Abstract

The active control of 30-m ring interferometric telescope (RIT) needs edge sensing and tip sensing when its primary mirror is composed by trapezoid-shaped segments, and the imaging performance of the RIT is determined by the accuracy of these two detecting approaches. Considering the detecting accuracy available in current segmented telescope active control systems, the effect of these detecting approaches on the surface error of the RIT primary mirror is calculated from the point of error propagation. The corresponding effect on imaging performance (modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and point spread functions (PSFs) at several typical wavelengths) of the RIT primary mirror is also simulated. The results show that tip sensing is very important for increasing the active control quality of the RIT primary mirror under the present techniques.

© 2009 Chinese Optics Letters

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Z. Liu, Z. Jin, Y. Li, J. Lin, and H. Tan, Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672L (2006).
  2. Z. Liu and X. Cui, Proc. SPIE 6986, 698606 (2008).
  3. J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng, and N. J. Woolf, Nature 322, 341 (1986).
  4. "Thirty meter telescope construction proposal" (Sep. 12, 2007) available online at http://www.tmt.org/news/TMT-Construction Proposal-Public.pdf.
  5. R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, "The European extremely large telescope (E-ELT)" available online at http://www.eso.org/sci/publications/messenger/archive/no.127-mar07/gilmozzi.pdf.
  6. T. S. Mast and J. E. Nelson, Appl. Opt. 21, 2631 (1982).
  7. R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).
  8. Y. Dai, "Research on active control of primary mirror of 30m ring interferometric telescope" PhD Thesis (Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Kunming, 2008).
  9. Y. Dai, Z. Liu, Z. Jin, J. Xu, and J. Lin, Appl. Opt. 48, 664 (2009).
  10. D. G. MacMartin and G. Chanan, Proc. SPIE 4840, 69 (2003).
  11. R. H. Minor, A. A. Arthur, G. Gabor, H. G. Jackson, R. C. Jared, T. S. Mast, and B. A. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 1236, 1009 (1990).
  12. G. Chanan, M. Troy, F. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, and D. Kirkman, Appl. Opt. 37, 140 (1998).
  13. G. Chanan, C. Ohara, and M. Troy, Appl. Opt. 39, 4706 (2000).
  14. P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodriguez-Espinosa, and F. R. Kabana, Proc. SPIE 4004, 26 (2000).
  15. H. Song, H. Li, H. Xian, R. Yang, J. Huang, and W. Jiang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1523 (2008).
  16. A. Pint´o, F. Laguarta, R. Artigas, and C. Cadevall, J. Opt. A 4, S369 (2002).
  17. C. Pizarro, J. Arasa, F. Laguarta, N. Tom`as, and A. Pint´o, Appl. Opt. 41, 4562 (2002).
  18. M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, and E. Leffert, Proc. SPIE 3352, 307 (1998).
  19. G. Chanan, J. Nelson, T. Mast, P. Wizinowich, and B. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 2198, 1139 (1994).
  20. X. Hu, X. Yu, and D. Zhao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 27, 1414 (2007).
  21. G. Chanan, D. G. MacMartin, J. Nelson, and T. Mast, Appl. Opt. 43, 1223 (2004).
  22. D. G. MacMartin and G. Chanan, Appl. Opt. 43, 608 (2004).
  23. J. Luo, Introduction to Matrix Analysis (in Chinese) (South China University of Technology Press, Guangzhou, 2001).

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

Z. Liu and X. Cui, Proc. SPIE 6986, 698606 (2008).

H. Song, H. Li, H. Xian, R. Yang, J. Huang, and W. Jiang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1523 (2008).

2007 (1)

X. Hu, X. Yu, and D. Zhao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 27, 1414 (2007).

2006 (1)

Z. Liu, Z. Jin, Y. Li, J. Lin, and H. Tan, Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672L (2006).

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

D. G. MacMartin and G. Chanan, Proc. SPIE 4840, 69 (2003).

2002 (2)

A. Pint´o, F. Laguarta, R. Artigas, and C. Cadevall, J. Opt. A 4, S369 (2002).

C. Pizarro, J. Arasa, F. Laguarta, N. Tom`as, and A. Pint´o, Appl. Opt. 41, 4562 (2002).

2000 (2)

G. Chanan, C. Ohara, and M. Troy, Appl. Opt. 39, 4706 (2000).

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodriguez-Espinosa, and F. R. Kabana, Proc. SPIE 4004, 26 (2000).

1998 (2)

M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, and E. Leffert, Proc. SPIE 3352, 307 (1998).

G. Chanan, M. Troy, F. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, and D. Kirkman, Appl. Opt. 37, 140 (1998).

1994 (1)

G. Chanan, J. Nelson, T. Mast, P. Wizinowich, and B. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 2198, 1139 (1994).

1990 (2)

R. H. Minor, A. A. Arthur, G. Gabor, H. G. Jackson, R. C. Jared, T. S. Mast, and B. A. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 1236, 1009 (1990).

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

1986 (1)

J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng, and N. J. Woolf, Nature 322, 341 (1986).

1982 (1)

Alvarez, P.

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodriguez-Espinosa, and F. R. Kabana, Proc. SPIE 4004, 26 (2000).

Andreae, S.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng, and N. J. Woolf, Nature 322, 341 (1986).

Arasa, J.

Arthur, A. A.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

R. H. Minor, A. A. Arthur, G. Gabor, H. G. Jackson, R. C. Jared, T. S. Mast, and B. A. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 1236, 1009 (1990).

Artigas, R.

A. Pint´o, F. Laguarta, R. Artigas, and C. Cadevall, J. Opt. A 4, S369 (2002).

Biocca, A.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Cadevall, C.

A. Pint´o, F. Laguarta, R. Artigas, and C. Cadevall, J. Opt. A 4, S369 (2002).

Chanan, G.

D. G. MacMartin and G. Chanan, Appl. Opt. 43, 608 (2004).

G. Chanan, D. G. MacMartin, J. Nelson, and T. Mast, Appl. Opt. 43, 1223 (2004).

D. G. MacMartin and G. Chanan, Proc. SPIE 4840, 69 (2003).

G. Chanan, C. Ohara, and M. Troy, Appl. Opt. 39, 4706 (2000).

G. Chanan, M. Troy, F. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, and D. Kirkman, Appl. Opt. 37, 140 (1998).

M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, and E. Leffert, Proc. SPIE 3352, 307 (1998).

G. Chanan, J. Nelson, T. Mast, P. Wizinowich, and B. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 2198, 1139 (1994).

Cheng, A. Y. S.

J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng, and N. J. Woolf, Nature 322, 341 (1986).

Cohen, R. W.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Cui, X.

Z. Liu and X. Cui, Proc. SPIE 6986, 698606 (2008).

Dai, Y.

Dekens, F.

Franck, J.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Fuertes, J. M.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Gabor, G.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

R. H. Minor, A. A. Arthur, G. Gabor, H. G. Jackson, R. C. Jared, T. S. Mast, and B. A. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 1236, 1009 (1990).

Hu, X.

X. Hu, X. Yu, and D. Zhao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 27, 1414 (2007).

Huang, J.

H. Song, H. Li, H. Xian, R. Yang, J. Huang, and W. Jiang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1523 (2008).

Jackson, H. G.

R. H. Minor, A. A. Arthur, G. Gabor, H. G. Jackson, R. C. Jared, T. S. Mast, and B. A. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 1236, 1009 (1990).

Jared, R. C.

R. H. Minor, A. A. Arthur, G. Gabor, H. G. Jackson, R. C. Jared, T. S. Mast, and B. A. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 1236, 1009 (1990).

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Jiang, W.

H. Song, H. Li, H. Xian, R. Yang, J. Huang, and W. Jiang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1523 (2008).

Jin, Z.

Y. Dai, Z. Liu, Z. Jin, J. Xu, and J. Lin, Appl. Opt. 48, 664 (2009).

Z. Liu, Z. Jin, Y. Li, J. Lin, and H. Tan, Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672L (2006).

Kabana, F. R.

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodriguez-Espinosa, and F. R. Kabana, Proc. SPIE 4004, 26 (2000).

Kirkman, D.

Laguarta, F.

C. Pizarro, J. Arasa, F. Laguarta, N. Tom`as, and A. Pint´o, Appl. Opt. 41, 4562 (2002).

A. Pint´o, F. Laguarta, R. Artigas, and C. Cadevall, J. Opt. A 4, S369 (2002).

Leffert, E.

M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, and E. Leffert, Proc. SPIE 3352, 307 (1998).

Li, H.

H. Song, H. Li, H. Xian, R. Yang, J. Huang, and W. Jiang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1523 (2008).

Li, Y.

Z. Liu, Z. Jin, Y. Li, J. Lin, and H. Tan, Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672L (2006).

Lin, J.

Y. Dai, Z. Liu, Z. Jin, J. Xu, and J. Lin, Appl. Opt. 48, 664 (2009).

Z. Liu, Z. Jin, Y. Li, J. Lin, and H. Tan, Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672L (2006).

Liu, Z.

Y. Dai, Z. Liu, Z. Jin, J. Xu, and J. Lin, Appl. Opt. 48, 664 (2009).

Z. Liu and X. Cui, Proc. SPIE 6986, 698606 (2008).

Z. Liu, Z. Jin, Y. Li, J. Lin, and H. Tan, Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672L (2006).

Llacer, J.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

MacMartin, D. G.

Mast, T.

G. Chanan, D. G. MacMartin, J. Nelson, and T. Mast, Appl. Opt. 43, 1223 (2004).

G. Chanan, M. Troy, F. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, and D. Kirkman, Appl. Opt. 37, 140 (1998).

G. Chanan, J. Nelson, T. Mast, P. Wizinowich, and B. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 2198, 1139 (1994).

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Mast, T. S.

R. H. Minor, A. A. Arthur, G. Gabor, H. G. Jackson, R. C. Jared, T. S. Mast, and B. A. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 1236, 1009 (1990).

T. S. Mast and J. E. Nelson, Appl. Opt. 21, 2631 (1982).

Meng, J.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Merrick, T.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Michaels, S.

Minor, R.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Minor, R. H.

R. H. Minor, A. A. Arthur, G. Gabor, H. G. Jackson, R. C. Jared, T. S. Mast, and B. A. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 1236, 1009 (1990).

Nelson, J.

G. Chanan, D. G. MacMartin, J. Nelson, and T. Mast, Appl. Opt. 43, 1223 (2004).

G. Chanan, M. Troy, F. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, and D. Kirkman, Appl. Opt. 37, 140 (1998).

G. Chanan, J. Nelson, T. Mast, P. Wizinowich, and B. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 2198, 1139 (1994).

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Nelson, J. E.

Ohara, C.

Orayani, M.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Pint´o, A.

A. Pint´o, F. Laguarta, R. Artigas, and C. Cadevall, J. Opt. A 4, S369 (2002).

C. Pizarro, J. Arasa, F. Laguarta, N. Tom`as, and A. Pint´o, Appl. Opt. 41, 4562 (2002).

Pizarro, C.

Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodriguez-Espinosa, and F. R. Kabana, Proc. SPIE 4004, 26 (2000).

Salz, P.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Schaefer, B.

G. Chanan, J. Nelson, T. Mast, P. Wizinowich, and B. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 2198, 1139 (1994).

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Schaefer, B. A.

R. H. Minor, A. A. Arthur, G. Gabor, H. G. Jackson, R. C. Jared, T. S. Mast, and B. A. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 1236, 1009 (1990).

Sirko, E.

M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, and E. Leffert, Proc. SPIE 3352, 307 (1998).

Song, H.

H. Song, H. Li, H. Xian, R. Yang, J. Huang, and W. Jiang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1523 (2008).

Tan, H.

Z. Liu, Z. Jin, Y. Li, J. Lin, and H. Tan, Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672L (2006).

Tom`as, N.

Troy, M.

Witebsky, C.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

Wizinowich, P.

G. Chanan, J. Nelson, T. Mast, P. Wizinowich, and B. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 2198, 1139 (1994).

Woolf, N. J.

J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng, and N. J. Woolf, Nature 322, 341 (1986).

Xian, H.

H. Song, H. Li, H. Xian, R. Yang, J. Huang, and W. Jiang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1523 (2008).

Xu, J.

Yang, R.

H. Song, H. Li, H. Xian, R. Yang, J. Huang, and W. Jiang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1523 (2008).

Yu, X.

X. Hu, X. Yu, and D. Zhao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 27, 1414 (2007).

Zhao, D.

X. Hu, X. Yu, and D. Zhao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 27, 1414 (2007).

Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) (2)

H. Song, H. Li, H. Xian, R. Yang, J. Huang, and W. Jiang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1523 (2008).

X. Hu, X. Yu, and D. Zhao, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 27, 1414 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Opt. A (1)

A. Pint´o, F. Laguarta, R. Artigas, and C. Cadevall, J. Opt. A 4, S369 (2002).

Nature (1)

J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng, and N. J. Woolf, Nature 322, 341 (1986).

Proc. SPIE (8)

Z. Liu, Z. Jin, Y. Li, J. Lin, and H. Tan, Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672L (2006).

Z. Liu and X. Cui, Proc. SPIE 6986, 698606 (2008).

D. G. MacMartin and G. Chanan, Proc. SPIE 4840, 69 (2003).

R. H. Minor, A. A. Arthur, G. Gabor, H. G. Jackson, R. C. Jared, T. S. Mast, and B. A. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 1236, 1009 (1990).

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Llacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, Proc. SPIE 1236, 996 (1990).

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodriguez-Espinosa, and F. R. Kabana, Proc. SPIE 4004, 26 (2000).

M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, and E. Leffert, Proc. SPIE 3352, 307 (1998).

G. Chanan, J. Nelson, T. Mast, P. Wizinowich, and B. Schaefer, Proc. SPIE 2198, 1139 (1994).

Other (4)

J. Luo, Introduction to Matrix Analysis (in Chinese) (South China University of Technology Press, Guangzhou, 2001).

Y. Dai, "Research on active control of primary mirror of 30m ring interferometric telescope" PhD Thesis (Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Kunming, 2008).

"Thirty meter telescope construction proposal" (Sep. 12, 2007) available online at http://www.tmt.org/news/TMT-Construction Proposal-Public.pdf.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, "The European extremely large telescope (E-ELT)" available online at http://www.eso.org/sci/publications/messenger/archive/no.127-mar07/gilmozzi.pdf.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.