.-J.

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591 (2004).

Forghieri, F.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

Gavioli, G.

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 79(2008).

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591 (2004).

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

Godard, D. N.

D. N. Godard, IEEE Trans. Commun. 28, 1867 (1980).

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, PNAS 97, 4541 (2000).

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and F. Heismann, Opt. Lett. 20, 2060 (1995).

Heismann, F.

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and F. Heismann, Opt. Lett. 20, 2060 (1995).

Higuma, K.

Jopson, R. M.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

Karlsson, M.

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, C. Xie, and P. A. Andrekson, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2204 (2002).

Katoh, K.

Kawanishi, T.

Kikuchi, K.

Killey, R. I.

Kogelnik, H.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, PNAS 97, 4541 (2000).

Liu, X.

Lucero, A. J.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

Ly-Gagnon, D.-S.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk, and P. K. A. Wai, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1753 (1997).

McCormick, A. R.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

Menyuk, C. R.

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk, and P. K. A. Wai, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1753 (1997).

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 148 (1996).

Mollenauer, L. F.

X. Wei, X. Liu, C. Xie, and L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 28, 983 (2003).

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and F. Heismann, Opt. Lett. 20, 2060 (1995).

Sakamoto, T.

Savory, S. J.

Sulhoff, J. W.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

Sun, Y.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

Sunnerud, H.

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, C. Xie, and P. A. Andrekson, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2204 (2002).

Tkach, R. W.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

Tran, P.

Tsukamoto, S.

Wai, P. K. A.

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk, and P. K. A. Wai, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1753 (1997).

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 148 (1996).

Wang, Z.

Wei, X.

Wickham, L. K.

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591 (2004).

Winzer, P. J.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 79(2008).

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591 (2004).

Wolf, C.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

Xie, C.

Z. Wang and C. Xie, Opt. Express 17, 3183 (2009).

C. Xie, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 274 (2009).

C. Xie, Opt. Express 17, 4815 (2009).

X. Wei, X. Liu, C. Xie, and L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 28, 983 (2003).

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, C. Xie, and P. A. Andrekson, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2204 (2002).

Zyskind, J. L.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264(1996).

B. C. Collings and L. Boivin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1582 (2000).

C. Xie, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 274 (2009).

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

D. N. Godard, IEEE Trans. Commun. 28, 1867 (1980).

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, C. Xie, and P. A. Andrekson, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2204 (2002).

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 148 (1996).

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk, and P. K. A. Wai, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1753 (1997).

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 12 (2006).

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 79(2008).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and F. Heismann, Opt. Lett. 20, 2060 (1995).

X. Wei, X. Liu, C. Xie, and L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 28, 983 (2003).

PNAS (1)

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, PNAS 97, 4541 (2000).

Other (9)

C. Xie, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications 2009 P4.08 (2009).

C. Xie, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2009 OWE1 (2009).

H. Wernz, S. Herbst, S. Bayer, H. Griesser, E. Martins, C. F¨urst, B. Koch, V. Mirvoda, R. No'e, A. Ehrhardt, L. Sch¨urer, S. Vorbeck, M. Schneiders, D. Breuer, and R.-P. Braun, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications 2009 3.4.3 (2009).

C. Xie, S. Chandrasekhar, and X. Liu, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications 2007 10.4.3 (2007).

C. Xie, Z. Wang, S. Chandrasekhar, and X. Liu, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2009 OTuD6 (2009).

S. J. Savory, A. D. Stewart, S. Wood, G. Gavioli, M. G. Taylor, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications 2006 Th2.5.5 (2006).

C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, and M. O'Sullivan, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2007 PDP16 (2007).

M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, C. Koebele, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications 2009 PD2.5 (2009).

P. Serena, H. Rossi, and A. Bononi, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications 2009 10.4.3 (2009).

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