Abstract

The evolution of stress in evaporated SiO<sub>2</sub>, used as optical coatings, is investigated experimentally through in situ stress measurement. A typical evolution pattern consisting of five subprocedures (thin film deposition, stopping deposition, cooling, venting the vacuum chamber, and exposing coated optics to the atmosphere) is put forward. Further investigations into the subprocedures reveal their features. During the deposition stage, the stresses are usually compressive and reach a stable state when the deposited film is thicker than 100 nm. An increment of compressive stress value is observed with the decrease of residual gas pressure or deposition rate. A very low stress of -20 MPa is formed in SiO<sub>2</sub> films deposited at 3×10<sup>-2</sup> Pa. After deposition, the stress increases slightly in the compressive direction and is subject to the stabilization in subsequent tens of minutes. In the process of venting and exposure, the compressive component increases rapidly with the admission of room air and then reaches saturation, followed by a logarithmic decrement of the compressive state in the succeeding hours. An initial discussion of these behaviors is given.

© 2010 Chinese Optics Letters

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2009 (2)

Q. Xiao, S. Shao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1195 (2009).

M. Fang, S. Shao, X. Shen, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29, 1734 (2009).

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

S. Y. Shao, J. D. Shao, H. B. He, and Z. X. Fan, Opt. Lett. 30, 2119 (2005).

Y. Chen, W. Zheng, W. Chen, S. He, and Y. Chen, Opt. Optoelectron. Technol. (in Chinese) 3, (3) 58 (2005).

2002 (3)

C. Friesen and C. V. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 126103 (2002).

E. Chason, B. W. Sheldon, and L. B. Freund, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 156103 (2002).

J. Thurn and R. F. Cook, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1988 (2002).

2001 (1)

Y. Pauleau, Vacuum 61, 175 (2001).

1998 (1)

S. Tamulevicius, Vacuum 51, 127 (1998).

1996 (3)

A. L. Shull and F. Spaepen, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6243 (1996).

H. Leplan, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6926 (1996).

J. A. Floro and E. Chason, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3830 (1996).

1995 (1)

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robiic, and Y. Pauleau, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 962 (1995).

1980 (1)

E. H. Hirsch, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 13, 2081 (1980).

1978 (1)

J. A. Thornton, Thin Solid Films 54, 23 (1978).

1966 (1)

Chason, E.

E. Chason, B. W. Sheldon, and L. B. Freund, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 156103 (2002).

J. A. Floro and E. Chason, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3830 (1996).

Chen, W.

Y. Chen, W. Zheng, W. Chen, S. He, and Y. Chen, Opt. Optoelectron. Technol. (in Chinese) 3, (3) 58 (2005).

Chen, W. L.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, W. Zheng, W. Chen, S. He, and Y. Chen, Opt. Optoelectron. Technol. (in Chinese) 3, (3) 58 (2005).

Y. Chen, W. Zheng, W. Chen, S. He, and Y. Chen, Opt. Optoelectron. Technol. (in Chinese) 3, (3) 58 (2005).

Cook, R. F.

J. Thurn and R. F. Cook, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1988 (2002).

Ennos, A. E.

Fan, Z.

Q. Xiao, S. Shao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1195 (2009).

M. Fang, S. Shao, X. Shen, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29, 1734 (2009).

Q. Xiao, H. He, S. Shao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1007 (2008).

Y. Shen, S. Shao, H. He, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, S272 (2007).

Fan, Z. X.

Fang, M.

M. Fang, S. Shao, X. Shen, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29, 1734 (2009).

Floro, J. A.

J. A. Floro and E. Chason, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3830 (1996).

Freund, L. B.

E. Chason, B. W. Sheldon, and L. B. Freund, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 156103 (2002).

Friesen, C.

C. Friesen and C. V. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 126103 (2002).

Geenen, B.

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robiic, and Y. Pauleau, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 962 (1995).

Gu, P. F.

Han, Z.

He, H.

He, H. B.

He, S.

Y. Chen, W. Zheng, W. Chen, S. He, and Y. Chen, Opt. Optoelectron. Technol. (in Chinese) 3, (3) 58 (2005).

Hirsch, E. H.

E. H. Hirsch, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 13, 2081 (1980).

Leplan, H.

H. Leplan, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6926 (1996).

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robiic, and Y. Pauleau, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 962 (1995).

Liu, X.

Pauleau, Y.

Y. Pauleau, Vacuum 61, 175 (2001).

H. Leplan, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6926 (1996).

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robiic, and Y. Pauleau, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 962 (1995).

Robic, J. Y.

H. Leplan, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6926 (1996).

Robiic, J. Y.

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robiic, and Y. Pauleau, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 962 (1995).

Shao, J.

M. Fang, S. Shao, X. Shen, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29, 1734 (2009).

Q. Xiao, S. Shao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1195 (2009).

Q. Xiao, H. He, S. Shao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1007 (2008).

Y. Shen, Z. Han, J. Shao, S. Shao, and H. He, Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 225 (2008).

Y. Shen, S. Shao, H. He, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, S272 (2007).

Shao, J. D.

Shao, S.

Q. Xiao, S. Shao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1195 (2009).

M. Fang, S. Shao, X. Shen, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29, 1734 (2009).

Y. Shen, Z. Han, J. Shao, S. Shao, and H. He, Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 225 (2008).

Q. Xiao, H. He, S. Shao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1007 (2008).

Y. Shen, S. Shao, H. He, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, S272 (2007).

Shao, S. Y.

Sheldon, B. W.

E. Chason, B. W. Sheldon, and L. B. Freund, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 156103 (2002).

Shen, W. D.

Shen, X.

M. Fang, S. Shao, X. Shen, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29, 1734 (2009).

Shen, Y.

Shull, A. L.

A. L. Shull and F. Spaepen, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6243 (1996).

Spaepen, F.

A. L. Shull and F. Spaepen, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6243 (1996).

Tamulevicius, S.

S. Tamulevicius, Vacuum 51, 127 (1998).

Thompson, C. V.

C. Friesen and C. V. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 126103 (2002).

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, Thin Solid Films 54, 23 (1978).

Thurn, J.

J. Thurn and R. F. Cook, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1988 (2002).

Wang, Y.

Xiao, Q.

Q. Xiao, S. Shao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1195 (2009).

Q. Xiao, H. He, S. Shao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1007 (2008).

Zhang, Y. G.

Zheng, W.

Y. Chen, W. Zheng, W. Chen, S. He, and Y. Chen, Opt. Optoelectron. Technol. (in Chinese) 3, (3) 58 (2005).

Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) (2)

Q. Xiao, H. He, S. Shao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1007 (2008).

M. Fang, S. Shao, X. Shen, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29, 1734 (2009).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Floro and E. Chason, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3830 (1996).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (2)

Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) (1)

Q. Xiao, S. Shao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1195 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

H. Leplan, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6926 (1996).

A. L. Shull and F. Spaepen, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6243 (1996).

J. Thurn and R. F. Cook, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1988 (2002).

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robiic, and Y. Pauleau, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 962 (1995).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

E. H. Hirsch, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 13, 2081 (1980).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Friesen and C. V. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 126103 (2002).

E. Chason, B. W. Sheldon, and L. B. Freund, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 156103 (2002).

pt. Optoelectron. Technol. (in Chinese) (1)

Y. Chen, W. Zheng, W. Chen, S. He, and Y. Chen, Opt. Optoelectron. Technol. (in Chinese) 3, (3) 58 (2005).

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. A. Thornton, Thin Solid Films 54, 23 (1978).

Vacuum (2)

S. Tamulevicius, Vacuum 51, 127 (1998).

Y. Pauleau, Vacuum 61, 175 (2001).

Other (2)

L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, Thin Film Materials: Stress,Defect Formation and Surface Evolution (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003).

S. Shao, "Study of the origin mechanism and controlling method of stress in thin films" PhD Thesis (Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai, 2005).

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