Abstract

Compared with the traditional image intensifier with phosphor screen readout, the photon-counting imaging detector with charge induction readout is more beneficial in several aspects (e.g., good imaging properties and time resolution) to astronomy, reconnaissance, bioluminescence, and materials research. However, the annealing temperature during the tube-making process can affect the properties of the Ge film, and consequently impair the performance of the detector. Therefore, the influence of annealing temperature on Ge film and on the detector is studied in order to determine the crucial parameters. The Ge films are prepared on ceramic and quartz glass by the use of an electron gun. They are analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resistance meter, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the optimum substrate and annealing temperature are ceramic plate and 250 ?, respectively.

© 2010 Chinese Optics Letters

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  2. M. Lindner, S. Elstein, and P. Lindner, Proc. SPIE 3434, 22 (1998).
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2009

W. Li, B. Zhao, F. Zhao, and X. Cao, Acta Photon. Sin. (in Chinese) 38, 1353 (2009).

2008

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Acta Phys. Sin. (in Chinese) 57, 4238 (2008).

X. Zhu, B. Zhao, Y. Liu, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, and W. Zou, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1925 (2008).

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, W. Li, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 661 (2008).

2007

J. M. Maia, D. Mormann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 580, 373 (2007).

2004

M. S. Dixit, J. Dubeau, J. P. Martin, and K. Sachs, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 518, 721 (2004).

J. H. Barnes IV and G. M. Hieftje, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 238, 33 (2004).

2003

J. S. Lapington, S. Chakrabati, T. Cook, J. C. Gsell, and V. T. Gsell, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 513, 159 (2003).

2002

O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 477, 256 (2002).

X. Xu and J. Guo, Proc. SPIE 4919, 536 (2002).

2000

K. Hoepfner and W. Schmidt-Parzefall, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 440, 46 (2000).

1998

M. Lindner, S. Elstein, and P. Lindner, Proc. SPIE 3434, 22 (1998).

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dorner, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).

1986

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, and R. F. Malina, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 33, 724 (1986).

1982

G. Battistoni, P. Campana, V. Chiarella, U. Denni, E. Iarocci, and G. Nicoletti, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 202, 459 (1982).

1981

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, and H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).

Anger, H. O.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, and H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).

Battistoni, G.

G. Battistoni, P. Campana, V. Chiarella, U. Denni, E. Iarocci, and G. Nicoletti, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 202, 459 (1982).

Bixler, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, and R. F. Malina, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 33, 724 (1986).

Bowyer, S.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, and R. F. Malina, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 33, 724 (1986).

Breskin, A.

J. M. Maia, D. Mormann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 580, 373 (2007).

Campana, P.

G. Battistoni, P. Campana, V. Chiarella, U. Denni, E. Iarocci, and G. Nicoletti, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 202, 459 (1982).

Cao, X.

W. Li, B. Zhao, F. Zhao, and X. Cao, Acta Photon. Sin. (in Chinese) 38, 1353 (2009).

Chakrabati, S.

J. S. Lapington, S. Chakrabati, T. Cook, J. C. Gsell, and V. T. Gsell, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 513, 159 (2003).

Chechik, R.

J. M. Maia, D. Mormann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 580, 373 (2007).

Chiarella, V.

G. Battistoni, P. Campana, V. Chiarella, U. Denni, E. Iarocci, and G. Nicoletti, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 202, 459 (1982).

Cook, T.

J. S. Lapington, S. Chakrabati, T. Cook, J. C. Gsell, and V. T. Gsell, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 513, 159 (2003).

Denni, U.

G. Battistoni, P. Campana, V. Chiarella, U. Denni, E. Iarocci, and G. Nicoletti, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 202, 459 (1982).

Dixit, M. S.

M. S. Dixit, J. Dubeau, J. P. Martin, and K. Sachs, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 518, 721 (2004).

Dorner, R.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dorner, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).

Dubeau, J.

M. S. Dixit, J. Dubeau, J. P. Martin, and K. Sachs, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 518, 721 (2004).

Elstein, S.

M. Lindner, S. Elstein, and P. Lindner, Proc. SPIE 3434, 22 (1998).

Gsell, J. C.

J. S. Lapington, S. Chakrabati, T. Cook, J. C. Gsell, and V. T. Gsell, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 513, 159 (2003).

Gsell, V. T.

J. S. Lapington, S. Chakrabati, T. Cook, J. C. Gsell, and V. T. Gsell, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 513, 159 (2003).

Guo, J.

X. Xu and J. Guo, Proc. SPIE 4919, 536 (2002).

Hieftje, G. M.

J. H. Barnes IV and G. M. Hieftje, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 238, 33 (2004).

Hoepfner, K.

K. Hoepfner and W. Schmidt-Parzefall, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 440, 46 (2000).

Iarocci, E.

G. Battistoni, P. Campana, V. Chiarella, U. Denni, E. Iarocci, and G. Nicoletti, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 202, 459 (1982).

IV, J. H. Barnes

J. H. Barnes IV and G. M. Hieftje, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 238, 33 (2004).

Jagutzki, O.

O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 477, 256 (2002).

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dorner, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).

Jelinsky, P.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, and H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).

Lampton, M.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, and R. F. Malina, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 33, 724 (1986).

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, and H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).

Lapington, J. S.

J. S. Lapington, S. Chakrabati, T. Cook, J. C. Gsell, and V. T. Gsell, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 513, 159 (2003).

O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 477, 256 (2002).

Li, W.

W. Li, B. Zhao, F. Zhao, and X. Cao, Acta Photon. Sin. (in Chinese) 38, 1353 (2009).

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, W. Li, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 661 (2008).

Lindner, M.

M. Lindner, S. Elstein, and P. Lindner, Proc. SPIE 3434, 22 (1998).

Lindner, P.

M. Lindner, S. Elstein, and P. Lindner, Proc. SPIE 3434, 22 (1998).

Liu, Y.

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Acta Phys. Sin. (in Chinese) 57, 4238 (2008).

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, W. Li, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 661 (2008).

X. Zhu, B. Zhao, Y. Liu, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, and W. Zou, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1925 (2008).

Maia, J. M.

J. M. Maia, D. Mormann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 580, 373 (2007).

Malina, R. F.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, and R. F. Malina, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 33, 724 (1986).

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, and H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).

Martin, C.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, and H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).

Martin, J. P.

M. S. Dixit, J. Dubeau, J. P. Martin, and K. Sachs, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 518, 721 (2004).

Mergel, V.

O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 477, 256 (2002).

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dorner, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).

Meyer, U.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dorner, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).

Miao, Z.

X. Zhu, B. Zhao, Y. Liu, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, and W. Zou, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1925 (2008).

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, W. Li, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 661 (2008).

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Acta Phys. Sin. (in Chinese) 57, 4238 (2008).

Mormann, D.

J. M. Maia, D. Mormann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 580, 373 (2007).

Nicoletti, G.

G. Battistoni, P. Campana, V. Chiarella, U. Denni, E. Iarocci, and G. Nicoletti, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 202, 459 (1982).

Sachs, K.

M. S. Dixit, J. Dubeau, J. P. Martin, and K. Sachs, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 518, 721 (2004).

Santos, J. M. F. dos

J. M. Maia, D. Mormann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 580, 373 (2007).

Schmidt-Bocking, H.

O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 477, 256 (2002).

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dorner, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).

Schmidt-Parzefall, W.

K. Hoepfner and W. Schmidt-Parzefall, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 440, 46 (2000).

Siegmund, O. H. W.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, and R. F. Malina, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 33, 724 (1986).

Spielberger, L.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dorner, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).

Spillman, U.

O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 477, 256 (2002).

Ullmann-Pfleger, K.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dorner, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).

Veloso, J. F. C. A.

J. M. Maia, D. Mormann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 580, 373 (2007).

Worth, L. B. C.

O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 477, 256 (2002).

Xu, X.

X. Xu and J. Guo, Proc. SPIE 4919, 536 (2002).

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, W. Li, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 661 (2008).

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Acta Phys. Sin. (in Chinese) 57, 4238 (2008).

X. Zhu, B. Zhao, Y. Liu, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, and W. Zou, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1925 (2008).

Zhao, B.

W. Li, B. Zhao, F. Zhao, and X. Cao, Acta Photon. Sin. (in Chinese) 38, 1353 (2009).

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, W. Li, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 661 (2008).

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Acta Phys. Sin. (in Chinese) 57, 4238 (2008).

X. Zhu, B. Zhao, Y. Liu, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, and W. Zou, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1925 (2008).

Zhao, F.

W. Li, B. Zhao, F. Zhao, and X. Cao, Acta Photon. Sin. (in Chinese) 38, 1353 (2009).

Zhu, X.

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, W. Li, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 661 (2008).

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Acta Phys. Sin. (in Chinese) 57, 4238 (2008).

X. Zhu, B. Zhao, Y. Liu, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, and W. Zou, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1925 (2008).

Zou, W.

X. Zhu, B. Zhao, Y. Liu, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, and W. Zou, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1925 (2008).

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Acta Phys. Sin. (in Chinese) 57, 4238 (2008).

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, W. Li, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 661 (2008).

Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese)

X. Zhu, B. Zhao, Y. Liu, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, and W. Zou, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1925 (2008).

Acta Photon. Sin. (in Chinese)

W. Li, B. Zhao, F. Zhao, and X. Cao, Acta Photon. Sin. (in Chinese) 38, 1353 (2009).

Acta Phys. Sin. (in Chinese)

X. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, and W. Zou, Acta Phys. Sin. (in Chinese) 57, 4238 (2008).

Chin. Opt. Lett.

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, and R. F. Malina, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 33, 724 (1986).

Int. J. Mass Spectrom.

J. H. Barnes IV and G. M. Hieftje, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 238, 33 (2004).

Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A

O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 477, 256 (2002).

J. S. Lapington, S. Chakrabati, T. Cook, J. C. Gsell, and V. T. Gsell, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 513, 159 (2003).

J. M. Maia, D. Mormann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 580, 373 (2007).

M. S. Dixit, J. Dubeau, J. P. Martin, and K. Sachs, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 518, 721 (2004).

K. Hoepfner and W. Schmidt-Parzefall, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 440, 46 (2000).

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A

G. Battistoni, P. Campana, V. Chiarella, U. Denni, E. Iarocci, and G. Nicoletti, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 202, 459 (1982).

Proc. SPIE

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dorner, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).

M. Lindner, S. Elstein, and P. Lindner, Proc. SPIE 3434, 22 (1998).

X. Xu and J. Guo, Proc. SPIE 4919, 536 (2002).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, and H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).

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