Abstract

A novel micromirror based on the PolyMUMPs process is designed and presented. The hexagonal micromirror with a diameter of 450 ?m consists of three supporting bilayer cantilevers and a mirror plate. The bilayer cantilevers, formed with a polysilicon layer and a gold layer, elevate the mirror plate according to residual stress-induced bending. Both analytical and finite element analysis (FEA) models are built to calculate the elevated height of the free end of the cantilever. The analytical solution is in accordance with the FEA simulation results, with longitudinal stresses applied only. Results of a three-dimensional (3D) simulation with two direction stresses applied also show the elevated height to be proportional to the width of the cantilever and the length of the gold layer. Due to the torque of the joint, the elevated heights of the two kinds of cantilevers assembled with the mirror plates are much smaller than those of the free end of the cantilevers. Both micromirrors with different cantilevers are fabricated. The elevated heights of the fabricated micromirrors are measured using Veeco optical profiler, which show good coincidence with simulation results.

© 2010 Chinese Optics Letters

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Q. Sun, M. Cai, N. Y. Wang, and E. Cretu, Proc. SPIE 7510, 751003 (2009).

S. M. N. Rao, P. Pandojirao-Sunkojirao, N. Dhaubanjar, M. Chiao, and J. Chiao, Int. J. Optomechatron. 3, 149 (2009).

2008

W. Li, J. Liang, X. Li, Y. Zhong, Z. Liang, and D. Sun, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1151 (2008).

D. Wang and S. Wei, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 51 (2008).

A. Dubra, D. C. Gray, J. I. W. Morgan, and D. R. Williams, Proc. SPIE 6888, 688803 (2008).

2007

S. Waldis, F. Zamkotsian, P. A. Clerc, W. Noell, M. Zickar, and N. de Rooij, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 168 (2007).

2005

M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5715, 1 (2005).

J. Li, H. Q. Chen, G. P. Yan, Y. Liu, and P. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5985, 59851R (2005).

2004

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 446 (2004).

2002

L. M. C. A. Thompson, M. W. K. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).

2000

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 882 (2000).

1999

J. Comtois, A. Michalicek, W. Cowan, and J. Butler, Sensors and Actuators A 78, 54 (1999).

1998

M. A. Michalicek, N. Clark, and J. H. Comtois, Proc. SPIE 3353, 805 (1998).

Bruyker, D. D.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 446 (2004).

Butler, J.

J. Comtois, A. Michalicek, W. Cowan, and J. Butler, Sensors and Actuators A 78, 54 (1999).

Cai, M.

Q. Sun, M. Cai, N. Y. Wang, and E. Cretu, Proc. SPIE 7510, 751003 (2009).

Chen, H. Q.

J. Li, H. Q. Chen, G. P. Yan, Y. Liu, and P. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5985, 59851R (2005).

Chiao, J.

S. M. N. Rao, P. Pandojirao-Sunkojirao, N. Dhaubanjar, M. Chiao, and J. Chiao, Int. J. Optomechatron. 3, 149 (2009).

Chiao, M.

S. M. N. Rao, P. Pandojirao-Sunkojirao, N. Dhaubanjar, M. Chiao, and J. Chiao, Int. J. Optomechatron. 3, 149 (2009).

Clark, N.

M. A. Michalicek, N. Clark, and J. H. Comtois, Proc. SPIE 3353, 805 (1998).

Clerc, P. A.

S. Waldis, F. Zamkotsian, P. A. Clerc, W. Noell, M. Zickar, and N. de Rooij, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 168 (2007).

Comtois, J.

J. Comtois, A. Michalicek, W. Cowan, and J. Butler, Sensors and Actuators A 78, 54 (1999).

Comtois, J. H.

M. A. Michalicek, N. Clark, and J. H. Comtois, Proc. SPIE 3353, 805 (1998).

Cowan, W.

J. Comtois, A. Michalicek, W. Cowan, and J. Butler, Sensors and Actuators A 78, 54 (1999).

Cretu, E.

Q. Sun, M. Cai, N. Y. Wang, and E. Cretu, Proc. SPIE 7510, 751003 (2009).

Dhaubanjar, N.

S. M. N. Rao, P. Pandojirao-Sunkojirao, N. Dhaubanjar, M. Chiao, and J. Chiao, Int. J. Optomechatron. 3, 149 (2009).

Dubra, A.

A. Dubra, D. C. Gray, J. I. W. Morgan, and D. R. Williams, Proc. SPIE 6888, 688803 (2008).

Dunec, J.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 446 (2004).

Flath, M. W. K.

L. M. C. A. Thompson, M. W. K. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).

Gray, D. C.

A. Dubra, D. C. Gray, J. I. W. Morgan, and D. R. Williams, Proc. SPIE 6888, 688803 (2008).

Hagelin, P. M.

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 882 (2000).

Heritage, J. P.

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 882 (2000).

Johnson, G. W.

L. M. C. A. Thompson, M. W. K. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).

Krishnamoorthy, U.

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 882 (2000).

Li, J.

J. Li, H. Q. Chen, G. P. Yan, Y. Liu, and P. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5985, 59851R (2005).

Li, W.

W. Li, J. Liang, X. Li, Y. Zhong, Z. Liang, and D. Sun, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1151 (2008).

Li, X.

W. Li, J. Liang, X. Li, Y. Zhong, Z. Liang, and D. Sun, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1151 (2008).

Liang, J.

W. Li, J. Liang, X. Li, Y. Zhong, Z. Liang, and D. Sun, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1151 (2008).

Liang, Z.

W. Li, J. Liang, X. Li, Y. Zhong, Z. Liang, and D. Sun, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1151 (2008).

Liu, Y.

J. Li, H. Q. Chen, G. P. Yan, Y. Liu, and P. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5985, 59851R (2005).

Michalicek, A.

J. Comtois, A. Michalicek, W. Cowan, and J. Butler, Sensors and Actuators A 78, 54 (1999).

Michalicek, M. A.

M. A. Michalicek, N. Clark, and J. H. Comtois, Proc. SPIE 3353, 805 (1998).

Morgan, J. I. W.

A. Dubra, D. C. Gray, J. I. W. Morgan, and D. R. Williams, Proc. SPIE 6888, 688803 (2008).

Noell, W.

S. Waldis, F. Zamkotsian, P. A. Clerc, W. Noell, M. Zickar, and N. de Rooij, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 168 (2007).

Pandojirao-Sunkojirao, P.

S. M. N. Rao, P. Pandojirao-Sunkojirao, N. Dhaubanjar, M. Chiao, and J. Chiao, Int. J. Optomechatron. 3, 149 (2009).

Peeters, E.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 446 (2004).

Rao, S. M. N.

S. M. N. Rao, P. Pandojirao-Sunkojirao, N. Dhaubanjar, M. Chiao, and J. Chiao, Int. J. Optomechatron. 3, 149 (2009).

Rooij, N. de

S. Waldis, F. Zamkotsian, P. A. Clerc, W. Noell, M. Zickar, and N. de Rooij, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 168 (2007).

Rosa, M. A.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 446 (2004).

Ruggiero, A. J.

L. M. C. A. Thompson, M. W. K. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).

Solgaard, O.

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 882 (2000).

Sun, D.

W. Li, J. Liang, X. Li, Y. Zhong, Z. Liang, and D. Sun, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1151 (2008).

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, M. Cai, N. Y. Wang, and E. Cretu, Proc. SPIE 7510, 751003 (2009).

Thompson, L. M. C. A.

L. M. C. A. Thompson, M. W. K. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).

Volkel, A. R.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 446 (2004).

Waldis, S.

S. Waldis, F. Zamkotsian, P. A. Clerc, W. Noell, M. Zickar, and N. de Rooij, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 168 (2007).

Wang, D.

D. Wang and S. Wei, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 51 (2008).

Wang, N. Y.

Q. Sun, M. Cai, N. Y. Wang, and E. Cretu, Proc. SPIE 7510, 751003 (2009).

Wei, S.

D. Wang and S. Wei, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 51 (2008).

Wilks, S. C.

L. M. C. A. Thompson, M. W. K. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).

Williams, D. R.

A. Dubra, D. C. Gray, J. I. W. Morgan, and D. R. Williams, Proc. SPIE 6888, 688803 (2008).

Wu, M. C.

M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5715, 1 (2005).

Wu, P.

J. Li, H. Q. Chen, G. P. Yan, Y. Liu, and P. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5985, 59851R (2005).

Yan, G. P.

J. Li, H. Q. Chen, G. P. Yan, Y. Liu, and P. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5985, 59851R (2005).

Young, R. A.

L. M. C. A. Thompson, M. W. K. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).

Zamkotsian, F.

S. Waldis, F. Zamkotsian, P. A. Clerc, W. Noell, M. Zickar, and N. de Rooij, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 168 (2007).

Zhong, Y.

W. Li, J. Liang, X. Li, Y. Zhong, Z. Liang, and D. Sun, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1151 (2008).

Zickar, M.

S. Waldis, F. Zamkotsian, P. A. Clerc, W. Noell, M. Zickar, and N. de Rooij, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 168 (2007).

Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese)

W. Li, J. Liang, X. Li, Y. Zhong, Z. Liang, and D. Sun, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1151 (2008).

D. Wang and S. Wei, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 51 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. Waldis, F. Zamkotsian, P. A. Clerc, W. Noell, M. Zickar, and N. de Rooij, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 168 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 882 (2000).

Int. J. Optomechatron.

S. M. N. Rao, P. Pandojirao-Sunkojirao, N. Dhaubanjar, M. Chiao, and J. Chiao, Int. J. Optomechatron. 3, 149 (2009).

J. Micromech. Microeng.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 446 (2004).

Proc. SPIE

Q. Sun, M. Cai, N. Y. Wang, and E. Cretu, Proc. SPIE 7510, 751003 (2009).

A. Dubra, D. C. Gray, J. I. W. Morgan, and D. R. Williams, Proc. SPIE 6888, 688803 (2008).

L. M. C. A. Thompson, M. W. K. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).

J. Li, H. Q. Chen, G. P. Yan, Y. Liu, and P. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5985, 59851R (2005).

M. A. Michalicek, N. Clark, and J. H. Comtois, Proc. SPIE 3353, 805 (1998).

M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5715, 1 (2005).

Sensors and Actuators A

J. Comtois, A. Michalicek, W. Cowan, and J. Butler, Sensors and Actuators A 78, 54 (1999).

Other

J. Carter, A. Cowen, B. Hardy, R. Mahadevan, M. Stonefield, and S. Wilcenski, PolyMUMPs Design Handbook (Revision 11.0, MEMSCAP Inc., 2005).

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